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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 8 (August 2012), Pages 841-1150

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 904-921; doi:10.3390/nu4080904
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been [...] Read more.
Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids: Sources, Function and Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Diets Supplemented with Different Sources of Astaxanthin on the Gonad of the Sea Urchin Anthocidaris crassispina
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 922-934; doi:10.3390/nu4080922
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two [...] Read more.
The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain the experimental diets HP1, HP2, CZ1, CZ2, AST1, and AST2, respectively, for two months of feeding experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. The higher astaxanthin levels (>2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters). Furthermore, the highest canthaxanthin level (7.48 mg/kg) was found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ1 (containing 387 mg/kg of astaxanthins and 142 mg/kg of canthaxanthin), suggesting that astaxanthins, especially astaxanthin esters, might not be assimilated as easily as canthaxanthin by the sea urchins. Our results show that sea urchins fed diets containing astaxanthin pigments show higher incorporation of these known antioxidant constituents, with the resultant seafood products therefore being of potential higher nutritive value. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns of Infants and Toddlers Are Associated with Nutrient Intakes
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 935-948; doi:10.3390/nu4080935
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary patterns are a useful summary measure of diet. Few studies have examined the nutrient profiles underpinning the dietary patterns of young children. The study aim is to determine whether dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age are associated with [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns are a useful summary measure of diet. Few studies have examined the nutrient profiles underpinning the dietary patterns of young children. The study aim is to determine whether dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age are associated with nutrient intakes at 8 and 18 months, respectively. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had complete dietary pattern and nutrient intake data (n = 725 at 6–8 months, n = 535 at 15–18 months). The association between tertiles of dietary pattern scores and nutrient intake was examined using a non-parametric test for trend. Scores on the home-made traditional pattern (6–8 months) were positively associated with median energy intake. Each dietary pattern had different associations with energy-adjusted intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients. At both times, the discretionary pattern was positively and the ready-prepared baby foods pattern was negatively associated with sodium intake. At 6–8 months, calcium and iron intakes decreased across scores on the home-made traditional and breastfeeding patterns, but increased across the ready-prepared baby food patterns. These findings highlight that dietary patterns in infants and toddlers vary in their underlying energy and nutrient composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 949-966; doi:10.3390/nu4080949
Received: 9 May 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW) of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA). PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01) and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH) to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP) (P < 0.01) during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82). Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min) and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C) and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C) temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1026-1041; doi:10.3390/nu4081026
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 14 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed [...] Read more.
Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids: Sources, Function and Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle Experimental Alcohol-Related Peripheral Neuropathy: Role of Insulin/IGF Resistance
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1042-1057; doi:10.3390/nu4081042
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanisms of alcohol-related peripheral neuropathy (ALPN) are poorly understood. We hypothesize that, like alcohol-related liver and brain degeneration, ALPN may be mediated by combined effects of insulin/IGF resistance and oxidative stress. Adult male Long Evans rats were chronically pair-fed with diets containing 0% or 37% ethanol (caloric), and subjected to nerve conduction studies. Chronic ethanol feeding slowed nerve conduction in the tibial (p = 0.0021) motor nerve, and not plantar sensory nerve, but it did not affect amplitude. Histological studies of the sciatic nerve revealed reduced nerve fiber diameters with increased regenerative sprouts, and denervation myopathy in ethanol-fed rats. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated reduced mRNA levels of insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 polypeptides, IGF-1 receptor, and IRS2, and ELISAs revealed reduced immunoreactivity for insulin and IGF-1 receptors, IRS-1, IRS-4, myelin-associated glycoprotein, and tau in sciatic nerves of ethanol-fed rats (all p < 0.05 or better). The findings suggest that ALPN is characterized by (1) slowed conduction velocity with demyelination, and a small component of axonal degeneration; (2) impaired trophic factor signaling due to insulin and IGF resistance; and (3) degeneration of myelin and axonal cytoskeletal proteins. Therefore, ALPN is likely mediated by molecular and signal transduction abnormalities similar to those identified in alcoholic liver and brain degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Health)
Open AccessArticle Impaired Insulin/IGF Signaling in Experimental Alcohol-Related Myopathy
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1058-1075; doi:10.3390/nu4081058
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Alcohol-related myopathy (Alc-M) is highly prevalent among heavy drinkers, although its pathogenesis is not well understood. We hypothesize that Alc-M is mediated by combined effects of insulin/IGF resistance and oxidative stress, similar to the effects of ethanol on liver and brain. We [...] Read more.
Alcohol-related myopathy (Alc-M) is highly prevalent among heavy drinkers, although its pathogenesis is not well understood. We hypothesize that Alc-M is mediated by combined effects of insulin/IGF resistance and oxidative stress, similar to the effects of ethanol on liver and brain. We tested this hypothesis using an established model in which adult rats were pair-fed for 8 weeks with isocaloric diets containing 0% (N = 8) or 35.5% (N = 13) ethanol by caloric content. Gastrocnemius muscles were examined by histology, morphometrics, qRT-PCR analysis, and ELISAs. Chronic ethanol feeding reduced myofiber size and mRNA expression of IGF-1 polypeptide, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 receptors, IRS-1, and IRS-2. Multiplex ELISAs demonstrated ethanol-associated inhibition of insulin, IRS-1, Akt, and p70S6K signaling, and increased activation of GSK-3β. In addition, ethanol-exposed muscles had increased 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal immunoreactivity, reflecting lipid peroxidation, and reduced levels of mitochondrial Complex IV, Complex V, and acetylcholinesterase. These results demonstrate that experimental Alc-M is associated with inhibition of insulin/IGF/IRS and downstream signaling that mediates metabolism and cell survival, similar to findings in alcoholic liver and brain degeneration. Moreover, the increased oxidative stress, which could be mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction, may have led to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which itself is sufficient to cause myofiber atrophy and degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Health)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1076-1094; doi:10.3390/nu4081076
Received: 29 May 2012 / Revised: 5 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12–16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD), but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD) (n = 81) and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD) (n = 81), matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and “weekends-only” style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038) s-25(OH)D (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake) were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 29.9 ng/mL) were prevalent in both groups, but was significantly higher (p = 0.013) in the AUD group (90%) compared to the non-AUD group (70%). All participants were at risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method). Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fructose Rich Diet-Induced High Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Production in the Adult Female Rat: Protective Effect of Progesterone
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1137-1150; doi:10.3390/nu4081137
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of progesterone (P4) on fructose rich diet (FRD) intake-induced metabolic, endocrine and parametrial adipose tissue (PMAT) dysfunctions was studied in the adult female rat. Sixty day-old rats were i.m. treated with oil alone (control, CT) or containing P4 (12 mg/kg). [...] Read more.
The effect of progesterone (P4) on fructose rich diet (FRD) intake-induced metabolic, endocrine and parametrial adipose tissue (PMAT) dysfunctions was studied in the adult female rat. Sixty day-old rats were i.m. treated with oil alone (control, CT) or containing P4 (12 mg/kg). Rats ate Purina chow-diet ad libitum throughout the entire experiment and, between 100 and 120 days of age drank ad libitum tap water alone (normal diet; CT-ND and P4-ND) or containing fructose (10% w/v; CT-FRD and P4-FRD). At age 120 days, animals were subjected to a glucose tolerance test or decapitated. Plasma concentrations of various biomarkers and PMAT gene abundance were monitored. P4-ND (vs. CT-ND) rats showed elevated circulating levels of lipids. CT-FRD rats displayed high (vs. CT-ND) plasma concentrations of lipids, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Lipidemia and adiponectinemia were high (vs. P4-ND) in P4-FRD rats. Although P4 failed to prevent FRD-induced hyperleptinemia, it was fully protective on FRD-enhanced plasma PAI-1 levels. PMAT leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were high in CT-FRD and P4-FRD rats. While FRD enhanced PMAT PAI-1 mRNA abundance in CT rats, this effect was absent in P4 rats. Our study supports that a preceding P4-enriched milieu prevented the enhanced prothrombotic risk induced by FRD-elicited high PAI-1 production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Relationship between Zinc Intake and Serum/Plasma Zinc Concentration in Children: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 841-858; doi:10.3390/nu4080841
Received: 4 May 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recommendations for zinc intake during childhood vary widely across Europe. The EURRECA project attempts to consolidate the basis for the definition of micronutrient requirements, taking into account relationships among intake, status and health outcomes, in order to harmonise these recommendations. Data on [...] Read more.
Recommendations for zinc intake during childhood vary widely across Europe. The EURRECA project attempts to consolidate the basis for the definition of micronutrient requirements, taking into account relationships among intake, status and health outcomes, in order to harmonise these recommendations. Data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can provide estimates of dose-response relationships which may be used for underpinning zinc reference values. This systematic review included all RCTs of apparently healthy children aged 1–17 years published by February 2010 which provided data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status. An intake-status regression coefficient () was calculated for each individual study and calculated the overall pooled and SE () using random effects meta-analysis on a double log scale. The pooled dose-response relationship between zinc intake and zinc status indicated that a doubling of the zinc intake increased the serum/plasma zinc status by 9%. This evidence can be utilised, together with currently used balance studies and repletion/depletion studies, when setting zinc recommendations as a basis for nutrition policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc in Health and Disease)
Open AccessReview Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 859-874; doi:10.3390/nu4080859
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 23 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer [...] Read more.
There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer term. Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of infection in infancy; in high-income populations, it is associated with reductions in blood pressure and total blood cholesterol, and lower risks of obesity and diabetes in adult life. Breastfeeding rates are suboptimal in many countries, and strategies to promote breastfeeding could therefore confer important benefits for health at a population level. However, there are particular challenges in defining nutritional exposures in infancy, including marked social gradients in initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In recent studies of low and middle-income populations of children and young adults, where the influences on infant feeding practice differ, beneficial effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, BMI and risk of diabetes have not been confirmed, and further information is needed. Little is currently known about the long-term consequences of differences in the timing and nature of the weaning diet. Future progress will depend on new studies that provide detailed prospective data on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding together with appropriate characterisation of the weaning diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Cellular Mechanisms of Zinc Dysregulation: A Perspective on Zinc Homeostasis as an Etiological Factor in the Development and Progression of Breast Cancer
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 875-903; doi:10.3390/nu4080875
Received: 29 May 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 30 July 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and is the leading cause of female cancer deaths. Zinc (Zn) functions as an antioxidant and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. Zn deficiency results in oxidative DNA damage and [...] Read more.
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and is the leading cause of female cancer deaths. Zinc (Zn) functions as an antioxidant and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. Zn deficiency results in oxidative DNA damage and increased cancer risk. Studies suggest an inverse association between dietary and plasma Zn levels and the risk for developing breast cancer. In contrast, breast tumor biopsies display significantly higher Zn levels compared with normal tissue. Zn accumulation in tumor tissue also correlates with increased levels of Zn importing proteins. Further, aberrant expression of Zn transporters in tumors correlates with malignancy, suggesting that altered metal homeostasis in the breast could contribute to malignant transformation and the severity of cancer. However, studies have yet to link dysregulated Zn transport and abnormal Zn-dependent functions in breast cancer development. Herein, we summarize studies that address the multi-modal role of Zn dyshomeostasis in breast cancer with respect to the role of Zn in modulating oxidative stress, DNA damage response/repair pathways and cell proliferation/apoptosis, and the relationship to aberrant regulation of Zn transporters. We also compare Zn dysregulation in breast tissue to that of prostate, pancreatic and ovarian cancer where possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc in Health and Disease)
Open AccessReview The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 967-989; doi:10.3390/nu4080967
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin [...] Read more.
Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)
Open AccessReview Breastfeeding Promotion, Support and Protection: Review of Six Country Programmes
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 990-1014; doi:10.3390/nu4080990
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries [...] Read more.
Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a “health equalizer” and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers’ training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Dietary Cholesterol Affects Plasma Lipid Levels, the Intravascular Processing of Lipoproteins and Reverse Cholesterol Transport without Increasing the Risk for Heart Disease
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1015-1025; doi:10.3390/nu4081015
Received: 9 June 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The associations between dietary cholesterol and heart disease are highly controversial. While epidemiological studies and clinical interventions have shown the lack of correlation between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, there is still concern among health practitioners and the general population [...] Read more.
The associations between dietary cholesterol and heart disease are highly controversial. While epidemiological studies and clinical interventions have shown the lack of correlation between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, there is still concern among health practitioners and the general population regarding dietary cholesterol. In this review, several clinical studies utilizing cholesterol challenges are analyzed in terms of changes that occur in lipoprotein metabolism resulting from excess consumption of cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase both LDL and HDL in those individuals who respond to a cholesterol challenge without altering the LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, a key marker of CVD risk. Further, dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase only HDL with no changes in LDL with average cholesterol consumption and during weight loss interventions. Ingestion of cholesterol has also been shown to increase the size of both LDL and HDL particles with the associated implications of a less atherogenic LDL particle as well as more functional HDL in reverse cholesterol transport. Other changes observed in lipoprotein metabolism are a greater number of large LDL and decreases in small LDL subfractions. All this information put together points to specific roles of dietary cholesterol in substantially altering intravascular processing of lipoproteins as well as reverse cholesterol transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids: Sources, Function and Metabolism)
Open AccessReview Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1095-1119; doi:10.3390/nu4081095
Received: 30 June 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Plant Calcium Content: Ready to Remodel
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 1120-1136; doi:10.3390/nu4081120
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 21 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These [...] Read more.
By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These insights should allow for better strategies for increasing the nutritional content of foods. In particular, the use of preparation-free elemental imaging technologies such as synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy in plant biology may allow researchers to understand the relationship between subcellular location and nutrient bioavailability. These approaches may lead to better strategies for altering the location of calcium within the plant to maximize its absorption from fruits and vegetables. These modified foods could be part of a diet for children and adults identified as at-risk for low calcium intake or absorption with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and severity of inadequate bone mineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals)

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