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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Nutrition and Allergic Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 762; doi:10.3390/nu9070762
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can
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The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Trial to Examine the Effect of Kiwifruit on Satiety and Measures of Gastric Comfort in Healthy Adult Males
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 639; doi:10.3390/nu9070639
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
‘Hayward’ kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. The study aimed to use SmartPill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin (
[...] Read more.
‘Hayward’ kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. The study aimed to use SmartPill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Hayward’) and kiwifruit without actinidin (A. chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) on digestion of a large protein meal. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited. The participants attended the clinic three times, having fasted overnight. They consumed a test meal consisting of 400 g lean steak and two ‘Hort16A’ or two ‘Hayward kiwifruit’. Subjects completed visual analogue scales (VAS) by rating feelings of hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and comfort and swallowed a SmartPill™ before completing further VAS scales. After 5 h, participants consumed an ad libitum lunch to assess satiety. SmartPill™ transponders were worn for five days. There were no significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel, or colonic transit time between the two kiwifruit arms of the study measured by SmartPill™. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in VAS satiety measures or energy consumption at the ad libitum meal. However, the measurement of overall gastric comfort tended to be lower, and bloating was significantly reduced following the consumption of the steak meal with ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit (p < 0.028). Conclusions: The SmartPill™ is marketed as a diagnostic tool for patients presenting with gastrointestinal disorders and is usually used with a standard ‘SmartBar’. This small pilot study suggests that it is less likely to measure gastric emptying effectively following a high protein meal, as it may be delayed because of the meal’s physical consistency. However, green kiwifruit, containing actinidin, may reduce bloating and other measures of gastric discomfort in healthy males. Possible future studies could use repeated measures with more readily digested protein and larger numbers of participants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Elevated Glycated Hemoglobin Values: A Longitudinal Study of Non-Diabetic Participants of a Preventive Health Program
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 640; doi:10.3390/nu9070640
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is sharply on the rise, both in Canada and worldwide. As addressing its root causes, i.e., promotion of healthy lifestyles and weight management, has been largely unsuccessful, new clues for primary prevention seem essential to curbing
[...] Read more.
The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is sharply on the rise, both in Canada and worldwide. As addressing its root causes, i.e., promotion of healthy lifestyles and weight management, has been largely unsuccessful, new clues for primary prevention seem essential to curbing the increasing public health burden of T2D. In the present study, we examined whether improvements in vitamin D status, i.e., serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, are paralleled by a reduction in the risk for reaching adverse glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in a community sample of non-diabetic volunteers participating in a preventive health program that encourages the use of vitamin D. Repeated observations on 6565 participants revealed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 90.8 to 121.3 nmol/L, HbA1c values decreased from 5.6% to 5.5%, and the prevalence of having HbA1c values ≥ 5.8% decreased from 29.5% to 17.4% while in the program. Compared to participants who did not increase their 25(OH)D concentrations during follow-up, those who increased their 25(OH)D concentrations with 50 nmol/L or more were 0.74 times as likely to achieve elevated HbA1c values at follow-up (p = 0.03). These findings suggest that public health initiatives that promote vitamin D status along with healthy lifestyles in the population at large may alleviate the future public health burden associated with T2D. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Related Metabolic Signature Characterizes Obese Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 642; doi:10.3390/nu9070642
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD
[...] Read more.
Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30) or without (n = 48) NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and subsets of patients underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and/or a second MRI after a 2.2 ± 0.8-year follow-up. Adolescents with NAFLD had higher plasma levels of valine (p = 0.02), isoleucine (p = 0.03), tryptophan (p = 0.02), and lysine (p = 0.02) after adjustment for confounding factors. Circulating BCAAs were negatively correlated with peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, higher baseline valine levels predicted an increase in hepatic fat content (HFF) at follow-up (p = 0.01). These results indicate that a dysregulation of BCAA metabolism characterizes obese adolescents with NAFLD independently of obesity and insulin resistance and predict an increase in hepatic fat content over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Suboptimal Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Inadequate Iodine Intake among Lactating Women in Norway
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 643; doi:10.3390/nu9070643
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Breastfed infants depend on sufficient maternal iodine intake for optimal growth and neurological development. Despite this, few studies have assessed iodine concentrations in human milk and there is currently no published data on iodine status among lactating women in Norway. The aim of
[...] Read more.
Breastfed infants depend on sufficient maternal iodine intake for optimal growth and neurological development. Despite this, few studies have assessed iodine concentrations in human milk and there is currently no published data on iodine status among lactating women in Norway. The aim of this study was to assess iodine concentrations in breast milk (BMIC) in lactating women and estimate iodine intake. Five Mother and Child Health Centres in Oslo were randomly selected during 2016, and 175 lactating women between 2nd and 28th weeks postpartum participated. Each of the women provided four breastmilk samples which were pooled and analysed for iodine concentrations. Participants also provided information on iodine intake from food and supplements covering the last 24 h and the habitual iodine intake (food frequency questionnaire). The median (p25, p75 percentiles) BMIC was 68 (45, 98) µg/L and 76% had BMIC <100 µg/L. Only 19% had taken an iodine-containing supplement during the last 24 h. The median 24 h iodine intake from food (p25, p75) was 121 (82, 162) µg/day and the total intake (food and supplements) was 134 (95, 222) µg/day. The majority of lactating women had suboptimal BMIC and inadequate intake of iodine from food and supplements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pubertal Stage, Body Mass Index, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia: The Cross-Sectional Fuprecol Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 644; doi:10.3390/nu9070644
Received: 23 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
This study explored the association between pubertal stage and anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors in youth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2877 Colombian children and adolescents (9–17.9 years of age). Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI)
[...] Read more.
This study explored the association between pubertal stage and anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors in youth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2877 Colombian children and adolescents (9–17.9 years of age). Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A biochemical study was performed to determine the cardiometabolic risk index (CMRI). Blood pressure was evaluated and pubertal stage was assessed with the Tanner criteria. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. The most significant variable (p < 0.05) in the prognosis of cardiometabolic risk was found to be the BMI in both boys and girls. In the case of girls, the pubertal stage was also a CMRI predictive factor. In conclusion, BMI was an important indicator of cardiovascular risk in both sexes. Pubertal stage was associated with cardiovascular risk only in the girls. Full article
Open AccessArticle Topical Application of Trisodium Ascorbyl 6-Palmitate 2-Phosphate Actively Supplies Ascorbate to Skin Cells in an Ascorbate Transporter-Independent Manner
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 645; doi:10.3390/nu9070645
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Ascorbic acid (AA) possesses multiple beneficial functions, such as regulating collagen biosynthesis and redox balance in the skin. AA derivatives have been developed to overcome this compound’s high fragility and to assist with AA supplementation to the skin. However, how AA derivatives are
[...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (AA) possesses multiple beneficial functions, such as regulating collagen biosynthesis and redox balance in the skin. AA derivatives have been developed to overcome this compound’s high fragility and to assist with AA supplementation to the skin. However, how AA derivatives are transferred into cells and converted to AA in the skin remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that AA treatment failed to increase the cellular AA level in the presence of AA transporter inhibitors, indicating an AA transporter-dependent action. In contrast, torisodium ascorbyl 6-palmitate 2-phosphate (APPS) treatment significantly enhanced the cellular AA level in skin cells despite the presence of inhibitors. In ex vivo experiments, APPS treatment also increased the AA content in a human epidermis model. Interestingly, APPS was readily metabolized and converted to AA in keratinocyte lysates via an intrinsic mechanism. Furthermore, APPS markedly repressed the intracellular superoxide generation and promoted viability associated with an enhanced AA level in Sod1-deficient skin cells. These findings indicate that APPS effectively restores the AA level and normalizes the redox balance in skin cells in an AA transporter-independent manner. Topical treatment of APPS is a beneficial strategy for supplying AA and improving the physiology of damaged skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D3 and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Content of Retail White Fish and Eggs in Australia
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 647; doi:10.3390/nu9070647
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Dietary vitamin D may compensate for inadequate sun exposure; however, there have been few investigations into the vitamin D content of Australian foods. We measured vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in four species of white fish (barramundi, basa,
[...] Read more.
Dietary vitamin D may compensate for inadequate sun exposure; however, there have been few investigations into the vitamin D content of Australian foods. We measured vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in four species of white fish (barramundi, basa, hoki and king dory), and chicken eggs (cage and free-range), purchased from five Australian cities. Samples included local, imported and wild-caught fish, and eggs of varying size from producers with a range of hen stocking densities. Raw and cooked samples were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array. Limits of reporting were 0.2 and 0.1 μg/100 g for vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3, respectively. The vitamin D3 content of cooked white fish ranged from <0.1 to 2.3 μg/100 g, and the 25(OH)D3 content ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 μg/100 g. The vitamin D3 content of cooked cage eggs ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 μg/100 g, and the 25(OH)D3 content ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 μg/100 g. The vitamin D3 content of cooked free-range eggs ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 μg/100 g, and the 25(OH)D3 content ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 μg/100 g. If, as has been suggested, 25(OH)D3 has five times greater bioactivity than vitamin D3, one cooked serve (100 g) of white fish, and one cooked serve of cage or free-range eggs (120 g) may provide 50% or 100%, respectively, of the current guidelines for the adequate intake of vitamin D (5 µg) for Australians aged 1–50 years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Association Study of Dietary Pattern Scores
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 649; doi:10.3390/nu9070649
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
Dietary patterns, representing global food supplies rather than specific nutrients or food intakes, have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. The contribution of genetic factors in the determination of food intakes, preferences and dietary patterns has been previously established. The
[...] Read more.
Dietary patterns, representing global food supplies rather than specific nutrients or food intakes, have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. The contribution of genetic factors in the determination of food intakes, preferences and dietary patterns has been previously established. The current study aimed to identify novel genetic factors associated with reported dietary pattern scores. Reported dietary patterns scores were derived from reported dietary intakes for the preceding month and were obtained through a food frequency questionnaire and genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a study sample of 141 individuals. Reported Prudent and Western dietary patterns demonstrated nominal associations (p < 1 × 10−5) with 78 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Among these, SNPs annotated to genes previously associated with neurological disorders, CVD risk factors and obesity were identified. Further assessment of SNPs demonstrated an impact on gene expression levels in blood for SNPs located within/near BCKDHB (p = 0.02) and the hypothalamic glucosensor PFKFB3 (p = 0.0004) genes, potentially mediated through an impact on the binding of transcription factors (TFs). Overrepresentations of glucose/energy homeostasis and hormone response TFs were also observed from SNP-surrounding sequences. Results from the current GWAS study suggest an interplay of genes involved in the metabolic response to dietary patterns on obesity, glucose metabolism and food-induced response in the brain in the adoption of dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Quercetin Protects Obesity-Induced Hypothalamic Inflammation by Reducing Microglia-Mediated Inflammatory Responses via HO-1 Induction
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 650; doi:10.3390/nu9070650
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
Obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation is characterized by activation of microglia, which are resident macrophages of the central nervous system, and is implicated in the derangement of energy homeostasis, metabolic complications, and neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, is known to protect against oxidative
[...] Read more.
Obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation is characterized by activation of microglia, which are resident macrophages of the central nervous system, and is implicated in the derangement of energy homeostasis, metabolic complications, and neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, is known to protect against oxidative stress and inflammation-related metabolic complications. Here, we demonstrate that quercetin reduces obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammatory responses, and the beneficial action of quercetin is associated with heme oxygenase (HO-1) induction. Quercetin markedly reduced the production of inflammatory mediators (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL-6), IL-1β, nitric oxide) by microglia stimulated with saturated fatty acid palmitate and/or lipid-laden microglia-conditioned medium. Quercetin also upregulated the expression of HO-1 in palmitate-treated lipid-laden microglia, and the actions of quercetin against microglia activation accompanied by IκBα degradation were abolished by a HO-1 inhibitor. Moreover, quercetin supplementation reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines and microglia activation markers in the hypothalamus of high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice, which was accompanied by upregulation of HO-1. These findings indicate that quercetin suppresses microglia-mediated inflammatory responses via the induction of HO-1, and hence protects against obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease the Protein Expression of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase via Oxidative Stress-Induced P38 Kinase in Rat Endothelial Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 654; doi:10.3390/nu9070654
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve endothelial function. The arachidonic acid-derived metabolites (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)) are part of the endothelial hyperpolarization factor and are vasodilators independent of nitric oxide. However, little is known regarding the regulation of EET concentration by docosahexaenoic acid
[...] Read more.
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve endothelial function. The arachidonic acid-derived metabolites (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)) are part of the endothelial hyperpolarization factor and are vasodilators independent of nitric oxide. However, little is known regarding the regulation of EET concentration by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in blood vessels. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control or fish oil diet for 3 weeks. Compared with the control, the fish oil diet improved acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and reduced the protein expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key EET metabolic enzyme, in aortic strips. Both DHA and EPA suppressed sEH protein expression in rat aorta endothelial cells (RAECs). Furthermore, the concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid peroxidation product of n-3 PUFAs, increased in n-3 PUFA-treated RAECs. In addition, 4-HHE treatment suppressed sEH expression in RAECs, suggesting that 4-HHE (derived from n-3 PUFAs) is involved in this phenomenon. The suppression of sEH was attenuated by the p38 kinase inhibitor (SB203580) and by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In conclusion, sEH expression decreased after n-3 PUFAs treatment, potentially through oxidative stress and p38 kinase. Mild oxidative stress induced by n-3 PUFAs may contribute to their cardio-protective effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Risk of Deficiency in Multiple Concurrent Micronutrients in Children and Adults in the United States
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 655; doi:10.3390/nu9070655
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Certain population sub-groups in the United States are vulnerable to micronutrient malnutrition. Nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) describing the biochemical status of vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, folate, and anemia, were aggregated to determine
[...] Read more.
Certain population sub-groups in the United States are vulnerable to micronutrient malnutrition. Nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) describing the biochemical status of vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, folate, and anemia, were aggregated to determine the overall risk of multiple concurrent deficiencies in U.S. children and adults (n = 15,030) aged >9 years. The prevalence of deficiency risk according to socio-demographic, life-stage, dietary supplement use, and dietary adequacy categories was investigated. Thirty-one percent of the U.S. population was at risk of at least one vitamin deficiency or anemia, with 23%, 6.3%, and 1.7% of the U.S. population at risk of deficiency in 1, 2, or 3–5 vitamins or anemia, respectively. A significantly higher deficiency risk was seen in women (37%), non-Hispanic blacks (55%), individuals from low income households (40%), or without a high school diploma (42%), and underweight (42%) or obese individuals (39%). A deficiency risk was most common in women 19–50 years (41%), and pregnant or breastfeeding women (47%). Dietary supplement non-users had the highest risk of any deficiency (40%), compared to users of full-spectrum multivitamin-multimineral supplements (14%) and other dietary supplement users (28%). Individuals consuming an adequate diet based on the Estimated Average Requirement had a lower risk of any deficiency (16%) than those with an inadequate diet (57%). Nearly one-third of the U.S. population is at risk of deficiency in at least one vitamin, or has anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle NutriNet: A Deep Learning Food and Drink Image Recognition System for Dietary Assessment
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 657; doi:10.3390/nu9070657
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Automatic food image recognition systems are alleviating the process of food-intake estimation and dietary assessment. However, due to the nature of food images, their recognition is a particularly challenging task, which is why traditional approaches in the field have achieved a low classification
[...] Read more.
Automatic food image recognition systems are alleviating the process of food-intake estimation and dietary assessment. However, due to the nature of food images, their recognition is a particularly challenging task, which is why traditional approaches in the field have achieved a low classification accuracy. Deep neural networks have outperformed such solutions, and we present a novel approach to the problem of food and drink image detection and recognition that uses a newly-defined deep convolutional neural network architecture, called NutriNet. This architecture was tuned on a recognition dataset containing 225,953 512 × 512 pixel images of 520 different food and drink items from a broad spectrum of food groups, on which we achieved a classification accuracy of 86.72%, along with an accuracy of 94.47% on a detection dataset containing 130,517 images. We also performed a real-world test on a dataset of self-acquired images, combined with images from Parkinson’s disease patients, all taken using a smartphone camera, achieving a top-five accuracy of 55%, which is an encouraging result for real-world images. Additionally, we tested NutriNet on the University of Milano-Bicocca 2016 (UNIMIB2016) food image dataset, on which we improved upon the provided baseline recognition result. An online training component was implemented to continually fine-tune the food and drink recognition model on new images. The model is being used in practice as part of a mobile app for the dietary assessment of Parkinson’s disease patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Identification of Geriatric Patients with Hypovitaminosis D: The ‘Vitamin D Status Predictor for Geriatrics’ Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 658; doi:10.3390/nu9070658
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
The 16-item Vitamin D Status Predictor (VDSP) tool identifies healthy older community-dwellers at risk of hypovitaminosis D and may guide the use of blood tests in this population. The objective of the present hospital-based study was to test the efficacy of the VDSP
[...] Read more.
The 16-item Vitamin D Status Predictor (VDSP) tool identifies healthy older community-dwellers at risk of hypovitaminosis D and may guide the use of blood tests in this population. The objective of the present hospital-based study was to test the efficacy of the VDSP to identify geriatric patients with hypovitaminosis D. The study included 199 nonsupplemented geriatric in- and outpatients consecutively admitted to Angers University Hospital, France (mean ± SD, 82.0 ± 7.8 years; 53.3% female). Serum 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25(OH)D) was measured at the time of the physician-administered VDSP. Hypovitaminosis D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentration ≤ 75 nmol/L for vitamin D insufficiency, 25(OH)D ≤ 50 nmol/L for vitamin D deficiency, and 25(OH)D ≤ 25 nmol/L for severe vitamin D deficiency. We found that 184 participants (92.4%) had vitamin D insufficiency, 136 (68.3%) had vitamin D deficiency, and 67 (33.7%) had severe vitamin D deficiency. The VDSP identified severe vitamin D deficiency with an area under curve (AUC) = 0.83 and OR = 24.0. The VDSP was able to identify vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency with less accuracy (AUC = 0.71 and AUC = 0.73, respectively). In conclusion, the 16-item VDSP is a short questionnaire that accurately identifies geriatric patients with severe vitamin D deficiency. This tool may guide the use of blood collection for determining geriatric patients’ vitamin D status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Diuretic Action of Weak and Strong Alcoholic Beverages in Elderly Men: A Randomized Diet-Controlled Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 660; doi:10.3390/nu9070660
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB), non-alcoholic
[...] Read more.
With ageing, there is a greater risk of dehydration. This study investigated the diuretic effect of alcoholic beverages varying in alcohol concentration in elderly men. Three alcoholic beverages (beer (AB), wine (AW), and spirits (S)) and their non-alcoholic counterparts (non-alcoholic beer (NAB), non-alcoholic wine (NAW), and water (W)) were tested in a diet-controlled randomized crossover trial. For the alcoholic beverages, alcohol intake equaled a moderate amount of 30 g. An equal volume of beverage was given for the non-alcoholic counterpart. After consumption, the urine output was collected every hour for 4 h and the total 24 h urine output was measured. AW and S resulted in a higher cumulative urine output compared to NAW and W during the first 4 h (effect size: 0.25 mL p < 0.003, effect size: 0.18 mL, p < 0.001, respectively), but not after the 24h urine collection (p > 0.40, p > 0.10). AB and NAB did not differ at any time point (effect size: −0.02 mL p > 0.70). For urine osmolality, and the sodium and potassium concentration, the findings were in line. In conclusion, only moderate amounts of stronger alcoholic beverages, such as wine and spirits, resulted in a short and small diuretic effect in elderly men. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Margarines and Fast-Food French Fries: Low Content of trans Fatty Acids
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 662; doi:10.3390/nu9070662
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high
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The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (two store and four premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (five chains). All samples were collected in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain). The margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (g TFA/100 g fat) for the store and premium brands, respectively. The French fries’ values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5 g/serving, so they could also be considered “trans free products”. This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes updated food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fruit Fiber Consumption Specifically Improves Liver Health Status in Obese Subjects under Energy Restriction
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 667; doi:10.3390/nu9070667
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
The prevalence of non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of two energy-restricted diets on non-invasive markers and scores of liver damage in obese individuals with features of MS after six months
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The prevalence of non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of two energy-restricted diets on non-invasive markers and scores of liver damage in obese individuals with features of MS after six months of follow-up and to assess the role of fiber content in metabolic outcomes. Seventy obese individuals from the RESMENA (Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra) study were evaluated at baseline and after six months of energy-restricted nutritional intervention (American Heart Association (AHA) and RESMENA dietary groups). Dietary records, anthropometrical data, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and routine laboratory measurements were analyzed by standardized methods. Regarding liver status, cytokeratin-18 fragments and several non-invasive scores of fatty liver were also assessed. The RESMENA strategy was a good and complementary alternative to AHA for the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. Participants with higher insoluble fiber consumption (≥7.5 g/day) showed improvements in fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HIS), and NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD_LFS), while gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and transaminases evidenced significant improvements as a result of fruit fiber consumption (≥8.8 g/day). Remarkably, a regression model evidenced a relationship between liver status and fiber from fruits. These results support the design of dietary patterns based on the consumption of insoluble fiber and fiber from fruits in the context of energy restriction for the management of obese patients suffering fatty liver disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessArticle Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) of Dairy Products in Chinese Urban Population and the Effects on Dairy Intake Quality
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 668; doi:10.3390/nu9070668
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Insufficient intake of dairy products is a nutritional problem of concern in China. However, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of consuming dairy products in the Chinese population remain unknown. A total of 1739 subjects from eight cities in China participated in this study.
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Insufficient intake of dairy products is a nutritional problem of concern in China. However, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of consuming dairy products in the Chinese population remain unknown. A total of 1739 subjects from eight cities in China participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge of and attitude toward dairy. A semi-food intake frequency questionnaire was used to obtain the frequencies and amount of different kinds of dairy product intake. Calcium and protein intake were investigated within one 24-hour period of dietary recall. The results showed that questions related to lactose intolerance had the highest unknown rate and the lowest accuracy. Males, subjects with a lower education level, lower monthly family income (<3000 yuan), lower monthly family food expenditure (<1000 yuan), and lower personal monthly expenditure on dairy products (<10 yuan) had a significantly lower knowledge score. For attitude, 42.7 percent of subjects had self-perceived insufficient intake of dairy. While 15.2 percent of subjects reported experiencing lactose intolerance symptoms, 29.5 percent did not know the reasons. In practice, the median (25th, 75th) intake of dairy products was 71.4 (0.0, 200.0) g/day. A significantly lower intake of dairy and low-fat or fat-free dairy products was shown in subjects with poor dairy knowledge. For the perception of lactose intolerance, the lowest intake was shown in the “unsure” group. In conclusion, knowledge gaps and self-perception bias regarding dairy products exist in Chinese urban adults and these are associated with the quantity and quality of dairy intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preventive Effect of Cow’s Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 on Common Infectious Diseases in Children: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 669; doi:10.3390/nu9070669
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: Fermented foods have been proposed to prevent common infectious diseases (CIDs) in children attending day care or preschool. Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of dietary supplementation with cow’s skim milk fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 in reducing CIDs in
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Background: Fermented foods have been proposed to prevent common infectious diseases (CIDs) in children attending day care or preschool. Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of dietary supplementation with cow’s skim milk fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 in reducing CIDs in children attending day care or preschool. Methods: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on healthy children (aged 12–48 months) consuming daily 7 grams of cow’s skim milk fermented with L. paracasei CBA L74 (group A), or placebo (maltodextrins group B) attending day care or preschool during the winter season. The main outcome was the proportion of children who experienced ≥1 episode of CID during a 3-month follow-up. Fecal biomarkers of innate (α- and β-defensins, cathelicidin) and acquired immunity (secretory IgA) were also monitored. Results: A total of 126 children (71 males, 56%) with a mean (SD) age of 33 (9) months completed the study, 66 in group A and 60 in group B. At intention to treat analysis, the proportion of children presenting ≥1 CID was 60% in group A vs. 83% in group B, corresponding to an absolute risk difference (ARD) of −23% (95% CI: −37% to −9%, p < 0.01). At per-protocol-analysis (PPA), the proportion of children presenting ≥1 CID was 18% in group A vs. 40% in group B, corresponding to an absolute risk difference (ARD) of −22% (95% CI: −37% to −6%, p < 0.01). PPA showed that the proportion of children presenting ≥1 acute gastroenteritis (AGE) was significantly lower in group A (18% vs. 40%, p < 0.05). The ARD for the occurrence of ≥1 AGE was −22% (95% CI: −37% to −6%, p < 0.01) in group A. Similar findings were obtained at PPA regarding the proportion of children presenting ≥1 upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), which was significantly lower in group A (51% vs. 74%, p < 0.05), corresponding to an ARD of −23% (95% CI: −40% to −7%, p < 0.01). Significant changes in innate and acquired immunity biomarkers were observed only in subjects in group A. Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with cow’s skim milk fermented with L. paracasei CBA L74 is an efficient strategy in preventing CIDs in children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ferulic Acid on Glucose Dysregulation, Dyslipidemia, and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats: An Integrated Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 675; doi:10.3390/nu9070675
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Obesity is considered to be a low-grade chronic inflammatory process, which is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. An integral evaluation of the effects of ferulic acid on biomarkers of glucose dysregulation, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and antioxidant potential induced by a high-fat diet (HFD)
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Obesity is considered to be a low-grade chronic inflammatory process, which is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. An integral evaluation of the effects of ferulic acid on biomarkers of glucose dysregulation, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and antioxidant potential induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats was carried out. Three groups of male Wistar rats (six per group) consumed a basal diet (BD), which was supplemented with either lard at 310 g/kg (HFD) or lard and ferulic acid at 2 g/kg (HFD + FA), ad libitum for eight weeks. Body weight gain, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy in abdominal fat tissues were higher in the HFD group than in the HFD+FA group. The rats fed a HFD + FA significantly inhibited the increase in plasma lipids and glucose, compared with the HFD group. Biomarkers associated with inflammation were found at higher concentrations in the serum of rats fed a HFD than the HFD + FA group. Plasma antioxidant levels were lower in HFD rats compared to rats fed the HFD + FA. These results suggest that ferulic acid improves the obesogenic status induced by HFD, and we elucidated the integral effects of ferulic acid on a biological system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Comparable Performance Characteristics of Plasma Thiamine and Erythrocyte Thiamine Diphosphate in Response to Thiamine Fortification in Rural Cambodian Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 676; doi:10.3390/nu9070676
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: Traditionally, vitamin B1 status is assessed by a functional test measuring erythrocyte transketolase (ETK) activity or direct measurement of erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate (eThDP) concentration. However, such analyses are logistically challenging, and do not allow assessment of vitamin B1 status
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Background: Traditionally, vitamin B1 status is assessed by a functional test measuring erythrocyte transketolase (ETK) activity or direct measurement of erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate (eThDP) concentration. However, such analyses are logistically challenging, and do not allow assessment of vitamin B1 status in plasma/serum samples stored in biobanks. Using a multiplex assay, we evaluated plasma concentrations of thiamine and thiamine monophosphate (TMP), as alternative, convenient measures of vitamin B1 status. Methods: We investigated the relationships between the established biomarker eThDP and plasma concentrations of thiamine and TMP, and compared the response of these thiamine forms to thiamine fortification using samples from 196 healthy Cambodian women (aged 18–45 years.). eThDP was measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and plasma thiamine and TMP by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: Plasma thiamine and TMP correlated significantly with eThDP at baseline and study-end (p < 0.05). Among the fortification groups, the strongest response was observed for plasma thiamine (increased by 266%), while increases in plasma TMP (60%) and eThDP (53%) were comparable. Conclusions: Plasma thiamine and TMP correlated positively with eThDP, and all thiamine forms responded significantly to thiamine intervention. Measuring plasma concentrations of thiamine forms is advantageous due to convenient sample handling and capacity to develop low volume, high-throughput, multiplex assays. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chlorogenic Acid Ameliorates Experimental Colitis by Promoting Growth of Akkermansia in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 677; doi:10.3390/nu9070677
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Chlorogenic acid (ChA)—one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet—exerts anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ChA on gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis (UC). Colitis was induced by 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)
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Chlorogenic acid (ChA)—one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet—exerts anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ChA on gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis (UC). Colitis was induced by 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice, which were on a control diet or diet with ChA (1 mM). The histopathological changes and inflammation were evaluated. Fecal samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. ChA attenuated several effects of DSS-induced colitis, including weight loss, increased disease activity index, and improved mucosal damage. Moreover, ChA could significantly suppress the secretion of IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-6 and the colonic infiltration of F4/80+ macrophages, CD3+ T cells, and CD177+ neutrophils via inhibition of the active NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, ChA decreased the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. ChA also enhanced a reduction in fecal microbiota diversity in DSS treated mice. Interestingly, ChA treatment markedly increased the proportion of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia in colitis mice. ChA acted as the intestine-modifying gut microbial community structure, resulting in a lower intestinal and systemic inflammation and also improving the course of the DSS-induced colitis, which is associated with a proportional increase in Akkermansia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle LXRα Regulates Hepatic ChREBPα Activity and Lipogenesis upon Glucose, but Not Fructose Feeding in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 678; doi:10.3390/nu9070678
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Liver X receptors (LXRα/β) and carbohydrate response element-binding proteins (ChREBPα/β) are key players in the transcriptional control of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. LXRα/β double knockout (LXRα−/−−/−) mice have reduced feeding-induced nuclear O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) signaling,
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Liver X receptors (LXRα/β) and carbohydrate response element-binding proteins (ChREBPα/β) are key players in the transcriptional control of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. LXRα/β double knockout (LXRα−/−−/−) mice have reduced feeding-induced nuclear O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) signaling, ChREBPα activity, and lipogenic gene expression in livers, suggesting important roles for LXRs in linking hepatic glucose utilization to lipid synthesis. However, the role of LXRs in fructose-induced ChREBP activation and lipogenesis is currently unknown. In this study, we studied the effects of high fructose or high glucose feeding on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenic gene expression in livers from fasted (24 h) and fasted-refed (12 h) wild type and LXRα knockout (LXRα−/−) mice. Hepatic lipogenic gene expression was reduced in glucose fed, but not fructose fed LXRα−/− mice. This was associated with lower expression of liver pyruvate-kinase (L-pk) and Chrebpβ, indicating reduced ChREBPα activity in glucose fed, but not fructose fed mice. Interestingly, ChREBP binding to the L-pk promoter was increased in fructose fed LXRα−/− mice, concomitant with increased glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) expression and O-GlcNAc modified LXRβ, suggesting a role for LXRβ in regulating ChREBPα activity upon fructose feeding. In conclusion, we propose that LXRα is an important regulator of hepatic lipogenesis and ChREBPα activity upon glucose, but not fructose feeding in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Autophagic Lipolysis in Adipocytes
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 680; doi:10.3390/nu9070680
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Previous studies demonstrated effects of green tea on weight loss; however, green tea-induced modulation of adipocyte function is not fully understood. Here, we investigated effects of the major green tea phytochemical, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triglyceride contents, lipolysis, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, in adipocytes
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Previous studies demonstrated effects of green tea on weight loss; however, green tea-induced modulation of adipocyte function is not fully understood. Here, we investigated effects of the major green tea phytochemical, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triglyceride contents, lipolysis, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, in adipocytes differentiated from C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized pre-adipocytes in vitro. EGCG reduced the triglycerol content significantly in adipocytes by 25%, comparable to the nutrient starvation state. EGCG did not affect protein kinase A signaling or brown adipocyte marker expression in adipocytes; however, EGCG increased autophagy, as measured by autophagy flux analysis and immunoblot analysis of LC3B, ATG7, and Beclin1. EGCG treatment reduced mitochondrial membrane potential by 56.8% and intracellular ATP levels by 49.1% compared to controls. Although mammalian target of rapamycin signaling was not upregulated by EGCG treatment, EGCG treatment induced AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, indicating an energy-depleted state. In addition, EGCG increased the association between RAB7 and lipid droplets, suggesting that lipophagy was activated. Finally, knockdown of Rab7 attenuated the EGCG-dependent reduction in lipid contents. Collectively, these results indicated that EGCG upregulated autophagic lipolysis in adipocytes, supporting the therapeutic potential of EGCG as a caloric restriction mimetic to prevent obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Natural Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Triglyceride Form Attenuates In Vitro Microglial Activation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 681; doi:10.3390/nu9070681
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated, at least in part, to an inflammatory process in which microglia plays a major role. The effect of the triglyceride form of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA) was assayed in vitro and in vivo to
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Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated, at least in part, to an inflammatory process in which microglia plays a major role. The effect of the triglyceride form of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA) was assayed in vitro and in vivo to assess the protective and anti-inflammatory activity of this compound. In the in vitro study, BV-2 microglia cells were previously treated with TG-DHA and then activated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). TG-DHA treatment protected BV-2 microglia cells from oxidative stress toxicity attenuating NO production and suppressing the induction of inflammatory cytokines. When compared with DHA in the ethyl-ester form, a significant difference in the ability to inhibit NO production in favor of TG-DHA was observed. TG-DHA inhibited significantly splenocyte proliferation but isolated CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation was unaffected. In a mice model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), 250 mg/kg/day oral TG-DHA treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the course and severity of the disease as compared to untreated animals. TG-DHA-treated EAE mice showed a better weight profile, which is a symptom related to a better course of encephalomyelitis. TG-DHA may be a promising therapeutic agent in neuroinflammatory processes and merit to be more extensively studied in human neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 682; doi:10.3390/nu9070682
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium
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Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5–7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and −4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and −865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Meat and Seafood Consumption in Relation to Plasma Metabolic Profiles in a Chinese Population: A Combined Untargeted and Targeted Metabolomics Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 683; doi:10.3390/nu9070683
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
We examined the relationship between different patterns of meat and seafood consumption and plasma metabolic profiles in an Asian population. We selected 270 ethnic Chinese men and women from the Singapore Prospective Study Program based on their dietary habits assessed with a validated
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We examined the relationship between different patterns of meat and seafood consumption and plasma metabolic profiles in an Asian population. We selected 270 ethnic Chinese men and women from the Singapore Prospective Study Program based on their dietary habits assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided into four subgroups: high meat and high seafood (n = 60), high meat and low seafood (n = 64), low meat and high seafood (n = 60), and low meat and low seafood (n = 86) consumers. Plasma metabolites were measured using both targeted and untargeted mass spectroscopy-based analyses. A total of 42 metabolites differed significantly by dietary group. Higher concentrations of essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and d-glucose were found in high meat and/or seafood consumers as compared with the group with a low consumption of these animal foods. Red meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, soy products, and dairy were each correlated with at least one differential metabolite (r = −0.308 to 0.448). Some observations, such as the correlation between fish and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF), confirmed previous studies. Other observations, such as the correlation between shellfish and phosphatidylethanolamine (p36:4), were novel. We also observed significant correlations between plasma metabolites and clinical characteristics, such as CMPF with fasting blood glucose (r = 0.401). These findings demonstrate a significant influence of meat and seafood consumption on metabolic profiles in the Asian population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diosmin, a Citrus Nutrient, Activates Imidazoline Receptors to Alleviate Blood Glucose and Lipids in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 684; doi:10.3390/nu9070684
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Diosmin is a nutrient that is widely contained in citrus and that has been indicated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that diosmin induces β-endorphin to lower hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, the mechanisms of diosmin in opioid secretion
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Diosmin is a nutrient that is widely contained in citrus and that has been indicated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that diosmin induces β-endorphin to lower hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, the mechanisms of diosmin in opioid secretion were unclear. Therefore, we focused on the secretion of opioids from isolated adrenal glands induced by diosmin. The changes in the released β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER) were determined using ELISA. Diosmin increased the BER level in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was markedly reduced in the absence of calcium ions. Activation of the imidazoline I-2 receptor (I-2R) has been introduced to induce opioid secretion. Interestingly, we observed that diosmin activates CHO cells expressing I-R. Additionally, diosmin-increased BER was inhibited by the blockade of I-2R in isolated adrenal glands. Additionally, an antagonist of I-2R blocked diosmin-induced effects, including the reduction in hyperglycemia and the increase in plasma BER in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Repeated treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with diosmin for one week induced changes in hepatic glycogen, lipid levels, and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Furthermore, an antagonist of I-2R blocked the diosmin-induced changes. Additionally, plasma lipids modified by diosmin were also reversed by the blockade of I-2R in STZ-diabetic rats. Taken together, we suggest that diosmin may activate I-2R to enhance the secretion of β-endorphin from adrenal glands and to influence metabolic homeostasis, resulting in alleviation of blood glucose and lipids in STZ-diabetic rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Brain Functional Connectivity Is Modified by a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity in Obese Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 685; doi:10.3390/nu9070685
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state has shown altered brain connectivity networks in obese individuals. However, the impact of a Mediterranean diet on cerebral connectivity in obese patients when losing weight has not been previously explored. The aim of this
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state has shown altered brain connectivity networks in obese individuals. However, the impact of a Mediterranean diet on cerebral connectivity in obese patients when losing weight has not been previously explored. The aim of this study was to examine the connectivity between brain structures before and six months after following a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and physical activity program in a group of sixteen obese women aged 46.31 ± 4.07 years. Before and after the intervention program, the body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) was 38.15 ± 4.7 vs. 34.18 ± 4.5 (p < 0.02), and body weight (kg) was 98.5 ± 13.1 vs. 88.28 ± 12.2 (p < 0.03). All subjects underwent a pre- and post-intervention fMRI under fasting conditions. Functional connectivity was assessed using seed-based correlations. After the intervention, we found decreased connectivity between the left inferior parietal cortex and the right temporal cortex (p < 0.001), left posterior cingulate (p < 0.001), and right posterior cingulate (p < 0.03); decreased connectivity between the left superior frontal gyrus and the right temporal cortex (p < 0.01); decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the somatosensory cortex (p < 0.025); and decreased connectivity between the left and right posterior cingulate (p < 0.04). Results were considered significant at a voxel-wise threshold of p ≤ 0.05, and a cluster-level family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons of p ≤ 0.05. In conclusion, functional connectivity between brain structures involved in the pathophysiology of obesity (the inferior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate, temporo-insular cortex, prefrontal cortex) may be modified by a weight loss program including a Mediterranean diet and physical exercise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cholinergic, Glutamatergic and GABAergic Systems with Regard to Cognitive Impairment in Aβ-Induced Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 686; doi:10.3390/nu9070686
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been linked to the degeneration of central cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission, which correlates with progressive memory loss and the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ). It has been claimed that aged garlic extract (AGE) has a beneficial effect in preventing neurodegeneration
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been linked to the degeneration of central cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission, which correlates with progressive memory loss and the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ). It has been claimed that aged garlic extract (AGE) has a beneficial effect in preventing neurodegeneration in AD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of AGE on Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction with a biochemical basis in the cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally administered three doses of AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) daily for 65 days. At day 56, they were injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1–42) into each lateral ventricle, bilaterally. After six days of Aβ injection, the rats’ working and reference memory was tested using a radial arm maze. The rats were then euthanized to investigate any changes to the cholinergic neurons, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and 2 proteins (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in the hippocampus. The results showed that AGE significantly improved the working memory and tended to improve the reference memory in cognitively-impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly ameliorated the loss of cholinergic neurons and increased the VGLUT1 and GAD levels in the hippocampus of rat brains with Aβ-induced toxicity. In contrast, the VGLUT2 protein levels did not change in any of the treated groups. We concluded that AGE was able to attenuate the impairment of working memory via the modification of cholinergic neurons, VGLUT1, and GAD in the hippocampus of Aβ-induced rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Egg Consumption and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 687; doi:10.3390/nu9070687
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a cluster of metabolic alterations such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemias, elevated fasting glucose, and hypertension. Studies on the association between egg consumption and MetS are limited and inconsistent. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a cluster of metabolic alterations such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemias, elevated fasting glucose, and hypertension. Studies on the association between egg consumption and MetS are limited and inconsistent. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association of egg consumption with MetS among Korean adults aged 40–69 years. A total of 130,420 subjects (43,682 men and 86,738 women) from the Health Examinees Study were selected for the final analysis. Egg consumption was estimated using a validated 106-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the association of egg consumption with MetS via odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential variables. Among 130,420 subjects, 34,039 (26.1%) people had MetS. Consumption of more than 7 eggs/week was associated with a lower odds of MetS risk compared to those who consumed less than one egg/week in women (OR: 0.77, 95%CI: 0.70–0.84, p trend < 0.0001). Higher egg consumption was inversely associated with the MetS components: elevated waist circumference (OR: 0.80, 0.75–0.86), elevated triglyceride (OR: 0.78, 0.72–0.85), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR: 0.82, 0.77–0.88), elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.86, 0.80–0.92), and elevated fasting glucose (OR: 0.94, 0.83–0.99) in women; reduced HDL-C (OR: 0.89, 0.80–1.00) in men. Our results suggest that higher egg consumption may be associated with a reduction in the odds for MetS and all five metabolic components in women, and the risk of reduced HDL-C in men. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 688; doi:10.3390/nu9070688
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Although epidemiological studies have examined the role of chocolate in preventing cardiometabolic disease, the results remain inconsistent. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the association between chocolate intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes. A
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Although epidemiological studies have examined the role of chocolate in preventing cardiometabolic disease, the results remain inconsistent. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the association between chocolate intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes. A systematical search in PubMed and Embase through March 2017, together with reference scrutiny of relevant literatures, was performed to identify eligible studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effect models. Fourteen prospective studies of primary prevention with 508,705 participants were finally included, with follow-up durations ranging from 5 to 16 years. The summary RRs for the highest versus lowest chocolate consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97; n = 6) for CHD, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78–0.90; n = 7) for stroke, and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70–0.96; n = 5) for diabetes. Dose–response meta-analysis suggested a nonlinear association of chocolate consumption with all outcomes. For both CHD and stroke, there was little additional risk reduction when consuming chocolate ≥3 servings/week (one serving was defined as 30 g of chocolate). For diabetes, the peak protective effect of chocolate emerged at 2 servings/week (RR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63–0.89), with no benefit observed when increasing consumption above 6 servings/week. In conclusion, chocolate intake is associated with decreased risks of CHD, stroke, and diabetes. Consuming chocolate in moderation (≤6 servings/week) may be optimal for preventing these disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Obesity Effect of the Above-Ground Part of Valeriana dageletiana Nakai ex F. Maek Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6N Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 689; doi:10.3390/nu9070689
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Valeriana dageletiana Nakai ex F. Maek (VD) has been used as traditional medicine for the treatment of restlessness and sleeping disorders. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with VD. In this study, we first
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Valeriana dageletiana Nakai ex F. Maek (VD) has been used as traditional medicine for the treatment of restlessness and sleeping disorders. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with VD. In this study, we first investigated the influences of VD on the accumulation of lipid content in 3T3-L1 cells; and the results showed that the above-ground VD extracts (VDAE) suppressed the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Thus, the effects of VDAE on preventing obesity were then studied in the C57BL/6N mice for 10 weeks (n = 6): normal-fat diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 1% (10 g/kg) Garcinia combogia extract (positive control), and HFD supplemented with 1% (10 g/kg) VDAE. The results showed that VDAE reduced food efficiency ratio, body weight, epididymal adipose and hepatic tissue weight, hepatic lipid metabolites, and triacylglycerol and cholesterol serum levels compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, VD significantly inhibited the expression of adipogenic genes, such as PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and aP2, and lipogenic genes, such as SREBP-1c, FAS, SCD-1, and CD36, in epididymal adipose tissue and hepatic tissue. These findings indicate anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects of VDAE and suggest that it could be a potent functional food ingredient for the prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Consumption of Iron Exacerbates Hyperlipidemia, Atherosclerosis, and Female Sterility in Zebrafish via Acceleration of Glycation and Degradation of Serum Lipoproteins
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 690; doi:10.3390/nu9070690
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Elevated serum iron level is linked with an increased risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, the pathological mechanism by which iron affects serum lipoprotein levels is unknown. To elucidate the mechanism, a high dose of ferrous ion was applied (final 60 µM, 120
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Elevated serum iron level is linked with an increased risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, the pathological mechanism by which iron affects serum lipoprotein levels is unknown. To elucidate the mechanism, a high dose of ferrous ion was applied (final 60 µM, 120 µM) to human serum lipoproteins, macrophages, and human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. Iron-treated lipoproteins showed loss of antioxidant ability along with protein degradation and multimerization, especially co-treatment with fructose (final 10 mM). In the presence of fructose, HDF cells showed 3.5-fold more severe cellular senescence, as compared to the control, dependent on the dosage of fructose. In macrophages, phagocytosis of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) was more accelerated by ferrous ion, occurring at a rate that was up to 1.8-fold higher, than acLDL alone. After 24 weeks supplementation with 0.05% and 0.1% ferrous ion in the diet (wt/wt), serum total cholesterol (TC) level was elevated 3.7- and 2.1-fold, respectively, under normal diet (ND). Serum triglyceride (TG) was elevated 1.4- and 1.7-fold, respectively, under ND upon 0.05% and 0.1% ferrous ion supplementation. Serum glucose level was elevated 2.4- and 1.2-fold under ND and high cholesterol diet (HCD), respectively. However, body weight was decreased by the Fe2+ consumption. Iron consumption caused severe reduction of embryo laying and reproduction ability, especially in female zebrafish via impairment of follicular development. In conclusion, ferrous ion treatment caused more pro-atherogenic, and pro-senescence processes in human macrophages and dermal cells. High consumption of iron exacerbated hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia as well as induced fatty liver changes and sterility along with reduction of female fertility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin C Deficiency Reduces Muscarinic Receptor Coronary Artery Vasoconstriction and Plasma Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration in Guinea Pigs
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 691; doi:10.3390/nu9070691
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed
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Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10–12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), U46619, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were recorded. Plasma vitC and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured by HPLC. Plasma vitC status reflected the diets with deficient animals displaying reduced tetrahydrobiopterin. Vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were significantly decreased in vitC deficient coronary arteries independent of their general vasoconstrictor/vasodilator capacity (p < 0.001). Moreover, in vitC deficient animals, carbachol-induced vasodilator responses correlated with coronary artery diameter (p < 0.001). Inhibition of cyclooxygenases with indomethacin increased carbachol-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting an augmented carbachol-induced release of vasodilator prostanoids. Atropine abolished carbachol-induced vasomotion, supporting a specific muscarinic receptor effect. Arterial responses to SNP, potassium, S6c, U46619 and ET-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites and reduced muscarinic receptor expression/signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Carbohydrate and Glutamine Supplementation on Oral Mucosa Immunity after Strenuous Exercise at High Altitude: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 692; doi:10.3390/nu9070692
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
This study analyzed the effects of carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation on salivary immunity after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. Fifteen volunteers performed exercise of 70% of VO2peak until exhaustion and were divided into three groups: hypoxia placebo, hypoxia 8%
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This study analyzed the effects of carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation on salivary immunity after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. Fifteen volunteers performed exercise of 70% of VO2peak until exhaustion and were divided into three groups: hypoxia placebo, hypoxia 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min), and hypoxia after six days glutamine (20 g/day) and 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min). All procedures were randomized and double-blind. Saliva was collected at rest (basal), before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise (post-exercise), and two hours after exercise. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures and Tukey post hoc test were performed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. SaO2% reduced when comparing baseline vs. pre-exercise, post-exercise, and after recovery for all three groups. There was also a reduction of SaO2% in pre-exercise vs. post-exercise for the hypoxia group and an increase was observed in pre-exercise vs. recovery for both supplementation groups, and between post-exercise and for the three groups studied. There was an increase of salivary flow in post-exercise vs. recovery in Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) decreased from baseline vs. post-exercise for Hypoxia + Glutamine group. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) increased from post-exercise vs. after recovery in Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Reduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was observed from baseline vs. post-exercise and after recovery for the Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group; a lower concentration was observed in pre-exercise vs. post-exercise and recovery. TNF-α had a reduction from baseline vs. post-exercise for both supplementation groups, and a lower secretion between baseline vs. recovery, and pre-exercise vs. post-exercise for Hypoxia + Carbohydrate group. Five hours of hypoxia and exercise did not change IgA. Carbohydrates, with greater efficiency than glutamine, induced anti-inflammatory responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Inherited Hemoglobin Disorders and Relationships with Anemia and Micronutrient Status among Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 693; doi:10.3390/nu9070693
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Information on the etiology of anemia is necessary to design effective anemia control programs. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of inherited hemoglobin disorders (IHD) in a representative sample of children in urban Cameroon, and examine the relationships between IHD and anemia.
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Information on the etiology of anemia is necessary to design effective anemia control programs. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of inherited hemoglobin disorders (IHD) in a representative sample of children in urban Cameroon, and examine the relationships between IHD and anemia. In a cluster survey of children 12–59 months of age (n = 291) in Yaoundé and Douala, we assessed hemoglobin (Hb), malaria infection, and plasma indicators of inflammation and micronutrient status. Hb S was detected by HPLC, and α+thalassemia (3.7 kb deletions) by PCR. Anemia (Hb < 110 g/L), inflammation, and malaria were present in 45%, 46%, and 8% of children. A total of 13.7% of children had HbAS, 1.6% had HbSS, and 30.6% and 3.1% had heterozygous and homozygous α+thalassemia. The prevalence of anemia was greater among HbAS compared to HbAA children (60.3 vs. 42.0%, p = 0.038), although mean Hb concentrations did not differ, p = 0.38). Hb and anemia prevalence did not differ among children with or without single gene deletion α+thalassemia. In multi-variable models, anemia was independently predicted by HbAS, HbSS, malaria, iron deficiency (ID; inflammation-adjusted ferritin <12 µg/L), higher C-reactive protein, lower plasma folate, and younger age. Elevated soluble transferrin receptor concentration (>8.3 mg/L) was associated with younger age, malaria, greater mean reticulocyte counts, inflammation, HbSS genotype, and ID. IHD are prevalent but contribute modestly to anemia among children in urban Cameroon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biscuits with No Added Sugar Containing Stevia, Coffee Fibre and Fructooligosaccharides Modifies α-Glucosidase Activity and the Release of GLP-1 from HuTu-80 Cells and Serotonin from Caco-2 Cells after In Vitro Digestion
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 694; doi:10.3390/nu9070694
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
This study assessed the in vitro effects of the bioaccessible food components released during the simulated human digestion of a coffee fibre-containing biscuit (CFB) on α-glucosidase activity, antioxidant capacity and satiety hormones. Digest of CFB presented a significantly (p < 0.05) lower
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This study assessed the in vitro effects of the bioaccessible food components released during the simulated human digestion of a coffee fibre-containing biscuit (CFB) on α-glucosidase activity, antioxidant capacity and satiety hormones. Digest of CFB presented a significantly (p < 0.05) lower amount of sugar (68.6 mg/g) and a higher antioxidant capacity (15.1 mg chlorogenic acid eq./g) than that of a sucrose-containing biscuit (SCB). The CFB significantly reduced (p < 0.05) α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL) compared to the SCB (IC50 = 6.2 mg/mL). Serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release by differentiated Caco-2 and HuTu-80 cells, respectively, was stimulated by the CFB (355% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL and 278% at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL) to the same order of magnitude as those of the SCB. To summarize, the CFB was demonstrated to reduce monosaccharide bioaccessibility, to inhibit a diabetes-related digestive enzyme, and to improve the release of satiety hormones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between Handgrip Strength and Muscle Mass in Female Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Mediation Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 695; doi:10.3390/nu9070695
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
This study explored the mediating factors of sarcopenia in a group of women survivors of breast cancer in Bogotá, Colombia. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with 98 women survivors of breast cancer, who were registered with the SIMMON (Integrated Synergies to Improve
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This study explored the mediating factors of sarcopenia in a group of women survivors of breast cancer in Bogotá, Colombia. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with 98 women survivors of breast cancer, who were registered with the SIMMON (Integrated Synergies to Improve Oncological Management in Colombia) Foundation. Body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Body composition (percentage of fat and muscle mass) was evaluated via four-pole bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass plus low grip strength or low gait speed (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria). A “causal” mediation analysis with the Baron & Kenny procedure (PROCESS® macro, Columbus, OH, USA) was used to explore variables related to sarcopenia. Analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS 21 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The significance level of the results obtained in the hypothesis contrast was p < 0.05. The mean age of the sample was 65.5 ± 5.9 years, with a BMI of 27.8 ± 4.7 kg/m2. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 22.4%. Linear regression models suggest a partial mediation of anthropometric parameters (body mass, body mass index and waist circumference) in the association between handgrip strength and muscle mass. In conclusion, one in every five women survivors of breast cancer had sarcopenia. The findings seem to emphasize the importance of obesity prevention in women survivors of breast cancer, suggesting that high handgrip strength may not relate closely to greater muscle mass and therefore would not exclude the risk of sarcopenia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 696; doi:10.3390/nu9070696
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the
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Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reported Dietary Intake and Food Sources of Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamins A, E and C in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 697; doi:10.3390/nu9070697
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Zinc, selenium, and the vitamins A, E and C, all have specific biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant defence system, which has important implications for the development of chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the reported intake of those six
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Zinc, selenium, and the vitamins A, E and C, all have specific biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant defence system, which has important implications for the development of chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the reported intake of those six nutrients, as well as the food that contributes to their sources of intakes. Data were obtained from the Spanish ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, n = 2009 (9–75 years old). The analyses were performed in the whole population and in the plausible energy reporters after a misreporting analysis according to the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) protocol. A validated, photo-based three-day food record was used to collect the data. Mean (max−min) reported intake for the whole population of zinc was 8.1 ± 0.1 mg/day, (2.3–27.3 mg/day), selenium 75 ± 1 µg/day, (14–265 µg/day), vitamin A 668 µg RE/day (2–11,017 µg RE/day), retinol 364 ± 18 µg/day (0–10,881 µg/day), carotenes 1735 ± 35 µg/day (13–13,962 µg/day), vitamin E 7.0 ± 0.1 mg α-TE/day (0.7–55.2 mg α-TE/day) and vitamin C 84.4 ± 1.4 mg/day (5.0–802.7 mg/day). The main source intakes for zinc were meat and meat products, for selenium cereals and grains, for vitamin E oils and fat, and for vitamin A and C vegetables. There is an elevated percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the EFSA recommended intakes for all analysed micronutrients: zinc (83%), vitamin A (60%), vitamin E (80%), vitamin C (36%) and selenium (25%). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Taste, Salt Consumption, and Local Explanations around Hypertension in a Rural Population in Northern Peru
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 698; doi:10.3390/nu9070698
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Interventions to promote behaviors to reduce sodium intake require messages tailored to local understandings of the relationship between what we eat and our health. We studied local explanations about hypertension, the relationship between local diet, salt intake, and health status, and participants’ opinions
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Interventions to promote behaviors to reduce sodium intake require messages tailored to local understandings of the relationship between what we eat and our health. We studied local explanations about hypertension, the relationship between local diet, salt intake, and health status, and participants’ opinions about changing food habits. This study provided inputs for a social marketing campaign in Peru promoting the use of a salt substitute containing less sodium than regular salt. Qualitative methods (focus groups and in-depth interviews) were utilized with local populations, people with hypertension, and health personnel in six rural villages. Participants were 18–65 years old, 41% men. Participants established a direct relationship between emotions and hypertension, regardless of age, gender, and hypertension status. Those without hypertension established a connection between eating too much/eating fried food and health status but not between salt consumption and hypertension. Participants rejected dietary changes. Economic barriers and high appreciation of local culinary traditions were the main reasons for this. It is the conclusion of this paper that introducing and promoting salt substitutes require creative strategies that need to acknowledge local explanatory disease models such as the strong association between emotional wellbeing and hypertension, give a positive spin to changing food habits, and resist the “common sense” strategy of information provision around the causal connection between salt consumption and hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Reduction of Asthmatic Parameters by Sea Hare Hydrolysates in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 699; doi:10.3390/nu9070699
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Sea hare has a variety of biological activities. However, little is known regarding the anti-asthmatic effects of sea hare. This study was performed to identify the effect of sea hare hydrolysates (SHH) on an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model. The experimental asthma model
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Sea hare has a variety of biological activities. However, little is known regarding the anti-asthmatic effects of sea hare. This study was performed to identify the effect of sea hare hydrolysates (SHH) on an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model. The experimental asthma model was sensitized and challenged with OVA. We found that a high-dose of SHH (HSHH) significantly inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation and mucus production around the airway in lung sections, while low- and medium-dose SHH showed an insignificant effect. In addition, HSHH highly reduced OVA-induced production of interleukin-4, -5, -13, leukotriene D4, E4, and histamine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. HSHH decreased the histamine-induced increase in the intracellular Ca2+ level and contractions in asthmatic smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, HSHH did not affect the weights of the spleen nor thymus, whereas dexamethasone (DEX), a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, reduced them. Taken together, these results showed that HSHH reduced asthmatic parameters in a mouse model of allergic asthma, and suggest that SHH could be used as a potential therapeutic agent for asthma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Incorporating Added Sugar Improves the Performance of the Health Star Rating Front-of-Pack Labelling System in Australia
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 701; doi:10.3390/nu9070701
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: The Health Star Rating (HSR) is an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system that rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged foods. The algorithm underpinning the HSR includes total sugar content as one of the components. This has been criticised because intrinsic sugars naturally
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Background: The Health Star Rating (HSR) is an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system that rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged foods. The algorithm underpinning the HSR includes total sugar content as one of the components. This has been criticised because intrinsic sugars naturally present in dairy, fruits, and vegetables are treated the same as sugars added during food processing. We assessed whether the HSR could better discriminate between core and discretionary foods by including added sugar in the underlying algorithm. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 34,135 packaged foods available in The George Institute’s Australian FoodSwitch database. Added sugar levels were imputed from food composition databases. Products were classified as ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’ based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The ability of each of the nutrients included in the HSR algorithm, as well as added sugar, to discriminate between core and discretionary foods was estimated using the area under the curve (AUC). Results: 15,965 core and 18,350 discretionary foods were included. Of these, 8230 (52%) core foods and 15,947 (87%) discretionary foods contained added sugar. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0, 4.5) for core foods and 2.0 (1.0, 3.0) for discretionary foods. Median added sugar contents (g/100 g) were 3.3 (1.5, 5.5) for core foods and 14.6 (1.8, 37.2) for discretionary foods. Of all the nutrients used in the current HSR algorithm, total sugar had the greatest individual capacity to discriminate between core and discretionary foods; AUC 0.692 (0.686; 0.697). Added sugar alone achieved an AUC of 0.777 (0.772; 0.782). A model with all nutrients in the current HSR algorithm had an AUC of 0.817 (0.812; 0.821), which increased to 0.871 (0.867; 0.874) with inclusion of added sugar. Conclusion: The HSR nutrients discriminate well between core and discretionary packaged foods. However, discrimination was improved when added sugar was also included. These data argue for inclusion of added sugar in an updated HSR algorithm and declaration of added sugar as part of mandatory nutrient declarations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Sugar and Impact on Overweight)
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Open AccessArticle Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 702; doi:10.3390/nu9070702
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium
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In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition. In a six-weeks nutritional experiment on growing a significant (p < 0.05) luminal acidification, decrease in ammonia concentration and stimulation of short chain fatty acids formation indicated inulin-mediated beneficial effects on the caecal microbiota. However, the effect of inulin on characteristics of intestinal microbiota and mineral utilization depended on the dietary Ca intake from GFDs. Inulin stimulated bifidobacteria, in particular B. animalis species, only if a recommended amount of Ca was provided. Most benefits to mineral utilization from inulin consumption were seen in rats fed Ca-restricted GFD where it increased the relative Ca absorption. Administration of inulin to a GFDs could be a promising dietary strategy for beneficial modulation of intestinal ecosystem and by that for the improvement the Ca absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Western and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity and Fitness among Spanish Older Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 704; doi:10.3390/nu9070704
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample (n = 380; 54% female) aged 55–80 years (men) and 60–80 years (women) with
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Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample (n = 380; 54% female) aged 55–80 years (men) and 60–80 years (women) with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Body weight, body fat and waist circumference were assessed. Physical activity performed was measured using the Minnesota Leisure-time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA). Physical fitness was assessed using a validated physical fitness test battery. Food consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: “Western” (WDP) and “Mediterranean” (MDP) dietary patterns. Results: Participants in MDP’s fourth quartile were classified in the second (men) and third (men and women) tertile of LTPA. After adjusting for age, body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and METs, in both sexes, a negative significant association was found between 30-s Chair stand and 6-min walking test, a positive significant association was found between 30-m Gait speed and 8-foot Time Up-and-Go (except in men) tests with WDP. The 30-m Gait speed test was negatively associated with MDP in men. Conclusions: MDP is associated with more time spent on LTPA, and this association was independent of body composition and a fast gait speed in men. WDP is associated with slower gait speed and lower body strength, agility and aerobic endurance. MDP has protective effect on healthy physical fitness, and WDP may be a contributor to frailty. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adherence to a Gluten Free Diet Is Associated with Receiving Gluten Free Foods on Prescription and Understanding Food Labelling
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 705; doi:10.3390/nu9070705
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Treatment of coeliac disease requires a strict gluten-free (GF) diet, however, a high proportion of patients do not adhere to a GF diet. The study explores the practical challenges of a GF diet and dietary adherence in Caucasian and South Asian adults with
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Treatment of coeliac disease requires a strict gluten-free (GF) diet, however, a high proportion of patients do not adhere to a GF diet. The study explores the practical challenges of a GF diet and dietary adherence in Caucasian and South Asian adults with coeliac disease. Patients with biopsy- and serology-proven coeliac disease were recruited from a hospital database. Participants completed a postal survey (n = 375), including a validated questionnaire designed to measure GF dietary adherence. Half of Caucasians (53%) and South Asians (53%) were adhering to a GF diet. The quarter of patients (n = 97) not receiving GF foods on prescription had a lower GF dietary adherence score compared with those receiving GF foods on prescription (12.5 versus 16.0; p < 0.001). Not understanding food labelling and non-membership of Coeliac UK were also associated with lower GF dietary adherence scores. A higher proportion of South Asian patients, compared with Caucasians, reported difficulties understanding what they can eat (76% versus 5%; p < 0.001) and understanding of food labels (53% versus 4%; p < 0.001). We recommend retaining GF foods on prescription, membership of a coeliac society, and regular consultations with a dietitian to enable better understanding of food labels. Robust studies are urgently needed to evaluate the impact of reducing the amount of GF foods prescribed on adherence to a GF diet in all population groups. Full article
Open AccessArticle Secretory Leukoprotease Inhibitor (Slpi) Expression Is Required for Educating Murine Dendritic Cells Inflammatory Response Following Quercetin Exposure
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 706; doi:10.3390/nu9070706
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Dendritic cells’ (DCs) ability to present antigens and initiate the adaptive immune response confers them a pivotal role in immunological defense against hostile infection and, at the same time, immunological tolerance towards harmless components of the microbiota. Food products can modulate the inflammatory
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Dendritic cells’ (DCs) ability to present antigens and initiate the adaptive immune response confers them a pivotal role in immunological defense against hostile infection and, at the same time, immunological tolerance towards harmless components of the microbiota. Food products can modulate the inflammatory status of intestinal DCs. Among nutritionally-derived products, we investigated the ability of quercetin to suppress inflammatory cytokines secretion, antigen presentation, and DCs migration towards the draining lymph nodes. We recently identified the Slpi expression as a crucial checkpoint required for the quercetin-induced inflammatory suppression. Here we demonstrate that Slpi-KO DCs secrete a unique panel of cytokines and chemokines following quercetin exposure. In vivo, quercetin-enriched food is able to induce Slpi expression in the ileum, while little effects are detectable in the duodenum. Furthermore, Slpi expressing cells are more frequent at the tip compared to the base of the intestinal villi, suggesting that quercetin exposure could be more efficient for DCs projecting periscopes in the intestinal lumen. These data suggest that quercetin-enriched nutritional regimes may be efficient for suppressing inflammatory syndromes affecting the ileo-colonic tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Test-Retest Reliability and Convergent Validity of Two Brief Fruit and Vegetable Intake Questionnaires among School-Aged Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 707; doi:10.3390/nu9070707
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Reliable, valid, and easy-to-implement tools are required to assess children’s fruit and vegetable intake as part of behavior change-focused nutrition education programs; however, the availability of such instruments is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the reproducibility and accuracy of
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Reliable, valid, and easy-to-implement tools are required to assess children’s fruit and vegetable intake as part of behavior change-focused nutrition education programs; however, the availability of such instruments is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the reproducibility and accuracy of two brief fruit and vegetable intake questionnaires among 8- to 12-year-old children. A total of 109 participants from diverse racial/ethnic groups were recruited from urban afterschool programs. The results of two short questionnaires (food web and plate activity) were reproducible between two repeated measures conducted one week apart. Compared to a reference 24-h dietary recall, the food web questionnaire had acceptable convergent validity for assessing children’s fruit intake (kappa: 0.51; r = 0.53, p < 0.001), but limited validity for assessing children’s vegetable intake (kappa: 0.43; r = 0.33, p < 0.003). Children tended to overestimate intake when visualizing fruit and vegetable consumption via the plate activity questionnaire, indicating that this questionnaire was not a valid tool to assess children’s fruit and vegetable consumption at dinner meals. Children’s report of fruit intake via the food web questionnaire may be a useful indicator of program success in improving fruit intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Chlorella vulgaris Ameliorates Altered Immunomodulatory Functions in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppressive Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 708; doi:10.3390/nu9070708
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Based on the well-known toxicity of cyclophosphamide (CYP) on the immune system, this research investigated the modulating effects of the long-term dietary Chlorella vulgaris (CV) supplementation on the immunosuppression induced by CYP in mice, in order to provide a novel dietary design to
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Based on the well-known toxicity of cyclophosphamide (CYP) on the immune system, this research investigated the modulating effects of the long-term dietary Chlorella vulgaris (CV) supplementation on the immunosuppression induced by CYP in mice, in order to provide a novel dietary design to mitigate the side effects of CYP therapy. Control, CYP-treated, CYP + CV (6%), CYP + CV (12%) and CYP + CV (24%) were used for 6 weeks, CV supplement in diet recovered the significantly reduced immunological function in CYP treated mice. As CV may have a modulating function through the inducible expression of cytokines, we assayed the expressions of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Our results suggested that CYP significantly reduced the lymphocytes proliferation and phagocytic activities of macrophages, and stimulated the production of IL-2, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ and that this impairment has been successfully adjusted by CV supplementation. Treatment with the algae also enhanced the natural killer (NK) cells cytotoxicity, and ameliorate histological changes of the spleen in CYP-treated mice. Therefore, as we found in this study, a diet supplemented with whole CV has beneficial effects on CVP-induced immunosuppression, through its immunomodulatory potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Assessment of Pharmacological and Nutritional Cardiovascular Risk Management: Blood Pressure Control in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente (DIALECT)
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 709; doi:10.3390/nu9070709
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Cardiovascular risk management is an integral part of treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and requires pharmacological as well as nutritional management. We hypothesize that a systematic assessment of both pharmacological and nutritional management can identify targets for the improvement of treatment
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Cardiovascular risk management is an integral part of treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and requires pharmacological as well as nutritional management. We hypothesize that a systematic assessment of both pharmacological and nutritional management can identify targets for the improvement of treatment quality. Therefore, we analysed blood pressure (BP) management in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente (DIALECT). DIALECT is an observational cohort from routine diabetes care, performed at the ZGT Hospital (Almelo and Hengelo, The Netherlands). BP was measured for 15 minutes with one minute intervals. Sodium and potassium intake was derived from 24-hour urinary excretion. We determined the adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological guidelines in patients with BP on target (BP-OT) and BP not on target (BP-NOT). In total, 450 patients were included from August 2009 until January 2016. The mean age was 63 ± 9 years, and the majority was male (58%). In total, 53% had BP-OT. In those with BP-NOT, pharmacological management was suboptimal (zero to two antihypertensive drugs) in 62% of patients, and nutritional guideline adherence was suboptimal in 100% of patients (only 8% had a sodium intake on target, 66% had a potassium intake on target, 3% had a sodium-to-potassium ratio on target, and body mass index was <30 kg/m2 in 35%). These data show pharmacological undertreatment and a low adherence to nutritional guidelines. Uncontrolled BP is common in T2DM, and our data show a window of opportunity for improving BP control, especially in nutritional management. To improve treatment quality, we advocate to incorporate the integrated monitoring of nutritional management in quality improvement cycles in routine care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 712; doi:10.3390/nu9070712
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women), aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They
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This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women), aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1) control conditions (only water); (2) low GI (LGI) breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy); and (3) high GI (HGI) breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy). Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx) was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR) and pulse pressures (PPs). We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05) except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05). In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Feeding a Mixture of Choline Forms during Lactation Improves Offspring Growth and Maternal Lymphocyte Response to Ex Vivo Immune Challenges
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 713; doi:10.3390/nu9070713
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Study objectives were to examine the impact of feeding a mixture of choline forms, or a diet high in glycerophosphocholine (GPC) on maternal immune function and offspring growth during lactation. Lactating Sprague-Dawley rat dams (n = 6/diet) were randomized to one of
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Study objectives were to examine the impact of feeding a mixture of choline forms, or a diet high in glycerophosphocholine (GPC) on maternal immune function and offspring growth during lactation. Lactating Sprague-Dawley rat dams (n = 6/diet) were randomized to one of three diets, providing 1 g/kg total choline: Control (100% free choline (FC)), Mixed Choline (MC; 50% phosphatidylcholine (PC), 25% FC, 25% GPC), or High GPC (HGPC; 75% GPC, 12.5% PC, 12.5% FC). At 3 weeks, cell phenotypes and cytokine production with Concanavalin A (ConA)-or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocytes and mesenteric lymphocytes were measured. Feeding MC or HGPC diets improved pups’ growth compared to Control (+22% body weight, p < 0.05). In spleen, MC-and HGPC-fed dams had higher proportions of cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells expressing CD27, CD71 and CD127, total B cells (CD45RA+) and dendritic cells (OX6+OX62+), and produced less IL-6 and IFN-γ after ConA than Control-fed dams (p < 0.05). MC and HGPC LPS-stimulated splenocytes produced less IL-1β and IL-6 than Control. ConA-stimulated mesenteric lymphocytes from MC and HGPC dams produced more IL-2 and IFN-γ than Control (p < 0.05). In summary, feeding a mixture of choline forms during lactation improved offspring growth and resulted in a more efficient maternal immune response following mitogenic immune challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle Butyrate Reduces HFD-Induced Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Metabolic Risk Factors in Obese LDLr-/-.Leiden Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 714; doi:10.3390/nu9070714
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Adipose tissue (AT) has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver
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Adipose tissue (AT) has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver function, and to increase the risk of T2DM. In this study, we examined the impact of intervention with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate following a high-fat diet (HFD) on AT function and other metabolic risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM in mice during mid- and late life. In both mid- and late adulthood, butyrate reduced HFD-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and elevations in leptin levels, which were associated with body weight, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels. HFD feeding stimulated macrophage accumulation primarily in epididymal AT in both mid- and late life adult mice, which correlated with liver inflammation in late adulthood. In late-adult mice, butyrate diminished increased insulin levels, which were related to adipocyte size and macrophage content in epididymal AT. These results suggest that dietary butyrate supplementation is able to counteract HFD-induced detrimental changes in AT function and metabolic outcomes in late life. These changes underlie the obesity-induced elevated risk of T2DM, and therefore it is suggested that butyrate has potential to attenuate risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle The Gene-Lifestyle Interaction on Leptin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Adults: A Population Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 716; doi:10.3390/nu9070716
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance and this might be caused by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene-lifestyle interaction between −866G/A UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) gene polymorphism, dietary intake and leptin in a population based
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Background: Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance and this might be caused by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene-lifestyle interaction between −866G/A UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) gene polymorphism, dietary intake and leptin in a population based study. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in adults living at urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data of adiposity, lifestyle, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, leptin and UCP2 gene polymorphism were obtained in 380 men and female adults. Results: UCP2 gene polymorphism was not significantly associated with adiposity, leptin, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, dietary intake and physical activity (all p > 0.05). Leptin was lower in overweight subjects with AA + GA genotypes than those with GG genotype counterparts (p = 0.029). In subjects with AA + GA genotypes there was a negative correlation between leptin concentration (r = −0.324; p < 0.0001) and total energy intake and this correlation was not seen in GG genotype (r = −0.111; p = 0.188). Conclusions: In summary, we showed how genetic variation in −866G/A UCP2 affected individual response to leptin production. AA + GA genotype had a better leptin sensitivity shown by its response in dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and this explained the protective effect of A allele to obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Acute Supplementation with High Dose Vitamin D3 Increases Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Young Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 719; doi:10.3390/nu9070719
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a paracrine regulator of ovarian follicles. Vitamin D (Vit D) regulates AMH production in vitro, but its role as a regulator of ovarian AMH production is contentious. If Vit D influences ovarian AMH production, then an acute rise in
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Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a paracrine regulator of ovarian follicles. Vitamin D (Vit D) regulates AMH production in vitro, but its role as a regulator of ovarian AMH production is contentious. If Vit D influences ovarian AMH production, then an acute rise in Vit D level should lead to an acute rise in circulating AMH levels. This hypothesis was tested with a randomized double-blind design, with 18–25-year-old women recruited from the community. The study was conducted in early spring, when the marker of Vit D level (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) tends to be at its nadir. The women consumed either an oral dose of 50,000 IU of Vit D3 (n = 27) or placebo (n = 22). The initial 25(OH)D ± SD value was 53.6 ± 23.3 nmol/L, with 42 of the 49 women having a value below 75 nmol/L, consistent with seasonal nadir. All women receiving Vit D3 treatment exhibited a robust increase in serum 25(OH)D within 1 day (15.8 ± 1.1 nmol/L (n = 27), p < 0.0001), with the increase sustained over the study week. Circulating levels of AMH in the women receiving Vit D3 progressively rose during the following week, with a mean increase of 12.9 ± 3.7% (n = 24, p = 0.001). The study supports the hypothesis that Vit D’s positive effects on the fertility of woman may involve the regulation of ovarian AMH levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic and Blood Pressure Effects of Walnut Supplementation in a Mouse Model of the Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 722; doi:10.3390/nu9070722
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
There is extensive evidence that walnut consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the healthy population, but the beneficial effects of walnut consumption in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain uncertain. We compared a range of cardio-metabolic traits and related
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There is extensive evidence that walnut consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the healthy population, but the beneficial effects of walnut consumption in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain uncertain. We compared a range of cardio-metabolic traits and related tissue gene expression associated with 21 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation in a mouse model of MetS (MetS-Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 10 per genotype per diet, equal males and females). Compared to standard diet, walnuts did not significantly alter food consumption or body weight trajectory of either MetS-Tg or WT mice. In MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were associated with reductions in oral glucose area under the curve (gAUC, standard diet 1455 ± 54, walnut 1146 ± 91, p = 0.006) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, standard diet 100.6 ± 1.9, walnut 73.2 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001), with neutral effects on gAUC and MAP in WT mice. However, in MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were also associated with trends for higher plasma cholesterol (standard diet 4.73 ± 0.18, walnut 7.03 ± 1.99 mmol/L, p = 0.140) and triglyceride levels (standard diet 2.4 ± 0.5, walnut 5.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, p = 0.061), despite lowering cholesterol and having no effect on triglycerides in WT mice. Moreover, in both MetS-Tg and WT mice, walnuts were associated with significantly increased liver expression of genes associated with metabolism (Fabp1, Insr), cell stress (Atf6, Ddit3, Eif2ak3), fibrosis (Hgf, Sp1, Timp1) and inflammation (Tnf, Ptpn22, Pparg). In conclusion, dietary walnuts were associated with modest favourable effects in WT mice, but a combination of beneficial and adverse effects in MetS-Tg mice, and up-regulation of hepatic pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes in both mouse strains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Dietary Intakes of 7-Year-Old Children Enrolled in Observational Birth Cohort Studies on the Isle of Man and in South-West England
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 724; doi:10.3390/nu9070724
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
There is concern regarding the amount of fruit and vegetables consumed and high sugar intakes in children’s diets. Regional dietary differences in the British Isles could underlie variations in health outcomes, but little is known about these differences. Our aim was to compare
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There is concern regarding the amount of fruit and vegetables consumed and high sugar intakes in children’s diets. Regional dietary differences in the British Isles could underlie variations in health outcomes, but little is known about these differences. Our aim was to compare diets of children enrolled in observational birth cohort studies in the Isle of Man (IoM-ELSPAC) and in south-west England (ALSPAC). Dietary intakes were assessed by 3-day food records in IoM and ALSPAC at an age of 7 years. Comparisons of mean daily nutrient, and food and food group intakes were made between the studies and with UK national dietary guidelines. Diets in both regions were adequate for most nutrients except dietary fibre, but in both groups intake of free sugars was three times higher than the UK recommended maximum. There were differences between the two regions, particularly higher energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes in IoM. IoM children consumed greater amounts of red meat, bread, full-fat milk, and sugar-sweetened drinks. IoM children had higher intakes of energy and some nutrients and food groups than ALSPAC children, and similar low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Children’s diets in both regions could be improved, particularly considering the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the UK recommendation to lower the intake of free sugars. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Plasma Homocysteine and Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 725; doi:10.3390/nu9070725
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Vitamin B12 and folate are cofactors necessary for the methylation of Hcy. However, there is some debate regarding the differing levels of plasma Hcy and serum folate and vitamin
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Homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Vitamin B12 and folate are cofactors necessary for the methylation of Hcy. However, there is some debate regarding the differing levels of plasma Hcy and serum folate and vitamin B12 among healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed to evaluate how the levels of plasma Hcy and its biological determinants, folate and vitamin B12, are related to MCI and AD in older Chinese adults. This is a case-control study including 112 subjects with MCI, 89 AD patients and 115 healthy controls. Diagnosis of AD was made according to the NINCDS-ADRDA and MCI with modified Petersen’s criteria. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, and plasma Hcy was assessed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Multivariate analysis of regression was used to examine the odds ratio (OR) of MCI or AD with Hcy or vitamin levels. Results have shown that serum folate and vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower, but the plasma Hcy level was higher, in patients with MCI and AD than in healthy controls. Multivariate regression analyses showed that subjects in the lowest folate tertile had significantly higher adjusted ORs for MCI (OR: 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12, 8.07) and AD (3.42; 95% CI: 1.15, 8.34) compared to subjects in the highest tertile. The highest Hcy tertile was significantly associated with MCI (adjusted OR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.73) and AD (adjusted OR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.13, 9.04) compared to the lowest tertile. No association existed between low vitamin B12 levels and AD or MCI (p > 0.05). Low blood levels of folate and vitamin B12 and elevated Hcy levels were associated with MCI and AD in older Chinese adults, and the association was stronger for AD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adults and Children in Low-Income Households that Participate in Cost-Offset Community Supported Agriculture Have High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 726; doi:10.3390/nu9070726
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season.
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This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2–12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 (n = 41) and February 2016 (n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables. FVI relative to United States (US) recommendations and averages, and across seasons, were tested with non-parametric tests and paired t-tests (p < 0.05). Both adults and children in the CO-CSA had higher FVI than the US averages, and more often met recommendations for vegetables. Some summer fruits and vegetables were more often eaten when locally in-season. The CO-CSA model warrants further examination as an avenue for improving vegetable consumption among adults and children in low-income households. However, causality between CO-CSA participation and FVI cannot be inferred, as CO-CSA participants may be positive deviants with respect to FVI. A multi-state randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate impacts of CO-CSAs on FVI and related outcomes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Soy Isoflavones on Growth of Representative Bacterial Species from the Human Gut
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 727; doi:10.3390/nu9070727
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
The present work aimed to assess the susceptibility of dominant and representative bacterial populations from the human gut to isoflavones and their metabolites. To do so, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isoflavone glycosides, isoflavone aglycones, and equol to 37 bacterial strains was
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The present work aimed to assess the susceptibility of dominant and representative bacterial populations from the human gut to isoflavones and their metabolites. To do so, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isoflavone glycosides, isoflavone aglycones, and equol to 37 bacterial strains was determined by broth microdilution. Additionally, for 10 representative strains, growth curves, growth rate (μ), and optical density (OD600 nm) of the cultures at 24 h were also determined. MICs of daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein were >2048 μg mL−1 for all strains assayed, while that of equol ranged from 16 μg mL−1 for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis to >2048 μg mL−1 for Enterobacteriaceae strains. Changes in growth curves, μ, and final OD were observed among the species in the presence of all tested compounds. Genistein reduced μ of Bacteroides fragilis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Slackia equolifaciens, while both genistein and equol increased that of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Compared to controls, lower final OD in the presence of aglycones and equol were recorded for some strains but were higher for others. Altogether, the results suggest that isoflavone-derived compounds could modify numbers of key bacterial species in the gut, which might be associated with their beneficial properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 729; doi:10.3390/nu9070729
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
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Abstract
It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant
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It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 43) with lower and group 2 (n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma—FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl—DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 (p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citric Acid-Treated Wheat Germ Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 730; doi:10.3390/nu9070730
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
Until recently, fermentation was the only processing used to improve the functionality of wheat germ. The release of 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) from hydroquinone glycosides during the fermentation process is considered a marker of quality control. Here, we treated wheat germ extract with citric acid
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Until recently, fermentation was the only processing used to improve the functionality of wheat germ. The release of 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) from hydroquinone glycosides during the fermentation process is considered a marker of quality control. Here, we treated wheat germ extract with citric acid (CWG) to release DMBQ and examined the anti-inflammatory activity of this extract using a lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage model. Treatment of wheat germ with citric acid resulted in detectable release of DMBQ but reduced total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared with untreated wheat germ extract (UWG). CWG inhibited secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 and the synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2, while UWG only decreased IL-12 production. CWG and UWG induced high levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and heme oxygenase-1. CWG specifically inhibited phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 kinase at 15 min after LPS stimulation. Our study showed that citric acid treatment enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of wheat germ extract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Maternal Dietary Patterns on Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain in Urban Black South African Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 732; doi:10.3390/nu9070732
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African
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Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African women and explores their associations with first trimester BMI and GWG. Habitual dietary intake of 538 pregnant women was assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were depicted via principle component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI-specific GWG were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Traditional and Mixed. Western and Mixed diet patterns were associated with 35 g/week (p = 0.021) and 24 g/week (p = 0.041) higher GWG in normal weight and obese women respectively. Additionally, high intakes of a Traditional diet pattern were associated with a reduced odds of excessive weight gain in the total sample (OR: 0.81; p = 0.006) and in normal weight women (OR: 0.68; p = 0.003). Increased intake of a traditional diet pattern—high in whole grains, legumes, vegetables and traditional meats—and decreased intake of refined, high sugar and fat driven diets may reduce GWG (including risk of excessive weight gain) in urban South African women. Full article
Open AccessArticle Importance of Dietary Sources of Iron in Infants and Toddlers: Lessons from the FITS Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 733; doi:10.3390/nu9070733
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Iron deficiency (ID) affects 13.5% of 1–2 years old children in the US and may have a negative impact on neurodevelopment and behavior. Iron-fortified infant cereal is the primary non-heme iron source among infants aged 6–11.9 months. The objective of this study was
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Iron deficiency (ID) affects 13.5% of 1–2 years old children in the US and may have a negative impact on neurodevelopment and behavior. Iron-fortified infant cereal is the primary non-heme iron source among infants aged 6–11.9 months. The objective of this study was to compare iron intakes of infant cereal users with non-users. Data from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2008 were used for this analysis. Based on a 24-h recall, children between the ages of 4–17.9 months were classified as ‘cereal users’ if they consumed any amount or type of infant cereal and ‘non-users’ if they did not. Infant cereal was the top source of dietary iron among infants aged 6–11.9 months. The majority of infants (74.6%) aged 6–8.9 months consumed infant cereal, but this declined to 51.5% between 9–11.9 months and 14.8% among 12–17.9 months old toddlers. Infant cereal users consumed significantly more iron than non-users across all age groups. Infants and toddlers who consume infant cereal have higher iron intakes compared to non-users. Given the high prevalence of ID, the appropriate use of infant cereals in a balanced diet should be encouraged to reduce the incidence of ID and ID anemia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Trends of Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern in Northern Italy from 2010 to 2016
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 734; doi:10.3390/nu9070734
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Little information is available on the trends of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP). This study investigates food consumption trends from 2010 to 2016 in subjects living in Northern Italy. A cross-sectional study of 8584 subjects enrolled between January 2010 and December
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Little information is available on the trends of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP). This study investigates food consumption trends from 2010 to 2016 in subjects living in Northern Italy. A cross-sectional study of 8584 subjects enrolled between January 2010 and December 2016 was conducted. Socio-demographic, nutrition and lifestyle characteristics were collected. A 14-item questionnaire was used to evaluate adherence to MDP. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to evaluate the trends of and the determinants for the adherence to MDP. The overall prevalence of adherence to MDP was 14% and the trend remained constant over the six years. However, there was a marked increase in nuts consumption and a slight one in white meat consumption. Furthermore, we observed a decrease in the consumption of fruit, red meat, sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages and in the use of soffritto. Finally, higher education, being older, married, physically active, and ex-smoker was associated with greater adherence to MDP, whereas the prevalence of adherence was lower in the obese. In conclusion, the consumption of some Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean food groups changed over the six years. However, overall, the prevalence of adherence to MDP did not change. Additional strategies promoting healthy dietary habits are needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 735; doi:10.3390/nu9070735
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance
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No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036) but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP), maximal strength (MVC), peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ) at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre). At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56), mean power (ES = 0.49), and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49) in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Lack of Additive Effects of Resveratrol and Energy Restriction in the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 737; doi:10.3390/nu9070737
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
The aims of the present study were to analyze the effect of resveratrol on liver steatosis in obese rats, to compare the effects induced by resveratrol and energy restriction and to research potential additive effects. Rats were initially fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet
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The aims of the present study were to analyze the effect of resveratrol on liver steatosis in obese rats, to compare the effects induced by resveratrol and energy restriction and to research potential additive effects. Rats were initially fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for six weeks and then allocated in four experimental groups fed a standard diet: a control group, a resveratrol-treated group, an energy restricted group and a group submitted to energy restriction and treated with resveratrol. We measured liver triacylglycerols, transaminases, FAS, MTP, CPT1a, CS, COX, SDH and ATP synthase activities, FATP2/FATP5, DGAT2, PPARα, SIRT1, UCP2 protein expressions, ACC and AMPK phosphorylation and PGC1α deacetylation. Resveratrol reduced triacylglycerols compared with the controls, although this reduction was lower than that induced by energy restriction. The mechanisms of action were different. Both decreased protein expression of fatty acid transporters, thus suggesting reduced fatty acid uptake from blood stream and liver triacylglycerol delivery, but only energy restriction reduced the assembly. These results show that resveratrol is useful for liver steatosis treatment within a balanced diet, although its effectiveness is lower than that of energy restriction. However, resveratrol is unable to increase the reduction in triacylglycerol content induced by energy restriction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Country and Gender-Specific Achievement of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines: Latent Class Analysis of 6266 University Students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 738; doi:10.3390/nu9070738
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA) of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We computed
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Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA) of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We computed a nutrition guideline achievement index using WHO recommendation, as well as the achievement of PA recommendations using guidelines for adults of the American Heart Association guidelines. Latent class regression analysis identified homogenous groups of male and female students, based on their achievements of both guidelines. We examined associations between group membership and achievement of guidelines. A three-class solution model best fitted the data, generating three student Groups: “Healthy Eaters” (7.7% of females, 10.8% of males), “Physically Active” (21.7% of females, 25.8% of males), and “Low Healthy Behaviour” (70.6% of females, 63.4% of males). We did not observe a latent class that exhibited combined healthy behaviours (physically active and healthy eaters), and there were no major differences between countries. We observed a very low rate of healthy nutrition (≈10% of students achieved greater than four of the eight nutrition guidelines), with little gender differences across the countries. About 18–47% of students achieved the PA guidelines, depending on country and gender, more often among males. Few females achieved the PA guidelines, particularly in Libya and Palestine. Culturally adapted multi-behavioural interventions need to encourage healthy lifestyles, nutrition and PA behaviours. National policies need to promote active living while addressing cultural, geographic, and other barriers to young adults’ engagement in PA. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Genetic Variations in Selenoprotein Genes on the Pattern of Gene Expression after Supplementation with Brazil Nuts
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 739; doi:10.3390/nu9070739
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. Its beneficial effects are exerted by selenoproteins, which can be quantified in blood and used as molecular biomarkers of Se status. We hypothesize that the presence of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes may: (1)
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Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. Its beneficial effects are exerted by selenoproteins, which can be quantified in blood and used as molecular biomarkers of Se status. We hypothesize that the presence of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes may: (1) influence the gene expression of specific selenoproteins and (2) influence the pattern of global gene expression after Brazil nut supplementation. The study was conducted with 130 healthy volunteers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, who consumed one Brazil nut (300 μg/Se) a day for eight weeks. Gene expression of GPX1 and SELENOP and genotyping were measured by real-time PCR using TaqMan Assays. Global gene expression was assessed by microarray using Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChips. Brazil nut supplementation significantly increased GPX1 mRNA expression only in subjects with CC genotype at rs1050450 (p < 0.05). SELENOP mRNA expression was significantly higher in A-carriers at rs7579 either before or after supplementation (p < 0.05). Genotype for rs713041 in GPX4 affected the pattern of blood cell global gene expression. Genetic variations in selenoprotein genes modulated both GPX1 and SELENOP selenoprotein gene expression and global gene expression in response to Brazil nut supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Alterations in Circulating Amino Acid Metabolite Ratio Associated with Arginase Activity Are Potential Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 740; doi:10.3390/nu9070740
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Upregulated arginase activity, which competes with nitric oxide synthase (NOS), impairs nitric oxide production and has been implicated in various metabolic disorders. This study examined whether circulating amino acid metabolite ratios are associated with arginase and NOS activities and whether arginine bioavailability is
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Upregulated arginase activity, which competes with nitric oxide synthase (NOS), impairs nitric oxide production and has been implicated in various metabolic disorders. This study examined whether circulating amino acid metabolite ratios are associated with arginase and NOS activities and whether arginine bioavailability is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data related to arginase and NOS activities were collected from non-diabetic Koreans without cardiovascular disease (n = 1998) in the Ansan–Ansung cohorts (2005–2006). Subsequently, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. With the increase in the number of MetS risk factors, ratios of circulating amino acid metabolites, such as those of ornithine/citrulline, proline/citrulline, and ornithine/arginine, also significantly increased, whereas arginine bioavailability significantly decreased. These metabolite ratios and arginase bioavailability were also significantly correlated with MetS risk-related parameters, which remained significant after adjusting for covariates. In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that high ratios of circulating metabolites and low arginine bioavailability, which indicated increased arginase activity, were significantly associated with a high MetS risk. This study demonstrated that altered ratios of circulating amino acid metabolites indicates increased arginase activity and decreased arginine bioavailability, both of which can be potential markers for MetS risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessArticle Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 741; doi:10.3390/nu9070741
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. Method: A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008–2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35–74), based in six Brazilian states.
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Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. Method: A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008–2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35–74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption “never or almost never”, “≤1 cup/day”, “2–3 cups/day”, “≥3 cups/day”, and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. Results: The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Conclusion: Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 742; doi:10.3390/nu9070742
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70–90% of adolescents
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Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70–90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011–2017) and there was a significant 8–34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 744; doi:10.3390/nu9070744
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Oxidative stress is an important regulator in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Reactive oxygen species induce activation of inflammatory cascades, inflammatory cell recruitment, and tissue damage. NF-κB regulates inflammatory cytokine gene expression, which induces an acute, edematous form of pancreatitis. Protein kinase
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Oxidative stress is an important regulator in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Reactive oxygen species induce activation of inflammatory cascades, inflammatory cell recruitment, and tissue damage. NF-κB regulates inflammatory cytokine gene expression, which induces an acute, edematous form of pancreatitis. Protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) activates NF-κB as shown in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 fatty acid, exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in various cells and tissues. This study investigated whether DHA inhibits cerulein-induced AP in rats by assessing pancreatic edema, myeloperoxidase activity, levels of lipid peroxide and IL-6, activation of NF-κB and PKCδ, and by histologic observation. AP was induced by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of cerulein (50 μg/kg) every hour for 7 h. DHA (13 mg/kg) was administered i.p. for three days before AP induction. Pretreatment with DHA reduced cerulein-induced activation of NF-κB, PKCδ, and IL-6 in pancreatic tissues of rats. DHA suppressed pancreatic edema and decreased the abundance of lipid peroxide, myeloperoxidase activity, and inflammatory cell infiltration into the pancreatic tissues of cerulein-stimulated rats. Therefore, DHA may help prevent the development of pancreatitis by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and PKCδ, expression of IL-6, and oxidative damage to the pancreas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Rice Bran Effectively Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 747; doi:10.3390/nu9070747
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Rice bran (RB) is a major by-product of rice polishing and a rich source of bioactive compounds. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis effect of diet supplementation with fermented rice bran (FRB) in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. FRB was prepared by dual
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Rice bran (RB) is a major by-product of rice polishing and a rich source of bioactive compounds. Here, we investigated the anti-colitis effect of diet supplementation with fermented rice bran (FRB) in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. FRB was prepared by dual fermentation of RB using fungi and lactic acid bacteria. Colitis was induced in C57Bl/6N male mice (n = 8/group) by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Body weight change, disease activity index (DAI), histopathology score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, cytokine and chemokine transcript levels, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and mucin in the colonic tissue were monitored. Based on histopathology scores, DSS induced severe mucosal inflammation, with an increased loss of crypts, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the control and RB groups, but not in the FRB group. MPO activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine transcript (Tnf-α, Il-1β, Il-6, and Il-17) levels were significantly higher in the control and RB groups than in the FRB group. Thus, dietary FRB attenuated intestinal inflammation owing to elevated SCFAs and tryptamine production, which might regulate tight junction barrier integrity and intestinal homeostasis. These results suggest that FRB could comprise an effective potential preventive agent for ulcerative colitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use of a Mobile Application for Self-Monitoring Dietary Intake: Feasibility Test and an Intervention Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 748; doi:10.3390/nu9070748
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Given the increasing social and economic burden of chronic disease and the need for efficient approaches to prevent and treat chronic disease, emphasis on the use of information and communication technology (ICT)-based health care has emerged. We aimed to test the feasibility of
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Given the increasing social and economic burden of chronic disease and the need for efficient approaches to prevent and treat chronic disease, emphasis on the use of information and communication technology (ICT)-based health care has emerged. We aimed to test the feasibility of a mobile application, Diet-A, and examine whether Diet-A could be used to monitor dietary intake among adolescents. In a three-month pre–post intervention study, 9 male and 24 female high school students aged 16–18 years consented and participated in this study. Participants were instructed to record all foods and beverages consumed using voice or text mode input. Nutrient intake was measured using 24-h recalls pre- and post-intervention. We compared nutrient intake data assessed by Diet-A application with those assessed by 24-h recalls. Participants tended to underreport intakes of nutrients compared to those assessed by two 24-h recalls. There were significant decreases in sodium (p = 0.04) and calcium (p = 0.03) intake between pre- and post-intervention. Of participants who completed questionnaires of feasibility (n = 24), 61.9% reported that they were satisfied using the application to monitor their food intake, and 47.7% liked getting personal information about their dietary intake from the application. However, more than 70% of participants answered that it was burdensome to use the application or that they had trouble remembering to record their food intake. The mobile application Diet-A offers the opportunity to monitor dietary intake through real-time feedback. However, use of Diet-A may not provide accurate information on the food intake of adolescents, partly because of the recording burden. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ten-Year Trends (1999–2010) of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among the Balearic Islands’ Adult Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 749; doi:10.3390/nu9070749
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess ten-year trends (1999–2010) of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) among the Balearic Islands’ adult population. Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (1999–2000, n = 1200 and 2009–2010 n = 1388, including participants aged 16–65
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The aim of this work was to assess ten-year trends (1999–2010) of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) among the Balearic Islands’ adult population. Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (1999–2000, n = 1200 and 2009–2010 n = 1388, including participants aged 16–65 years) were carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h diet recalls and a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire that covers 145 food items. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high monounsaturated fatty acids:saturated fatty acids (MUFA:SFA) ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables, and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk. Socio-economic status, education level, lifestyle factors and health status were also assessed. Adherence to the MDP was 43.1% (SD 5.8) in 1999–2000 and 44.6% (SD 8.3) in 2009–2010. Higher age was directly associated with higher adherence to the MDP, and this association was stronger in males than in females. Young generations and smokers showed the lowest adherence to MDP, whereas people with higher educational and socio-economic level, and who were physically active showed the highest adherence. According to the place of birth, the increase in the percentage of the adherence to the MDP was observed to be smaller among the Balearic Island’s natives than among people born abroad. In 2009–2010, individuals in the MDP’s fourth quartile were more likely to be older (aged 46–65 years), and were less likely to have a low occupational level, to have a light physical activity level and to be smoker than in 1999–2000. The adherence to the MDP has been stabilized and slightly recovered among the Balearic Islands’ adult population in the last decade. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 750; doi:10.3390/nu9070750
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual’s sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste
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A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual’s sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20–40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Resveratrol-Induced AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation Is Cell-Type Dependent: Lessons from Basic Research for Clinical Application
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 751; doi:10.3390/nu9070751
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Despite the promising effects of resveratrol, its efficacy in the clinic remains controversial. We were the first group to report that the SIRT1 activator resveratrol activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Diabetes 2005; 54: A383), and we think that the variability of this cascade
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Despite the promising effects of resveratrol, its efficacy in the clinic remains controversial. We were the first group to report that the SIRT1 activator resveratrol activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Diabetes 2005; 54: A383), and we think that the variability of this cascade may be responsible for the inconsistency of resveratrol’s effects. Our current studies suggest that the effect of SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol may not be solely through activation of SIRT1, but also through an integrated effect of SIRT1-liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMPK. In this context, resveratrol activates SIRT1 (1) by directly binding to SIRT1; and (2) by increasing NAD+ levels by upregulating the salvage pathway through Nampt activation, an effect mediated by AMPK. The first mechanism promotes deacetylation of a limited number of SIRT1 substrate proteins (e.g., PGC-1). The second mechanism (which may be more important than the first) activates other sirtuins in addition to SIRT1, which affects a broad spectrum of substrates. Despite these findings, detailed mechanisms of how resveratrol activates AMPK have not been reported. Here, we show that (1) resveratrol-induced activation of AMPK requires the presence of functional LKB1; (2) Resveratrol increases LKB1 activity, which involves translocation and phosphorylation at T336 and S428; (3) Activation of LKB1 causes proteasomal degradation of LKB1; (4) At high concentrations (50–100 µM), resveratrol also activates AMPK through increasing AMP levels; and (5) The above-mentioned activation mechanisms vary among cell types, and in some cell types, resveratrol fails to activate AMPK. These results suggest that resveratrol-induced activation of AMPK is not a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, AMPK-mediated increases in NAD+ in the second mechanism require several ATPs, which may not be available in many pathological conditions. These phenomena may explain why resveratrol is not always consistently beneficial in a clinical setting. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Fruit and Juice Epigenetic Signatures Are Associated with Independent Immunoregulatory Pathways
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 752; doi:10.3390/nu9070752
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that fruit consumption promotes many health benefits. Despite the general consensus that fruit and juice are nutritionally similar, epidemiological results for juice consumption are conflicting. Our objective was to use DNA methylation marks to characterize fruit and juice epigenetic
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Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that fruit consumption promotes many health benefits. Despite the general consensus that fruit and juice are nutritionally similar, epidemiological results for juice consumption are conflicting. Our objective was to use DNA methylation marks to characterize fruit and juice epigenetic signatures within PBMCs and identify shared and independent signatures associated with these groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation marks (Illumina Human Methylation 450k chip) for 2,148 individuals that participated in the Framingham Offspring exam 8 were analyzed for correlations between fruit or juice consumption using standard linear regression. CpG sites with low P-values (P < 0.01) were characterized using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and epigenetic Functional element Overlap analysis of the Results of Genome Wide Association Study Experiments (eFORGE). Fruit and juice-specific low P-value epigenetic signatures were largely independent. Genes near the fruit-specific epigenetic signature were enriched among pathways associated with antigen presentation and chromosome or telomere maintenance, while the juice-specific epigenetic signature was enriched for proinflammatory pathways. IPA and eFORGE analyses implicate fruit and juice-specific epigenetic signatures in the modulation of macrophage (fruit) and B or T cell (juice) activities. These data suggest a role for epigenetic regulation in fruit and juice-specific health benefits and demonstrate independent associations with distinct immune functions and cell types, suggesting that these groups may not confer the same health benefits. Identification of such differences between foods is the first step toward personalized nutrition and ultimately the improvement of human health and longevity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of a 12-Week Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Highly-Trained Combat Sports Athletes: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 753; doi:10.3390/nu9070753
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to verify the effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and the value of biochemical parameters in highly-trained combat sports athletes. Forty-two males highly-trained in combat sports were subjected to 12 weeks of supplementation
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The aim of this study was to verify the effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and the value of biochemical parameters in highly-trained combat sports athletes. Forty-two males highly-trained in combat sports were subjected to 12 weeks of supplementation with HMB and a placebo in a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover manner. Over the course of the experiment, aerobic and anaerobic capacity was determined, while analyses were conducted on body composition and levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, testosterone, cortisol and lactate. Following HMB supplementation, fat-free mass increased (p = 0.049) with a simultaneous reduction of fat mass (p = 0.016) in comparison to placebo. In turn, after HMB supplementation, the following indicators increased significantly in comparison to the placebo: the time to reach ventilatory threshold (p < 0.0001), threshold load (p = 0.017) and the threshold HR (p < 0.0001), as well as anaerobic peak power (p = 0.005), average power (p = 0.029), maximum speed (p < 0.001) and post-exercise lactate concentrations (p < 0.0001). However, when compared to the placebo, no differences were observed in blood marker levels. The results indicate that supplying HMB promotes advantageous changes in body composition and stimulates an increase in aerobic and anaerobic capacity in combat sports athletes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low Energy Turnover of Physically Inactive Participants as a Determinant of Insufficient Mineral and Vitamin Intake in NHANES
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 754; doi:10.3390/nu9070754
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Micronutrient requirements do not scale linearly with physical activity-related energy expenditure (AEE). Inactive persons may have insufficient micronutrient intake because of low energy intake (EI). We extracted data from NHANES 2003–2006 on 4015 adults (53 ± 18 years (mean ± SD), 29 ±
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Micronutrient requirements do not scale linearly with physical activity-related energy expenditure (AEE). Inactive persons may have insufficient micronutrient intake because of low energy intake (EI). We extracted data from NHANES 2003–2006 on 4015 adults (53 ± 18 years (mean ± SD), 29 ± 6 kg/m2, 48% women) with valid physical activity (accelerometry) and food intake (2 × 24 h-dietary recall) measures. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated by summing the basal metabolic rate (BMR, Harris-Benedict), AEE, and 10% of TEE for the thermic effect of food, to calculate the physical activity levels (PAL = TEE/BMR). Energy intake (EI) was scaled to match TEE assuming energy balance. Adjusted food intake was then analyzed for energy and micronutrient content and compared to estimated average requirements. The NHANES population was physically insufficiently active. There were 2440 inactive (PAL < 1.4), 1469 lightly to moderately active (PAL1.4 < 1.7), 94 sufficiently active (PAL1.7 < 2.0), and 12 very active participants (PAL ≥ 2.0). The inactive vs. active had significantly lower intake for all micronutrients apart from vitamin A, B12, C, K, and copper (p < 0.05). The inactive participants had insufficient intake for 6/19 micronutrients, while the active participants had insufficient intake for 5/19 (p < 0.05) micronutrients. Multiple linear regression indicated a lower risk for insufficient micronutrient intake for participants with higher PAL and BMI (p < 0.001). Symmetrical up-scaling of PAL and EI to recommended physical activity levels reduced the frequency of micronutrient insufficiencies. It follows that prevalence of insufficient micronutrient intake from food in NHANES might be partly determined by low energy turnover from insufficient PAL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Role of Zucchini and Its Distinctive Components in the Modulation of Degenerative Processes: Genotoxicity, Anti-Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 755; doi:10.3390/nu9070755
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) is a seasonal vegetable with high nutritional and medical values. Many useful properties of this fruit are attributed to bioactive compounds. Zucchini fruits (“Yellow” and “Light Green” varieties) and four distinctive components (lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and
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Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) is a seasonal vegetable with high nutritional and medical values. Many useful properties of this fruit are attributed to bioactive compounds. Zucchini fruits (“Yellow” and “Light Green” varieties) and four distinctive components (lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid) were selected. Firstly, the lutein, β-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid contents were determined in these fruits. Then, in order to evaluate the safety and suitability of their use, different assays were carried out: (i) genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity tests to determine the safety and DNA-protection against hydrogen peroxide; (ii) cytotoxicity; and (iii) DNA fragmentation and Annexin V/PI (Propidium Iodide) assays to evaluate the pro-apoptotic effect. Results showed that: (i) all the substances were non-genotoxic; (ii) all the substances were anti-genotoxic except the highest concentration of lutein; (iii) “Yellow” zucchini epicarp and mesocarp exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 0.1 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively); and (iv) “Light Green” zucchini skin induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, β-carotene being the possible molecule responsible for its pro-apoptotic activity. To sum up, zucchini fruit could play a positive role in human health and nutrition due to this fruit and its components were safe, able to inhibit significantly the H2O2-induced damage and exhibit anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities toward HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells) tumor cells. The information generated from this research should be considered when selecting potential accessions for breeding program purposes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Consuming Xylitol on Gut Microbiota and Lipid Metabolism in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 756; doi:10.3390/nu9070756
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
The sugar alcohol xylitol inhibits the growth of some bacterial species including Streptococcus mutans. It is used as a food additive to prevent caries. We previously showed that 1.5–4.0 g/kg body weight/day xylitol as part of a high-fat diet (HFD) improved lipid
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The sugar alcohol xylitol inhibits the growth of some bacterial species including Streptococcus mutans. It is used as a food additive to prevent caries. We previously showed that 1.5–4.0 g/kg body weight/day xylitol as part of a high-fat diet (HFD) improved lipid metabolism in rats. However, the effects of lower daily doses of dietary xylitol on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism are unclear. We examined the effect of 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol intake on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in mice. Bacterial compositions were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted real-time PCR. Luminal metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Plasma lipid parameters and glucose tolerance were examined. Dietary supplementation with low- or medium-dose xylitol (40 or 194 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively) significantly altered the fecal microbiota composition in mice. Relative to mice not fed xylitol, the addition of medium-dose xylitol to a regular and HFD in experimental mice reduced the abundance of fecal Bacteroidetes phylum and the genus Barnesiella, whereas the abundance of Firmicutes phylum and the genus Prevotella was increased in mice fed an HFD with medium-dose dietary xylitol. Body composition, hepatic and serum lipid parameters, oral glucose tolerance, and luminal metabolites were unaffected by xylitol consumption. In mice, 40 and 194 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol in the diet induced gradual changes in gut microbiota but not in lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Non-Nutritive Sweetener Intake in Rural Southwest Virginian Adults Living in a Health-Disparate Region
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 757; doi:10.3390/nu9070757
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Few data assessing non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) intake are available, especially within rural, health-disparate populations, where obesity and related co-morbidities are prevalent. The objective of this study is to characterize NNS intake for this population and examine the variance in demographics, cardio-metabolic outcomes, and
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Few data assessing non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) intake are available, especially within rural, health-disparate populations, where obesity and related co-morbidities are prevalent. The objective of this study is to characterize NNS intake for this population and examine the variance in demographics, cardio-metabolic outcomes, and dietary intake between NNS consumers and non-consumers. A cross-sectional sample (n = 301) of Virginian adults from a randomized controlled trial (data collected from 2012 to 2014) targeting sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake completed three 24-h dietary recalls, and demographics and cardio-metabolic measures were assessed. The frequency, types, and sources of NNS consumption were identified. Thirty-three percent of participants reported consuming NNS (n = 100). Sucralose was the largest contributor of mean daily NNS intake by weight (mg), followed by aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and saccharin. NNS in tabletop sweeteners, diet tea, and diet soda were the top contributors to absolute NNS intake. The most frequently consumed NNS sources were diet sodas, juice drinks, and tabletop sweeteners. Although mean body mass index (BMI) was greater for NNS consumers, they demonstrated significantly lower food, beverage, and SSB caloric intake and energy density, and higher overall dietary quality. It remains unclear whether NNS use plays a role in exacerbating weight gain. NNS consumers in this sample may have switched from drinking predominantly SSB to drinking some NNS beverages in an effort to cope with weight gain. Future studies should explore motivations for NNS use across a variety of weight and health categories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Phytochemicals Promote Health by Enhancing Antioxidant Defence in a Pig Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 758; doi:10.3390/nu9070758
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Phytochemical-rich diets are protective against chronic diseases and mediate their protective effect by regulation of oxidative stress (OS). However, it is proposed that under some circumstances, phytochemicals can promote production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, which might drive OS-mediated signalling. Here,
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Phytochemical-rich diets are protective against chronic diseases and mediate their protective effect by regulation of oxidative stress (OS). However, it is proposed that under some circumstances, phytochemicals can promote production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, which might drive OS-mediated signalling. Here, we investigated the effects of administering single doses of extracts of red cabbage and grape skin to pigs. Blood samples taken at baseline and 30 min intervals for 4 hours following intake were analyzed by measures of antioxidant status in plasma, including Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. In addition, dose-dependent production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the same extracts was measured in untreated commercial pig plasma in vitro. Plasma from treated pigs showed extract dose-dependent increases in non-enzymatic (plasma TEAC) and enzymatic (GPx) antioxidant capacities. Similarly, extract dose-dependent increases in H2O2 were observed in commercial pig plasma in vitro. The antioxidant responses to extracts by treated pigs were highly correlated with their respective yields of H2O2 production in vitro. These results support that dietary phytochemicals regulate OS via direct and indirect antioxidant mechanisms. The latter may be attributed to the ability to produce H2O2 and to thereby stimulate cellular antioxidant defence systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Iron Fortified Complementary Foods Containing a Mixture of Sodium Iron EDTA with Either Ferrous Fumarate or Ferric Pyrophosphate Reduce Iron Deficiency Anemia in 12- to 36-Month-Old Children in a Malaria Endemic Setting: A Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 759; doi:10.3390/nu9070759
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of iron fortification against IDA is uncertain in malaria-endemic settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a complementary food (CF) fortified with sodium
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Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The efficacy of iron fortification against IDA is uncertain in malaria-endemic settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a complementary food (CF) fortified with sodium iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA) plus either ferrous fumarate (FeFum) or ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) to combat IDA in preschool-age children in a highly malaria endemic region. This is a secondary analysis of a nine-month cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in south-central Côte d’Ivoire. 378 children aged 12–36 months were randomly assigned to no food intervention (n = 125; control group), CF fortified with 2 mg NaFeEDTA plus 3.8 mg FeFum for six days/week (n = 126; FeFum group), and CF fortified with 2 mg NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg FePP for six days/week (n = 127; FePP group). The outcome measures were hemoglobin (Hb), plasma ferritin (PF), iron deficiency (PF < 30 μg/L), and anemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dL). Data were analyzed with random-effect models and PF was adjusted for inflammation. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and inflammation during the study were 44–66%, and 57–76%, respectively. There was a significant time by treatment interaction on IDA (p = 0.028) and a borderline significant time by treatment interaction on iron deficiency with or without anemia (p = 0.068). IDA prevalence sharply decreased in the FeFum (32.8% to 1.2%, p < 0.001) and FePP group (23.6% to 3.4%, p < 0.001). However, there was no significant time by treatment interaction on Hb or total anemia. These data indicate that, despite the high endemicity of malaria and elevated inflammation biomarkers (C-reactive protein or α-1-acid-glycoprotein), IDA was markedly reduced by provision of iron fortified CF to preschool-age children for 9 months, with no significant differences between a combination of NaFeEDTA with FeFum or NaFeEDTA with FePP. However, there was no overall effect on anemia, suggesting most of the anemia in this setting is not due to ID. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01634945). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Open AccessArticle Suppression of Nrf2 Activity by Chestnut Leaf Extract Increases Chemosensitivity of Breast Cancer Stem Cells to Paclitaxel
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 760; doi:10.3390/nu9070760
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Due to metastatic potential and drug resistance, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have become a critical target for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies showed that CSCs highly express NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes and thereby retain relatively low levels of reactive
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Due to metastatic potential and drug resistance, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have become a critical target for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies showed that CSCs highly express NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes and thereby retain relatively low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since anticancer agents usually utilize ROS as an arsenal for killing cancer cells, we hypothesized that inhibition of Nrf2 activity could increase the sensitivity of CSCs to anticancer drugs, and thus enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. We found that MCF-7-derived CSCs with a CD44high/CD24low phenotype formed mammospheres and highly expressed Nrf2 compared to the adherent parental MCF-7 cells. In a separate experiment, we screened 89 different edible plant extracts for inhibitory activity against the Nrf2 signaling pathway by using an antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase assay system. Among those extracts, Castanea crenata (chestnut) leaf extract significantly decreased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes in MCF-7-derived CSCs. The combined treatment of the CSCs with chestnut leaf extract and paclitaxel resulted in more effective cell death than the treatment with paclitaxel alone. These findings suggest that the chestnut leaf extract or its constituents could increase the susceptibility of breast CSCs to an anticancer drug, paclitaxel, through inhibition of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, and could be utilized as an adjuvant for chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Fetal Pulmonary Circulation: An Experimental Study in Fetal Lambs
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 761; doi:10.3390/nu9070761
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 16 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. n-3 Poly-unsaturated fatty acids have vasodilatory properties in the perinatal lung. We studied the circulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal sheep
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Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. n-3 Poly-unsaturated fatty acids have vasodilatory properties in the perinatal lung. We studied the circulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal sheep and in fetal pulmonary arterial rings. Methods: At 128 days of gestation, catheters were placed surgically in fetal systemic and pulmonary circulation, and a Doppler probe around the left pulmonary artery (LPA). Pulmonary arterial pressure and LPA flow were measured while infusing EPA or DHA for 120 min to the fetus, to compute pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The dose effects of EPA or DHA were studied in vascular rings pre-constricted with serotonin. Rings treated with EPA were separated into three groups: E+ (intact endothelium), E− (endothelium stripped) and LNA E+ (pretreatment of E+ rings with l-nitro-arginine). Results: EPA, but not DHA, induced a significant and prolonged 25% drop in PVR (n = 8, p < 0.001). Incubation of vascular rings with EPA (100 µM) caused a maximum relaxation of 60% in the E+ (n = 6), whereas vessel tone did not change in the E− (n = 6, p < 0.001). The vascular effects of EPA were significantly decreased in LNA E+ (n = 6). Incubation with DHA resulted in only a mild relaxation at the highest concentration of DHA (300 µM) compared to E+. Conclusions: EPA induces a sustained pulmonary vasodilatation in fetal lambs. This effect is endothelium- and dose-dependent and involves nitric oxide (NO) production. We speculate that EPA supplementation may improve pulmonary circulation in clinical conditions with PPHN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle A Protein Diet Score, Including Plant and Animal Protein, Investigating the Association with HbA1c and eGFR—The PREVIEW Project
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 763; doi:10.3390/nu9070763
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the
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Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope −0.02 ± 0.01 mmol/mol, p < 0.001) was seen in Lifelines. We found a positive association between the protein score and eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 ± 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.0001). Protein scoring might be a useful tool to assess both the effect of quantity and source of protein on health parameters. Further studies are needed to validate this newly developed protein score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
Open AccessArticle Beta Palmitate Improves Bone Length and Quality during Catch-Up Growth in Young Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 764; doi:10.3390/nu9070764
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA) and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating
[...] Read more.
Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA) and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology), bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay), and gene expression (Affymetrix). The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Choline Supplementation Alters Fetal Growth Patterns in a Mouse Model of Placental Insufficiency
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 765; doi:10.3390/nu9070765
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Impairments in placental development can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. The bioactive nutrient choline may mitigate some of these impairments, as suggested by data in humans, animals, and human trophoblasts. Herein, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on parameters of fetal
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Impairments in placental development can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. The bioactive nutrient choline may mitigate some of these impairments, as suggested by data in humans, animals, and human trophoblasts. Herein, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on parameters of fetal growth in a Dlx3+/− (distal-less homeobox 3) mouse model of placental insufficiency. Dlx3+/− female mice were assigned to 1X (control), 2X, or 4X choline intake levels during gestation. Dams were sacrificed at embryonic days E10.5, 12.5, 15.5, and 18.5. At E10.5, placental weight, embryo weight, and placental efficiency were higher in 4X versus 1X choline. Higher concentrations of hepatic and placental betaine were detected in 4X versus 1X choline, and placental betaine was positively associated with embryo weight. Placental mRNA expression of Igf1 was downregulated by 4X (versus 1X) choline at E10.5. No differences in fetal growth parameters were detected at E12.5 and 15.5, whereas a small but significant reduction in fetal weight was detected at E18.5 in 4X versus 1X choline. MCS improved fetal growth during early pregnancy in the Dlx3+/− mice with the compensatory downregulation of Igf1 to slow growth as gestation progressed. Placental betaine may be responsible for the growth-promoting effects of choline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle Phyllanthus Niruri Standardized Extract Alleviates the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Decreases Atherosclerotic Risk in Sprague–Dawley Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 766; doi:10.3390/nu9070766
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri). NAFLD was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD). A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16%) and visceral fat weight (22%), decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) (48%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (65%), free fatty acids (FFAs) (25%), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (45%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (38%), insulin concentration (67%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (73%), serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (29%), LDL/HDL (66%) and (TC–HDL)/HDL (64%), hepatic content of cholesterol (43%), triglyceride (29%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (40%) compared to a non-treated HFD group. In vitro, 50% ME of P. niruri inhibited α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase enzymes and cholesterol micellization. It also had higher total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared to other extracts. Ellagic acid and phyllanthin were identified as major compounds. These results suggest that P. niruri could be further developed as a novel natural hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD and atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Prebiotic Effect of Lactulose in a Computer-Controlled In Vitro Model of the Human Large Intestine
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 767; doi:10.3390/nu9070767
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated.
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Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated. This study analyses changes in the microbiota and their metabolites after a 5 days Lactulose treatment using the TIM-2 system, a computer-controlled model of the proximal large intestine representing a complex, high density, metabolically active, anaerobic microbiota of human origin. Subclinical dosages of 2–5 g Lactulose were used. While 2 g Lactulose already increased the short-chain fatty acid levels of the intestinal content, 5 g Lactulose were required daily for 5 days in this study to exert the full beneficial prebiotic effect consisting of higher bacterial counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Anaerostipes, a rise in acetate, butyrate and lactate, as well as a decrease in branched-chain fatty acids, pH (suggested by an increase in NaOH usage), and ammonia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessCommunication Associations between Red Meat Intakes and the Micronutrient Intake and Status of UK Females: A Secondary Analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 768; doi:10.3390/nu9070768
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Blanket health messages to lower red meat intakes are being communicated at present. These could have adverse implications on the micronutrient quality of women’s diets. The current paper evaluates the nutritional impact of lower red meat intakes on British women’s micronutrient intakes and
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Blanket health messages to lower red meat intakes are being communicated at present. These could have adverse implications on the micronutrient quality of women’s diets. The current paper evaluates the nutritional impact of lower red meat intakes on British women’s micronutrient intakes and status. A secondary analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey was undertaken using data from years 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. This was comprised of dietary and blood analyte data from 1384 and 641 females aged 11 to 64 years. Females consuming less than 40 g total red meat daily were more likely to have micronutrient intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI) for zinc, iron, vitamin B12 and potassium and have lower habitual vitamin D intakes than females consuming between 40 and 69 g daily. After adjusting data for energy intake, zinc (% below the LRNI) and vitamin D (μg/day) remained statistically significant (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed for blood biomarkers. Females consuming diets lower in red meat, i.e., <40 g daily, appear to have reduced micronutrient intakes, especially in the case of zinc and vitamin D. This should be considered when giving blanket advice for whole populations to reduce red meat intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Self-Reported Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in High School Students: Demographic and Clinical Characteristics
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 771; doi:10.3390/nu9070771
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS) has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To
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Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS) has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy). A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female) completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26%) had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD). Only 15 out of 68 (23%) NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14%) had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%). Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%). A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Red Ginseng on Genotoxicity and Health-Related Quality of Life after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 772; doi:10.3390/nu9070772
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
We evaluated the effect of red ginseng on toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and survival after adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). A total of 30 patients with EOC were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 15) and
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We evaluated the effect of red ginseng on toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and survival after adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). A total of 30 patients with EOC were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 15) and red ginseng groups (n = 15). All patients took placebo or red ginseng (3000 mg/day) for three months. Then, we compared changes of genotoxicity, HRQL and survival between the two groups. As a result, red ginseng reduced micronuclei yield in comparison with placebo despite no difference of binucleated cells index. Although red ginseng increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly, they were within the normal value. Moreover, there were no differences in adverse events between placebo and red ginseng groups. In terms of HRQL, red ginseng was associated with improved emotional functioning and decreased symptoms of fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and dyspnea, reduced anxiety and interference affecting life and improved daytime somnolence. However, there was no effect of red ginseng on prognosis of EOC. Conclusively, red ginseng may be safe and effective to reduce genotoxicity and improve HRQL despite no benefit of survival in patients with EOC who received chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Quercetin and Green Tea Extract Supplementation Downregulates Genes Related to Tissue Inflammatory Responses to a 12-Week High Fat-Diet in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 773; doi:10.3390/nu9070773
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Quercetin (Q) and green tea extract (E) are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ) could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed
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Quercetin (Q) and green tea extract (E) are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ) could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed to mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40) were put on HFD (fat = 60%kcal) for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to Q (25 mg/kg of body weight (BW)/day), E (3 mg of epigallocatechin gallate/kg BW/day), EQ, or control groups for four weeks. At 16 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured via the glucose tolerance test (GTT), followed by area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimations. Plasma cytokines and quercetin were also measured, along with whole genome transcriptome analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. Univariate analyses were conducted via analysis of variance (ANOVA), and whole-genome expression profiles were examined via gene set enrichment. At 16 weeks, plasma quercetin levels were higher in Q and EQ groups vs. the control and E groups (p < 0.05). Plasma cytokines were similar among groups (p > 0.05). AUC estimations for GTT was 14% lower for Q vs. E (p = 0.0311), but non-significant from control (p = 0.0809). Genes for cholesterol metabolism and immune and inflammatory response were downregulated in Q and EQ groups vs. control in adipose tissue and soleus muscle tissue. These data support an anti-inflammatory role for Q and EQ, a result best captured when measured with tissue gene downregulation in comparison to changes in plasma cytokine levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 774; doi:10.3390/nu9070774
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65–85% VO2 max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Influences of Orally Taken Carotenoid-Rich Curly Kale Extract on Collagen I/Elastin Index of the Skin
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 775; doi:10.3390/nu9070775
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Two differently designed, spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy-based scanners and two-photon tomography were used for noninvasive in vivo determination of cutaneous carotenoids, and collagen I/elastin aging index of dermis, respectively, in the skin of 29 healthy female volunteers between 40 and 56 years of
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Two differently designed, spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy-based scanners and two-photon tomography were used for noninvasive in vivo determination of cutaneous carotenoids, and collagen I/elastin aging index of dermis, respectively, in the skin of 29 healthy female volunteers between 40 and 56 years of age. The volunteers received a supplement in the form of a carotenoid-rich natural curly kale extract containing 1650 µg of carotenoids in total (three capsules of 550 µg), once a day. Measurements were taken before, after 5 months and after 10 months of daily supplementation. The results showed significantly increased values for the cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen I/elastin aging index of dermis 5 and 10 months after the beginning of the study. The obtained results show that a natural carotenoid-rich extract could prevent the aging-related collagen I degradation in the dermis and improve the extracellular matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Iron in Micronutrient Powder Promotes an Unfavorable Gut Microbiota in Kenyan Infants
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 776; doi:10.3390/nu9070776
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Iron supplementation may have adverse health effects in infants, probably through manipulation of the gut microbiome. Previous research in low-resource settings have focused primarily on anemic infants. This was a double blind, randomized, controlled trial of home fortification comparing multiple micronutrient powder (MNP)
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Iron supplementation may have adverse health effects in infants, probably through manipulation of the gut microbiome. Previous research in low-resource settings have focused primarily on anemic infants. This was a double blind, randomized, controlled trial of home fortification comparing multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) with and without iron. Six-month-old, non- or mildly anemic, predominantly-breastfed Kenyan infants in a rural malaria-endemic area were randomized to consume: (1) MNP containing 12.5 mg iron (MNP+Fe, n = 13); (2) MNP containing no iron (MNP−Fe, n = 13); or (3) Placebo (CONTROL, n = 7), from 6–9 months of age. Fecal microbiota were profiled by high-throughput bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Markers of inflammation in serum and stool samples were also measured. At baseline, the most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria (37.6% of rRNA sequences). The proteobacterial genus Escherichia was the most abundant genus across all phyla (30.1% of sequences). At the end of the intervention, the relative abundance of Escherichia significantly decreased in MNP−Fe (−16.05 ± 6.9%, p = 0.05) and CONTROL (−19.75 ± 4.5%, p = 0.01), but not in the MNP+Fe group (−6.23 ± 9%, p = 0.41). The second most abundant genus at baseline was Bifidobacterium (17.3%), the relative abundance of which significantly decreased in MNP+Fe (−6.38 ± 2.5%, p = 0.02) and CONTROL (−8.05 ± 1.46%, p = 0.01), but not in MNP-Fe (−4.27 ± 5%, p = 0.4445). Clostridium increased in MNP-Fe only (1.9 ± 0.5%, p = 0.02). No significant differences were observed in inflammation markers, except for IL-8, which decreased in CONTROL. MNP fortification over three months in non- or mildly anemic Kenyan infants can potentially alter the gut microbiome. Consistent with previous research, addition of iron to the MNP may adversely affect the colonization of potential beneficial microbes and attenuate the decrease of potential pathogens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 777; doi:10.3390/nu9070777
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea
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Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT), on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years) in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT) was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day), which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA), a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL) than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL). Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Consumption of Dietary Antioxidant Vitamins Modifies the Risk of Obesity among Korean Men with Short Sleep Duration
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 780; doi:10.3390/nu9070780
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
Short sleep duration has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sleep duration on the odds of being obese in relation to the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins among 3941 Korean men between 40 and
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Short sleep duration has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sleep duration on the odds of being obese in relation to the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins among 3941 Korean men between 40 and 69 years of age. After adjusting for age, education, household income, marital status, insomnia, smoking and drinking status, participants with short sleep duration (<6 h) had significantly higher body mass index (p = 0.005), body fat mass (p = 0.010), body fat percentage (p = 0.021), waist circumference (p = 0.029), as well as the odds ratio (OR) of risk of obesity [OR (95% CI) = 1.467 (1.282–1.678)], compared to participants with optimal sleep duration (≥7 h). Short sleepers with a low consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins had a higher risk of obesity than those with a high consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins; however, this relationship did not hold among those with optimal sleep duration. Although a causal relationship among sleep-related variables could not be definitively demonstrated because of this study’s cross-sectional design, our results suggested that the increased risk of obesity associated with short sleep duration may be modified by the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fat Taste Sensitivity Is Associated with Short-Term and Habitual Fat Intake
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 781; doi:10.3390/nu9070781
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT)) may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat
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Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT)) may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6) (SD) years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7) kg/m2) by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank). Food liking was assessed by hedonic ratings of high-fat and reduced-fat foods, and a 24-h food recall and food frequency questionnaire was completed. Linear mixed regression models were fitted. FT rank was associated with dietary % energy from fat ( β ^ = 0.110 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.216]), % energy from carbohydrate ( β ^ = −0.112 [−0.188, −0.035]), and frequency of consumption of foods per day from food groups: high-fat dairy ( β ^ = 1.091 [0.106, 2.242]), meat & meat alternatives ( β ^ = 0.669 [0.168, 1.170]), and grain & cereals ( β ^ = 0.771 [0.212, 1.329]) (adjusted for energy and age). There were no associations between FT rank and anthropometric measurements or hedonic ratings. Therefore, fat taste sensitivity appears to be associated with short-term fat intake, but not body size in this group of females. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimated Nutritive Value of Low-Price Model Lunch Sets Provided to Garment Workers in Cambodia
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 782; doi:10.3390/nu9070782
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods:
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Background: The establishment of staff canteens is expected to improve the nutritional situation of Cambodian garment workers. The objective of this study is to assess the nutritive value of low-price model lunch sets provided at a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: Exemplary lunch sets were served to female workers through a temporary canteen at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Dish samples were collected repeatedly to examine mean serving sizes of individual ingredients. Food composition tables and NutriSurvey software were used to assess mean amounts and contributions to recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fiber, vitamin C (VitC), iron, vitamin A (VitA), folate and vitamin B12 (VitB12). Results: On average, lunch sets provided roughly one third of RDA or adequate intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat and dietary fiber. Contribution to RDA of protein was high (46% RDA). The sets contained a high mean share of VitC (159% RDA), VitA (66% RDA), and folate (44% RDA), but were low in VitB12 (29% RDA) and iron (20% RDA). Conclusions: Overall, lunches satisfied recommendations of caloric content and macronutrient composition. Sets on average contained a beneficial amount of VitC, VitA and folate. Adjustments are needed for a higher iron content. Alternative iron-rich foods are expected to be better suited, compared to increasing portions of costly meat/fish components. Lunch provision at Cambodian garment factories holds the potential to improve food security of workers, approximately at costs of <1 USD/person/day at large scale. Data on quantitative total dietary intake as well as physical activity among workers are needed to further optimize the concept of staff canteens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intra-Amniotic Administration (Gallus gallus) of Cicer arietinum and Lens culinaris Prebiotics Extracts and Duck Egg White Peptides Affects Calcium Status and Intestinal Functionality
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 785; doi:10.3390/nu9070785
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Calcium (Ca) is one of the most abundant inorganic elements in the human body and has many important physiological roles. Prebiotics and bioactive peptides are two important substances used to promote calcium uptake. However, the difference in mechanisms of the calcium uptake from
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Calcium (Ca) is one of the most abundant inorganic elements in the human body and has many important physiological roles. Prebiotics and bioactive peptides are two important substances used to promote calcium uptake. However, the difference in mechanisms of the calcium uptake from these two supplements is not clear. By using the Gallus gallus model and the intra-amniotic administration procedure, the aim of this study was to investigate whether Ca status, intestinal functionality, and health-promoting bacterial populations were affected by prebiotics extracted from chickpea and lentil, and duck egg white peptides (DPs). Eleven groups (non-injected; 18 MΩ H2O; 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 50 mg/mL chickpea + 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 50 mg/mL lentil + 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 40 mg/mL DPs + 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 5 mg/mL Val-Ser-Glu-Glu (VSEE) + 4 mmol/L CaCl2; 50 mg/mL chickpea; 50 mg/mL lentil; 40 mg/mL DPs; 5 mg/mL VSEE) were utilized. Upon hatch, blood, cecum, small intestine, liver and bone were collected for assessment of serum bone alkaline phosphate level (BALP), the relative abundance of intestinal microflora, expression of Ca-related genes, brush border membrane (BBM) functional genes, and liver and bone mineral levels, respectively. The BALP level increased in the presence of lentil, DPs and VSEE (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of probiotics increased significantly (p < 0.05) by VSEE + Ca and chickpea. The expression of CalbindinD9k (Ca transporter) increased (p < 0.05) in Ca, chickpea + Ca and lentil + Ca groups. In addition, the brush border membrane functionality genes expressions increased (p < 0.05) by the chickpea or lentil extracts. Prebiotics and DPs beneficially affected the intestinal microflora and duodenal villus surface area. This research expands the understanding of the prebiotics’ properties of chickpea and lentil extracts, and peptides’ effects on calcium metabolism and gut health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Iron Bioavailability Studies of the First Generation of Iron-Biofortified Beans Released in Rwanda
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 787; doi:10.3390/nu9070787
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper represents a series of in vitro iron (Fe) bioavailability experiments, Fe content analysis and polyphenolic profile of the first generation of Fe biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) selected for human trials in Rwanda and released to farmers of that region.
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This paper represents a series of in vitro iron (Fe) bioavailability experiments, Fe content analysis and polyphenolic profile of the first generation of Fe biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) selected for human trials in Rwanda and released to farmers of that region. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate how the Caco-2 cell bioassay for Fe bioavailability can be utilized to assess the nutritional quality of Fe in such varieties and how they may interact with diets and meal plans of experimental studies. Furthermore, experiments were also conducted to directly compare this in vitro approach with specific human absorption studies of these Fe biofortified beans. The results show that other foods consumed with beans, such as rice, can negatively affect Fe bioavailability whereas potato may enhance the Fe absorption when consumed with beans. The results also suggest that the extrinsic labelling approach to measuring human Fe absorption can be flawed and thus provide misleading information. Overall, the results provide evidence that the Caco-2 cell bioassay represents an effective approach to evaluate the nutritional quality of Fe-biofortified beans, both separate from and within a targeted diet or meal plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Open AccessArticle Prenatal Vitamin D Intake, Cord Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, and Offspring Body Composition: The Healthy Start Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 790; doi:10.3390/nu9070790
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring adiposity, but evidence from human studies is inconclusive. We examined associations between prenatal vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in cord blood, and offspring size and body composition at birth and 5
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Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring adiposity, but evidence from human studies is inconclusive. We examined associations between prenatal vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in cord blood, and offspring size and body composition at birth and 5 months. Participants included 605 mother-offspring dyads from the Healthy Start study, an ongoing, pre-birth prospective cohort study in Denver, Colorado, USA. Prenatal vitamin D intake was assessed with diet recalls and questionnaires, and offspring body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography at birth and 5 months. General linear univariate models were used for analysis, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), offspring sex, and gestational age at birth. Non-Hispanic white race, lower pre-pregnancy BMI, higher prenatal vitamin D intake, and summer births were associated with higher cord blood 25(OH)D. Higher 25(OH)D was associated with lower birthweight (β = –6.22, p = 0.02), but as maternal BMI increased, this association became increasingly positive in direction and magnitude (β = 1.05, p = 0.04). Higher 25(OH)D was also associated with lower neonatal adiposity (β = –0.02, p < 0.05) but not after adjustment for maternal BMI (β = –0.01, p = 0.25). Cord blood 25(OH)D was not associated with offspring size or body composition at 5 months. Our data confirm the hypothesis that vitamin D exposure in early life is associated with neonatal body size and composition. Future research is needed to understand the implications of these associations as infants grow. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 791; doi:10.3390/nu9070791
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market
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Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015). Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. Conclusion. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups, potato crisps, and processed legumes and vegetables have been reduced over the period 2011–2016. However, median salt intake in 2006 and 2015 remained well above the recommended intake of 6 g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Canadian Potential Healthcare and Societal Cost Savings from Consumption of Pulses: A Cost-Of-Illness Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 793; doi:10.3390/nu9070793
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate
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Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential annual healthcare and societal cost savings relevant to rates of reduction in complications from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) following a low glycemic index (GI) or high fiber diet that includes pulses, or 100 g/day pulse intake in Canada, respectively. A four-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to: (1) estimate the proportions of individuals who are likely to consume pulses; (2) evaluate the reductions in established risk factors for T2D and CVD; (3) assess the percent reduction in incidences or complications of the diseases of interest; and (4) calculate the potential annual savings in relevant healthcare and related costs. A low GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses and 100 g/day pulse intake were shown to potentially yield Can$6.2 (95% CI $2.6–$9.9) to Can$62.4 (95% CI $26–$98.8) and Can$31.6 (95% CI $11.1–$52) to Can$315.5 (95% CI $110.6–$520.4) million in savings on annual healthcare and related costs of T2D and CVD, respectively. Specific provincial/territorial analyses suggested annual T2D and CVD related cost savings that ranged from up to Can$0.2 million in some provinces to up to Can$135 million in others. In conclusion, with regular consumption of pulse crops, there is a potential opportunity to facilitate T2D and CVD related socioeconomic cost savings that could be applied to Canadian healthcare or re-assigned to other priority domains. Whether these potential cost savings will be offset by other healthcare costs associated with longevity and diseases of the elderly is to be investigated over the long term. Full article
Open AccessArticle Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Improves Learning and Memory by Enhancing Synaptogenesis in Mice Hippocampus
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 794; doi:10.3390/nu9070794
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
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Abstract
Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (PG) has long been used as an ingredient of foods and is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well. The present study examined the effect of each PG extract (PGE) from root, aerial part, and seeds
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Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (PG) has long been used as an ingredient of foods and is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well. The present study examined the effect of each PG extract (PGE) from root, aerial part, and seeds on cognitive functions in mice. Changes in spatial learning and memory using a Y-maze test, and markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis were examined. Moreover, changes in neuritogenesis and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway were investigated. Results indicated that mice administered PGE (root) showed increased spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test and synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. In addition, PGE (root) and platycodin D, the major bioactive compound from the PG root, significantly stimulated neuritic outgrowth by phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro. These results indicate that the PGE (root), containing platycodin D, enhances cognitive function through synaptogenesis via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Full article
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Open AccessReview Metabolic Effects of High Glycaemic Index Diets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Feeding Studies in Mice and Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 646; doi:10.3390/nu9070646
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Low glycaemic index (LGI) diets are often reported to benefit metabolic health, but the mechanism(s) responsible are not clear. This review aimed to systematically identify studies investigating metabolic effects of high glycaemic index (HGI) versus LGI diets in mice and rats. A meta-analysis
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Low glycaemic index (LGI) diets are often reported to benefit metabolic health, but the mechanism(s) responsible are not clear. This review aimed to systematically identify studies investigating metabolic effects of high glycaemic index (HGI) versus LGI diets in mice and rats. A meta-analysis was conducted to calculate an overall effect size, Hedge’s standardised mean differences (hereafter d), for each trait, with moderator variables considered in subsequent meta-regressions. Across 30 articles, a HGI diet increased five of the seven traits examined: body weight (d = 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.79), fat mass (d = 1.08; 0.67, 1.49), fasting circulating insulin levels (d = 0.40; 0.09, 0.71), and glucose (d = 0.80; 0.35, 1.25) and insulin (d = 1.14; 0.50, 1.77) area under the curve during a glucose tolerance test. However, there was substantial heterogeneity among the effects for all traits and the small number of studies enabled only limited investigation of possible confounding factors. HGI diets favour body weight gain, increased adiposity and detrimentally affect parameters of glucose homeostasis in mice and rats, but these effects may not be a direct result of GI per se; rather they may be due to variation in other dietary constituents, such as dietary fibre, a factor which is known to reduce the GI of food and promote health via GI-independent mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview A Systematic Review of Fatalities Related to Acute Ingestion of Salt. A Need for Warning Labels?
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 648; doi:10.3390/nu9070648
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
There are sporadic cases of fatalities from acutely eating salt. Yet, on social media, there are “challenges to” and examples of children and some adults acutely eating salt, and recently a charity advocated eating small amounts of salt to empathize with Syrian refugees.
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There are sporadic cases of fatalities from acutely eating salt. Yet, on social media, there are “challenges to” and examples of children and some adults acutely eating salt, and recently a charity advocated eating small amounts of salt to empathize with Syrian refugees. We performed a systematic review of fatalities from ingesting salt to assess if relatively moderate doses of salt could be fatal. In 27 reports, there were 35 fatalities documented (19 in adults and 16 in children). The lethal dose was estimated to be less than 10 g of sodium (<5 teaspoons of salt) in two children, and less than 25 g sodium in four adults (<4 tablespoons of salt). The frequency of fatal ingestion of salt is not able to be discerned from our review. If investigation of the causes of hypernatremia in hospital records indicates salt overdose is relatively common, consideration could be given to placing warning labels on salt containers and shakers. Such warning labels can have the added advantage of reducing dietary salt consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Infectious Diseases: Simple Bystander or Contributing Factor?
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 651; doi:10.3390/nu9070651
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble steroid essential for life in higher animals. It is technically a pro-hormone present in few food types and produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. In recent decades, several studies have suggested that VD contributes
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Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble steroid essential for life in higher animals. It is technically a pro-hormone present in few food types and produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. In recent decades, several studies have suggested that VD contributes to diverse processes extending far beyond mineral homeostasis. The machinery for VD production and its receptor have been reported in multiple tissues, where they have a pivotal role in modulating the immune system. Similarly, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major global public healthcare burden. VDD is highly prevalent throughout different regions of the world, including tropical and subtropical countries. Moreover, VDD may affect host immunity leading to an increased incidence and severity of several infectious diseases. In this review, we discuss new insights on VD physiology as well as the relationship between VD status and various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, respiratory tract infections, human immunodeficiency virus, fungal infections and sepsis. Finally, we critically review the latest evidence on VD monitoring and supplementation in the setting of infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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