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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The Western diet promotes a pro-inflammatory environment and causes an increase in systemic and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Emotion Regulation in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111274
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED.
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The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessReview Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes across Ethnicities: A Review of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) for Classification of Dysglycaemia
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111273
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the
[...] Read more.
Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2003) utilise different cut-off values for IFG (WHO: 6.1–6.9 mmol/L; ADA: 5.6–6.9 mmol/L) but the same cut-off values for IGT (7.8–11.0 mmol/L). This review investigates whether there are differences in prevalence of IFG, IGT, and combined IFG&IGT between ethnicities, in particular Asian Chinese and European Caucasians. In total, we identified 19 studies using the WHO1999 classification, for which the average proportional prevalence for isolated (i)-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT were 43.9%, 41.0%, and 13.5%, respectively, for Caucasian and 29.2%, 49.4%, and 18.2%, respectively, for Asian. For the 14 studies using ADA2003 classification, the average proportional i-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT prevalences were 58.0%, 20.3%, and 19.8%, respectively, for Caucasian; 48.1%, 27.7%, and 20.5%, respectively, for Asian. Whilst not statistically different, there may be clinically relevant differences in the two populations, with our observations for both classifications indicating that prevalence of i-IFG is higher in Caucasian cohorts whilst i-IGT and combined IFG&IGT are both higher in Asian cohorts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between 24-h Urine Osmolality and Weight Status in Older Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111272
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP
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Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP 65 study. A quota sampling was implemented to achieve a nationally representative sample of Portuguese older adults (≥65 years) according to age, sex, education and region. From a sample size of 1500 participants, 1315 were eligible for the present analysis, 57.3% were women and 23.5% were aged ≥80 years. Participants were grouped using tertiles of 24-h urine osmolality by sex. World Health Organization cutoffs were used to classify participants according to weight status. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate the association of tertiles of osmolality with weight status, adjusting for confounders. Odds Ratios (OR) and respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Being in the 3rd urine osmolality tertile (highest) was associated with a higher risk of being obese in men, OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.66. No such association was found in women. These results highlight the need for implementing studies in order to clarify the association between hydration and weight status in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessReview Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111271
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts
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Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids) present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Acute Effects of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice on Blood Pressure, Hemostasis and Vascular Inflammation Markers in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111270
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits
[...] Read more.
Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits are evident in older adults. We investigated the effects of 140 mL of nitrate-rich (HI-NI; containing 12.9 mmol nitrate) versus nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (LO-NI; containing ≤0.04 mmol nitrate) on blood pressure, blood coagulation, vascular inflammation markers, plasma nitrate and nitrite before, and 3 h and 6 h after ingestion in healthy older adults (five males, seven females, mean age: 64 years, age range: 57–71 years) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Plasma nitrate and nitrite increased 3 and 6 h after HI-NI ingestion (p < 0.05). Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure decreased 3 h relative to baseline after HI-NI ingestion only (p < 0.05). The number of blood monocyte-platelet aggregates decreased 3 h after HI-NI intake (p < 0.05), indicating reduced platelet activation. The number of blood CD11b-expressing granulocytes decreased 3 h following HI-NI beetroot juice intake (p < 0.05), suggesting a shift toward an anti-adhesive granulocyte phenotype. Numbers of blood CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocyte subtypes slightly increased 6 h after HI-NI beetroot juice ingestion (p < 0.05), but the clinical implications of this response are currently unclear. These findings provide new evidence for the acute effects of nitrate-rich beetroot juice on circulating immune cells and platelets. Further long-term research is warranted to determine if these effects reduce the risk of developing hypertension and vascular inflammation with aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of High-Dose Multi-Strain Probiotic Supplementation on Neurocognitive Performance and Central Nervous System Immune Activation of HIV-1 Infected Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111269
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the
[...] Read more.
Background: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects. Methods: Thirty-five HIV-1 infected individuals were included in this study. At baseline (T0) a battery of tests was administered, to evaluate neurocognitive function and a lumbar puncture was performed to determine neopterin concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a marker of Central Nervous System (CNS) immune activation. Subsequently, a subgroup of participants underwent a 6-month course of multi-strain probiotics supplementation; this intervention group was evaluated, after probiotic treatment, with a second lumbar puncture and with repeated neurocognitive tests. Results: At T0, all participants showed impaired results in at least one neurocognitive test and elevated neopterin concentrations in CSF. After supplementation with probiotics (T6), the interventional group presented a significant decrease in neopterin concentration and a significant improvement in several neurocognitive tests. In contrast, no significant modifications were observed in the neurocognitive performance of controls between T0 and T6. The CNS Penetration Effectiveness Score of antiretroviral therapy did not show an influence from any of the investigated variables. Conclusions: Multi-strain probiotic supplementation seems to exert a positive effect on neuroinflammation and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected subjects, but large trials are needed to support the concept that modulation of the gut microbiota can provide specific neurological benefits in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview The Overlapping Area of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) and Wheat-Sensitive Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): An Update
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111268
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome
[...] Read more.
Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms. This review article will provide clinicians with an update that directly impacts on the management of a subgroup of their IBS patients whose symptoms are triggered by wheat ingestion. Full article
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Open AccessReview Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111267
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with
[...] Read more.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs) or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111266
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary
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Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18) and female (n = 22) athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Nutritional Interventions during Pregnancy on Infant and Child Cognitive Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111265
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. Objective: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the
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Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. Objective: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes. Design: Ten electronic databases were searched for articles published up to August 2017. The search was limited to articles published in English. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing the impact of any nutritional intervention (dietary counselling, education, nutrient supplementation, fortified foods and/or foods) during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes of children (<10 years old). Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility and quality using the American Dietetic Association quality criteria checklist for primary research. Standardised mean differences were used for nine cognitive domains to measure effects for meta-analyses. Results: A total of 34 RCTs were included (21 studies included children aged less than 35 months, 10 studies included children aged 36–60 months and 3 studies included children aged 61–119 months). The types of nutritional interventions included nutrient supplements, whole foods, fortified foods and nutrition education. The following nine cognition outcomes: attention, behaviour, crystallised intelligence, fluid intelligence, global cognition, memory, motor skills, visual processing, and problem solving were not significantly impacted by nutritional interventions, although 65% of studies conducted post-hoc data analyses and were likely to be underpowered. Although, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation was associated with a marginal increase in crystallised intelligence (Effect size (ES): 0.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): −0.04, 0.53), the effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.09), with significant study heterogeneity (p = 0.00). Conclusions: LCPUFA supplementation may be associated with an improvement in child crystallised intelligence, however further research is warranted. The remaining eight cognition domains were not significantly impacted by maternal nutritional interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Standard vs. Calorie-Dense Immune Nutrition in Haemodynamically Compromised Cardiac Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111264
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Background. The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that early enteral nutrition (EN) with calorie-dense and protein rich enteral formula improves enteral energy and protein delivery in critically ill cardiac patients. Methods. Prospective randomized pilot study of 40 ventilated adult patients
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Background. The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that early enteral nutrition (EN) with calorie-dense and protein rich enteral formula improves enteral energy and protein delivery in critically ill cardiac patients. Methods. Prospective randomized pilot study of 40 ventilated adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass receiving inotropic support postoperatively. Patients were to receive either standard isocaloric (1000 Kcal/L and 38 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20) or calorie-dense and protein-rich (1300 Kcal/L and 66.7 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20). Results. The mean time to EN initiation was 27 ± 11 h. Early EN with the calorie-dense formula provided significantly more energy and protein enteral delivery on the 2nd, (p < 0.0001), 5th (p = 0.036), and 7th days (p = 0.024), and was associated with higher levels of prealbumin concentration on the 14th day (0.13 ± 0.01 g/L and 0.21 ± 0.1 g/L; p = 0.04) and significantly increased levels of transferrin on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th day (p < 0.05) after surgery. Conclusion. Present findings support hypothesis that early EN using a calorie-dense and protein rich formula leads to better enteral energy and protein delivery and higher levels of short-lived serum proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach to Critically Ill Patients)
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acids, Antioxidants and Physical Activity in Brain Aging
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111263
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Through a literature review, we aimed to highlight recent data on the role of adiposity, fatty acids, antioxidants, and physical inactivity in the pathophysiology of the brain and in the molecular mechanisms of senescence. Data indicate the complexity and necessity of endogenous/dietary antioxidants for the maintenance of redox status and the control of neuroglial signaling under stress. Recent studies also indicate that omega-3 and -6 fatty acids act in a competitive manner to generate mediators for energy metabolism, influencing feeding behavior, neural plasticity, and memory during aging. Finding pharmacological or dietary resources that mitigate or prevent neurodegenerative affections continues to be a great challenge and requires additional effort from researchers, clinicians, and nutritionists in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111262
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of
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Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. ‘Annurca’ and Malus domestica cv ‘Limoncella’; (ii) identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii) evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111261
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a
[...] Read more.
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet. H-fed rats showed symptoms of metabolic syndrome including increased body weight, total fat mass, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular collagen deposition, plasma triglycerides, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids along with fatty liver. Relative to these obese rats, Kappaphycus-treated rats showed normalized body weight and adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, improved heart and liver structure, and lower plasma lipids, even in presence of H diet. Kappaphycus modulated the balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut, which could serve as the potential mechanism for improved metabolic variables; this was accompanied by no damage to the gut structure. Thus, whole Kappaphycus improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters in obese rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111260
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of
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Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to ‘hunger training’, chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% (n = 36/50) at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days) lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p < 0.001) more weight than those who completed fewer days. They also had significantly higher intuitive eating scores than those who completed 30 days or less of booklet entry; a difference (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.12, 1.35) in body-food choice congruence and 0.79 (0.06, 1.51) for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. Adherent participants also reported significantly lower scores for emotional eating of −0.70 (−1.13, −0.27). Following hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour. Full article
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