Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Micromachines, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Circulating biomarkers (CBs) such as exosome and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are present in saliva and [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-54
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Long Period Grating-Based Fiber Coupling to WGM Microresonators
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070366
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comprehensive model for designing robust all-in-fiber microresonator-based optical sensing setups is illustrated. The investigated all-in-fiber setups allow light to selectively excite high-Q whispering gallery modes (WGMs) into optical microresonators, thanks to a pair of identical long period gratings (LPGs) written in the
[...] Read more.
A comprehensive model for designing robust all-in-fiber microresonator-based optical sensing setups is illustrated. The investigated all-in-fiber setups allow light to selectively excite high-Q whispering gallery modes (WGMs) into optical microresonators, thanks to a pair of identical long period gratings (LPGs) written in the same optical fiber. Microspheres and microbubbles are used as microresonators and evanescently side-coupled to a thick fiber taper, with a waist diameter of about 18 µm, in between the two LPGs. The model is validated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental data. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental results is obtained. The model is general and by exploiting the refractive index and/or absorption characteristics at suitable wavelengths, the sensing of several substances or pollutants can be predicted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials Based Microdevices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Micro Motion Amplifiers for Compact Out-of-Plane Actuation
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070365
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small-scale, out-of-plane actuators can enable tactile interfaces; however, achieving sufficient actuator force and displacement can require larger actuators. In this work, 2-mm2 out-of-plane microactuators were created, and were demonstrated to output up to 6.3 µm of displacement and 16 mN of blocking
[...] Read more.
Small-scale, out-of-plane actuators can enable tactile interfaces; however, achieving sufficient actuator force and displacement can require larger actuators. In this work, 2-mm2 out-of-plane microactuators were created, and were demonstrated to output up to 6.3 µm of displacement and 16 mN of blocking force at 170 V. The actuators converted in-plane force and displacement from a piezoelectric extensional actuator into out-of-plane force and displacement using robust, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-enabled, half-scissor amplifiers. The microscissors employed two layers of lithographically patterned SU-8 epoxy microstructures, laminated with a thin film of structural polyimide and adhesive to form compact flexural hinges that enabled the actuators’ small area. The self-aligned manufacture minimized assembly error and fabrication complexity. The scissor design dominated the actuators’ performance, and the effects of varying scissor angle, flexure thickness, and adhesive type were characterized to optimize the actuators’ output. Reducing the microscissor angle yielded the highest actuator performance, as it maximized the amplification of the half-scissor’s displacement and minimized scissor deformation under externally applied loads. The actuators’ simultaneously large displacements and blocking forces for their size were quantified by a high displacement-blocking force product per unit area of up to 50 mN·µm/mm2. For a linear force–displacement relationship, this corresponds to a work done per unit area of 25 mN·µm/mm2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microsystems for Power, Energy, and Actuation)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Poly(ionic liquid)s Based Brush Type Nanomotor
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070364
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A brush type nanomotor was fabricated via assembly assistant polymerization of poly(ionic liquid) and surface grafting polymerization. The method for large-scale fabrication of brush nanomotors with soft surfaces is described. These soft locomotive particles are based on core-shell brush nanoparticles assembled from poly(ionic
[...] Read more.
A brush type nanomotor was fabricated via assembly assistant polymerization of poly(ionic liquid) and surface grafting polymerization. The method for large-scale fabrication of brush nanomotors with soft surfaces is described. These soft locomotive particles are based on core-shell brush nanoparticles assembled from poly(ionic liquid) as core and thermoresponsive PNIPAM as brush shells on which platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) were grown in situ. The particles show non-Brownian motion in H2O2 solution. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Stabilization of Microrobot Motion Characteristics in Liquid Media
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070363
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (14403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetically actuated microrobot in a liquid media is faced with the problem of head-tilting reaction caused by its hydrodynamic structure and its speed while moving horizontally. When the instance microrobot starts a lateral motion, the drag force acting on it increases. Thus, the
[...] Read more.
Magnetically actuated microrobot in a liquid media is faced with the problem of head-tilting reaction caused by its hydrodynamic structure and its speed while moving horizontally. When the instance microrobot starts a lateral motion, the drag force acting on it increases. Thus, the microrobot is unable to move parallel to the surface due to the existence of drag force that cannot be neglected, particularly at high speeds such as >5 mm/s. The effect of it scales exponentially at different speeds and the head-tilting angle of the microrobot changes relative to the reference surface. To the best of our knowledge, there is no prior study on this problem, and no solution has been proposed so far. In this study, we developed and experimented with 3 control models to stabilize microrobot motion characteristics in liquid media to achieve accurate lateral locomotion. The microrobot moves in an untethered manner, and its localization is carried out by a neodymium magnet (grade N48) placed inside its polymer body. This permanent magnet is called a carrier-magnet. The fabricated microrobot is levitated diamagnetically using a pyrolytic graphite placed under it and an external permanent magnet, called a lifter-magnet (grade N48), aligned above it. The lifter-magnet is attached to a servo motor mechanism which can control carrier-magnet orientation along with roll and pitch axes. Controlling the angle of this servo motor, together with the lifter-magnet, allowed us to cope with the head-tilting reaction instantly. Based on the finite element method (FEM), analyses that were designed according to this experimental setup, the equations giving the relation of microrobot speed with servo motor angle along with the microrobot head-tilting angle with servo motor angle, were derived. The control inputs were obtained by COMSOL® (version 5.3, COMSOL Inc., Stockholm, Sweden). Using these derived equations, the rule-based model, laser model, and hybrid model techniques were proposed in this study to decrease the head-tilting angle. Motion control algorithms were applied in di-ionized water medium. According to the results for these 3 control strategies, at higher speeds (>5 mm/s) and 5 mm horizontal motion trajectory, the average head-tilting angle was reduced to 2.7° with the ruled-based model, 1.1° with the laser model, and 0.7° with the hybrid model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro-/Nano-system and Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Improved Phase-Robust Configuration for Vibration Amplitude-Phase Extraction for Capacitive MEMS Gyroscopes
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070362
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents for the first time an improved algorithm for vibration amplitude-phase information extraction of capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes. Amplitude and phase information resulting from the improved algorithm is insensitive to the phase variation of an interface capacitance-voltage (CV) circuit, thus
[...] Read more.
This paper presents for the first time an improved algorithm for vibration amplitude-phase information extraction of capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes. Amplitude and phase information resulting from the improved algorithm is insensitive to the phase variation of an interface capacitance-voltage (CV) circuit, thus both long time drift of the gyroscope and bias instability have been improved. Experimental results show that both the phase and amplitude information extracted using this improved algorithm is insensitive to phase variation of CV circuit which is in accordance with theory. Bias instability using this improved configuration is 0.64°/h, which is improved two times more than the configuration using traditional double-side-band (DSB) demodulation configuration, and 4.3 times more than the configuration using single-side-band (SSB) demodulation, respectively. Allan deviation analysis shows that the slow varying drift term using D&S configuration is effectively reduced due to its robustness to CV phase variation compared to test results using DSB or SSB configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro-/Nano-system and Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Topic Review: Application of Raman Spectroscopy Characterization in Micro/Nano-Machining
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070361
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (10408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The defects and subsurface damages induced by crystal growth and micro/nano-machining have a significant impact on the functional performance of machined products. Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, powerful, and non-destructive testing method to characterize these defects and subsurface damages. This paper aims to
[...] Read more.
The defects and subsurface damages induced by crystal growth and micro/nano-machining have a significant impact on the functional performance of machined products. Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, powerful, and non-destructive testing method to characterize these defects and subsurface damages. This paper aims to review the fundamentals and applications of Raman spectroscopy on the characterization of defects and subsurface damages in micro/nano-machining. Firstly, the principle and several critical parameters (such as penetration depth, laser spot size, and so on) involved in the Raman characterization are introduced. Then, the mechanism of Raman spectroscopy for detection of defects and subsurface damages is discussed. The Raman spectroscopy characterization of semiconductor materials’ stacking faults, phase transformation, and residual stress in micro/nano-machining is discussed in detail. Identification and characterization of phase transformation and stacking faults for Si and SiC is feasible using the information of new Raman bands. Based on the Raman band position shift and Raman intensity ratio, Raman spectroscopy can be used to quantitatively calculate the residual stress and the thickness of the subsurface damage layer of semiconductor materials. The Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS) technique is helpful to dramatically enhance the Raman scattering signal at weak damages and it is considered as a promising research field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro-Machining: Challenges and Opportunities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Liquid Metal Enabled Electrobiology: A New Frontier to Tackle Disease Challenges
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070360
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (7495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, a new conceptual biomedical engineering strategy to tackle modern disease challenges, called liquid metal (LM) enabled electrobiology, is proposed. This generalized and simple method is based on the physiological fact that specially administrated electricity induces a series of subsequent desired
[...] Read more.
In this article, a new conceptual biomedical engineering strategy to tackle modern disease challenges, called liquid metal (LM) enabled electrobiology, is proposed. This generalized and simple method is based on the physiological fact that specially administrated electricity induces a series of subsequent desired biological effects, either shortly, transitionally, or permanently. Due to high compliance within biological tissues, LM would help mold a pervasive method for treating physiological or psychological diseases. As highly conductive and non-toxic multifunctional flexible materials, such LMs can generate any requested electric treating fields (ETFields), which can adapt to various sites inside the human body. The basic mechanisms of electrobiology in delivering electricity to the target tissues and then inducing expected outputs for disease treatment are interpreted. The methods for realizing soft and conformable electronics based on LM are illustrated. Furthermore, a group of typical disease challenges are observed to illustrate the basic strategies for performing LM electrobiology therapy, which include but are not limited to: tissue electronics, brain disorder, immunotherapy, neural functional recovery, muscle stimulation, skin rejuvenation, cosmetology and dieting, artificial organs, cardiac pacing, cancer therapy, etc. Some practical issues regarding electrobiology for future disease therapy are discussed. Perspectives in this direction for incubating a simple biomedical tool for health care are pointed out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Flexible and Stretchable Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting System on Operating Rolling Stock
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070359
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
PDF Full-text (4772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During rolling stock operation, various kinds of energy such as vibration, heat, and train-induced wind are dissipated. The amount of energy dissipation cannot be overlooked when a heavy railroad vehicle operates at high speed. Therefore, if the wasted energy is effectively harvested, it
[...] Read more.
During rolling stock operation, various kinds of energy such as vibration, heat, and train-induced wind are dissipated. The amount of energy dissipation cannot be overlooked when a heavy railroad vehicle operates at high speed. Therefore, if the wasted energy is effectively harvested, it can be used to power components like low power sensor nodes. This study aims to review a method of collecting waste heat, caused by the axle bearing of bogie in a rolling stock. A thermoelectric module (TEM) was used to convert the temperature gradient between the surface of the axle bearing housing and the outdoor air into electric energy. In this study, the output performance by temperature difference in the TEM was lab-tested and maximized by computational fluid analysis of the cooling fins. The optimized thermoelectric energy harvesting system (TEHS) was designed and applied on a rolling stock to analyze the power-generating performance under operation. When the rolling stock was operated for approximately 57 min including an interval of maximum speed of 300 km/h, the maximum open circuit voltage was measured at approximately 0.4 V. Based on this study, the system is expected to be utilized as a self-powered independent monitoring system if applied to a low-power sensor node in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanogenerators in Korea)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Magnetically Actuated Fluidic Drug Delivery Device Using Polyvinyl Chloride Adhesive Stencils
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070358
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
PDF Full-text (16527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabrication method is introduced. It eliminates the need for conventional fabrication methods, such as photolithography and etching. Only a series of oxygen plasma treatments, silanization, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) adhesive stencils were used to develop multi-layer designs.
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabrication method is introduced. It eliminates the need for conventional fabrication methods, such as photolithography and etching. Only a series of oxygen plasma treatments, silanization, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) adhesive stencils were used to develop multi-layer designs. The fabrication method was applied to fabricate a PDMS-based drug delivery device with an actively controllable, magnetically actuated valve. Above all, this fabrication method eliminated the use of a power-consuming pump. Fluidic substances were injected into the circular shaped primary chamber through a syringe. A secondary chamber, similar to the primary chamber’s structure but with a smaller radius and thinner membrane, was connected via a microchannel to regulate the amount released. When actuated with a permanent magnet for one second, the volume in the secondary chamber first depletes. As the magnet is removed, the valve closes. Subsequently, the primary chamber replenishes the secondary chamber. This process can be repeated until the primary chamber reaches a saturation state that can no longer inflate the secondary chamber. The device could release a few microliters per actuation. Various combinations of size and thickness of primary, and secondary chambers can realize release rate of desired amount. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Study on Microturning with Electrochemical Assistance of the Cutting Process
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070357
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
PDF Full-text (4688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper investigated an electrochemically-assisted microturning process. Depending on the variant of electrochemical assistance, material can be removed with simultaneous electrochemical and mechanical action or electrochemical assistance can change the conditions of the cutting by changing the mechanical properties of the machined material.
[...] Read more.
The paper investigated an electrochemically-assisted microturning process. Depending on the variant of electrochemical assistance, material can be removed with simultaneous electrochemical and mechanical action or electrochemical assistance can change the conditions of the cutting by changing the mechanical properties of the machined material. The experimental part includes discussion of the study methodology and a comparison of straight turning results in the case of machining 1.4301 stainless steel with and without electrochemical assistance. Based on this study, we can confirm that electrochemical assistance brings significant benefits in both variants, especially when the depth-of-cut is in the range of 1 µm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced MEMS/NEMS Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Compound Glass Microsphere Resonator Devices
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070356
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
PDF Full-text (5601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, compound glass microsphere resonator devices have attracted increasing interest and have been widely used in sensing, microsphere lasers, and nonlinear optics. Compared with traditional silica resonators, compound glass microsphere resonators have many significant and attractive properties, such as high-Q factor,
[...] Read more.
In recent years, compound glass microsphere resonator devices have attracted increasing interest and have been widely used in sensing, microsphere lasers, and nonlinear optics. Compared with traditional silica resonators, compound glass microsphere resonators have many significant and attractive properties, such as high-Q factor, an ability to achieve high rare earth ion, wide infrared transmittance, and low phonon energy. This review provides a summary and a critical assessment of the fabrication and the optical characterization of compound glasses and the related fabrication and applications of compound glass microsphere resonators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials Based Microdevices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Injection Compression Molded Microlens Arrays for Hyperspectral Imaging
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070355
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
PDF Full-text (5262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a polymer microlens array (MLA) for a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system is produced by means of ultraprecision milling (UP-milling) and injection compression molding. Due to the large number of over 12,000 microlenses on less than 2 cm², the fabrication process
[...] Read more.
In this work, a polymer microlens array (MLA) for a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system is produced by means of ultraprecision milling (UP-milling) and injection compression molding. Due to the large number of over 12,000 microlenses on less than 2 cm², the fabrication process is challenging and requires full process control. The study evaluates the process chain and optimizes the single process steps to achieve high quality polymer MLAs. Furthermore, design elements like mounting features are included to facilitate the integration into the final HSI system. The mold insert was produced using ultraprecision milling with a diamond cutting tool. The machining time was optimized to avoid temperature drifts and enable high accuracy. Therefore, single immersions of the diamond tool at a defined angle was used to fabricate each microlens. The MLAs were replicated using injection compression molding. For this process, an injection compression molding tool with moveable frame plate was designed and fabricated. The structured mold insert was used to generate the compression movement, resulting in a homogeneous pressure distribution. The characterization of the MLAs showed high form accuracy of the microlenses and the mounting features. The functionality of the molded optical part could be demonstrated in an HIS system by focusing light spectrums onto a CCD image sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro-/Nano-system and Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Selective Detection of NO and NO2 with CNTs-Based Ionization Sensor Array
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070354
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The accurate detection of NOx is an important issue, because nitrogen oxides are not only environmental pollutants, but also harm to human health. An array composed of two carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based ionization sensors with different separations is proposed for NO and NO
[...] Read more.
The accurate detection of NOx is an important issue, because nitrogen oxides are not only environmental pollutants, but also harm to human health. An array composed of two carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based ionization sensors with different separations is proposed for NO and NO2 selective detection. The experimental results indicate that the CNTs-based ionization sensor has an intrinsic, monotonically decreasing response to NO or NO2. The sensor with 80 µm separations and 100 µm separations exhibited the highest sensitivity of −0.11 nA/ppm to 300 ppm NO and −0.49 nA /ppm to 70 ppm NO2, respectively. Although the effect of the NO2 concentration on the NO response is much stronger than that of NO on NO2, the array of these two sensors still exhibits the ability to simultaneously detect the concentrations of NO and NO2 in a gas mixture without component separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Electronic Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Progress in Circulating Tumor Cell Research Using Microfluidic Devices
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070353
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a popular topic in cancer research because they can be obtained by liquid biopsy, a minimally invasive procedure with more sample accessibility than tissue biopsy, to monitor a patient’s condition. Over the past decades, CTC research has covered
[...] Read more.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a popular topic in cancer research because they can be obtained by liquid biopsy, a minimally invasive procedure with more sample accessibility than tissue biopsy, to monitor a patient’s condition. Over the past decades, CTC research has covered a wide variety of topics such as enumeration, profiling, and correlation between CTC number and patient overall survival. It is important to isolate and enrich CTCs before performing CTC analysis because CTCs in the blood stream are very rare (0–10 CTCs/mL of blood). Among the various approaches to separating CTCs, here, we review the research trends in the isolation and analysis of CTCs using microfluidics. Microfluidics provides many attractive advantages for CTC studies such as continuous sample processing to reduce target cell loss and easy integration of various functions into a chip, making “do-everything-on-a-chip” possible. However, tumor cells obtained from different sites within a tumor exhibit heterogenetic features. Thus, heterogeneous CTC profiling should be conducted at a single-cell level after isolation to guide the optimal therapeutic path. We describe the studies on single-CTC analysis based on microfluidic devices. Additionally, as a critical concern in CTC studies, we explain the use of CTCs in cancer research, despite their rarity and heterogeneity, compared with other currently emerging circulating biomarkers, including exosomes and cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Finally, the commercialization of products for CTC separation and analysis is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Circulating Biomarkers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Tongue Pressure Sensing Array Integrated with a System-on-Chip Embedded in a Mandibular Advancement Splint
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070352
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
PDF Full-text (7203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is caused by obstructions of the upper airway, is a syndrome with rising prevalence. Mandibular advancement splints (MAS) are oral appliances for potential treatment of OSA. This work proposes a highly-sensitive pressure sensing array integrated with a system-on-chip
[...] Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is caused by obstructions of the upper airway, is a syndrome with rising prevalence. Mandibular advancement splints (MAS) are oral appliances for potential treatment of OSA. This work proposes a highly-sensitive pressure sensing array integrated with a system-on-chip (SoC) embedded in a MAS. The device aims to measure tongue pressure distribution in order to determine the efficacy of the MAS for treating OSA. The flexible sensing array consists of an interdigital electrode pair array assembled with conductive polymer films and an SoC capable of retrieving/storing data during sleep, and transmitting data for analysis after sleep monitoring. The surfaces of the conductive polymer films were patterned with microdomed structures, which effectively increased the sensitivity and reduced the pressure sensing response time. The measured results also show that the crosstalk effect between the sensing elements of the array was negligible. The sensitivity of the sensing array changed minimally after the device was submerged in water for up to 100 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Microdevices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Updated Tactile Feedback with a Pin Array Matrix Helps Blind People to Reduce Self-Location Errors
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070351
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
PDF Full-text (8732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autonomous navigation in novel environments still represents a challenge for people with visual impairment (VI). Pin array matrices (PAM) are an effective way to display spatial information to VI people in educative/rehabilitative contexts, as they provide high flexibility and versatility. Here, we tested
[...] Read more.
Autonomous navigation in novel environments still represents a challenge for people with visual impairment (VI). Pin array matrices (PAM) are an effective way to display spatial information to VI people in educative/rehabilitative contexts, as they provide high flexibility and versatility. Here, we tested the effectiveness of a PAM in VI participants in an orientation and mobility task. They haptically explored a map showing a scaled representation of a real room on the PAM. The map further included a symbol indicating a virtual target position. Then, participants entered the room and attempted to reach the target three times. While a control group only reviewed the same, unchanged map on the PAM between trials, an experimental group also received an updated map representing, in addition, the position they previously reached in the room. The experimental group significantly improved across trials by having both reduced self-location errors and reduced completion time, unlike the control group. We found that learning spatial layouts through updated tactile feedback on programmable displays outperforms conventional procedures on static tactile maps. This could represent a powerful tool for navigation, both in rehabilitation and everyday life contexts, improving spatial abilities and promoting independent living for VI people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tactile Sensing for Soft Robotics and Wearables)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Graphene-Based Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photodetectors
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070350
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
PDF Full-text (8584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are highly attractive for photodetector (PD) applications due to their excellent electrical and optical properties. The emergence of graphene/semiconductor hybrid heterostructures provides a platform useful for fabricating high-performance optoelectronic devices, thereby overcoming the inherent limitations of graphene. Here, we
[...] Read more.
Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are highly attractive for photodetector (PD) applications due to their excellent electrical and optical properties. The emergence of graphene/semiconductor hybrid heterostructures provides a platform useful for fabricating high-performance optoelectronic devices, thereby overcoming the inherent limitations of graphene. Here, we review the studies of PDs based on graphene/semiconductor hybrid heterostructures, including device physics/design, performance, and process technologies for the optimization of PDs. In the last section, existing technologies and future challenges for PD applications of graphene/semiconductor hybrid heterostructures are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Scale Materials for Electronic and Photonic Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Process Parameters on Material Removal in Vibration-Assisted Polishing of Micro-Optic Mold
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070349
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
PDF Full-text (6317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Process parameter conditions such as vibrating motion, abrasives, pressure and tool wear play an important role in vibration-assisted polishing of micro-optic molds as they strongly affect material removal efficiency and stability. This paper presents an analytical and experimental investigation on the effects of
[...] Read more.
Process parameter conditions such as vibrating motion, abrasives, pressure and tool wear play an important role in vibration-assisted polishing of micro-optic molds as they strongly affect material removal efficiency and stability. This paper presents an analytical and experimental investigation on the effects of process parameters, aimed at clarifying interrelations between material removal and process parameters which affect polishing quantitatively. The material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness which represent the polishing characteristics were examined under different vibrating motions, grain sizes of abrasives and polishing pressure. The effects of pressure and tool wear conditions on tool influence function were analyzed. The results showed that 2D vibrating motion generated better surface roughness with higher material removal efficiency while a smaller grain size of abrasives created better surface roughness but lower material removal efficiency. MRR gradually decreases with the increase of polishing pressure when it exceeds 345 kPa, and it was greatly affected by the wear of polisher when wear diameter on the polisher’s head exceeds 300 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro-Machining: Challenges and Opportunities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improved Virtual Gyroscope Technology Based on the ARMA Model
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070348
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In view of the large output noise and low precision of the Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscope, the virtual gyroscope technology was used to fuse the data of the MEMS gyroscope to improve its output precision. Random error model in the conventional virtual gyroscopes
[...] Read more.
In view of the large output noise and low precision of the Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscope, the virtual gyroscope technology was used to fuse the data of the MEMS gyroscope to improve its output precision. Random error model in the conventional virtual gyroscopes contained an angular rate random walk and angle random walk ignoring other noise items and the virtual gyroscope technology can not compensate all random errors of MEMS gyroscope. So, the improved virtual gyroscope technology based on the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was proposed. First, the conventional virtual gyroscope technology was used to model the random error of three MEMS gyroscopes, and the data fusion was carried out by a Kalman filter to get the output of the virtual gyroscope. After that, the ARMA model was used to model the output of the virtual gyroscope, the random error model was improved with the ARMA model, and the Kalman filter was designed based on the improved random error model for data fusion of the MEMS gyroscopes. The experimental results showed that the 1σ standard deviation of the output of the virtual gyroscope based on the ARMA model was 1.4 times lower than that of the conventional virtual gyroscope output. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced MEMS/NEMS Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Reconfigurable Sensor Analog Front-End Using Low-Noise Chopper-Stabilized Delta-Sigma Capacitance-to-Digital Converter
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070347
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
PDF Full-text (10236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a reconfigurable sensor analog front-end using low-noise chopper-stabilized delta-sigma capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) for capacitive microsensors. The proposed reconfigurable sensor analog front-end can drive both capacitive microsensors and voltage signals by direct conversion without a front-end amplifier. The reconfigurable scheme of
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a reconfigurable sensor analog front-end using low-noise chopper-stabilized delta-sigma capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) for capacitive microsensors. The proposed reconfigurable sensor analog front-end can drive both capacitive microsensors and voltage signals by direct conversion without a front-end amplifier. The reconfigurable scheme of the front-end can be implemented in various multi-mode applications, where it is equipped with a fully integrated temperature sensor. A chopper stabilization technique is implemented here to achieve a low-noise characteristic by reducing unexpected low-frequency noises such as offsets and flicker noise. The prototype chip of the proposed sensor analog front-end is fabricated by a standard 0.18-μm 1-poly-6-metal (1P6M) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. It occupies a total active area of 5.37 mm2 and achieves an effective resolution of 16.3-bit. The total power consumption is 0.843 mW with a 1.8 V power supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface Circuits for Microsensor Integrated Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Recent Progress in Rapid Sintering of Nanosilver for Electronics Applications
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070346
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, nanosilver pastes have emerged as one of the most promising high temperature bonding materials for high frequency and high power applications, which provide an effective lead-free electronic packaging solution instead of high-lead and gold-based solders. Although nanosilver pastes can be sintered at
[...] Read more.
Recently, nanosilver pastes have emerged as one of the most promising high temperature bonding materials for high frequency and high power applications, which provide an effective lead-free electronic packaging solution instead of high-lead and gold-based solders. Although nanosilver pastes can be sintered at lower temperature compared to bulk silver, applications of nanosilver pastes are limited by long-term sintering time (20–30 min), relative high sintering temperature (>250 °C), and applied external pressure, which may damage chips and electronic components. Therefore, low temperature rapid sintering processes that can obtain excellent nanosilver joints are anticipated. In this regard, we present a review of recent progress in the rapid sintering of nanosilver pastes. Preparation of nanosilver particles and pastes, mechanisms of nanopastes sintering, and different rapid sintering processes are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the properties of sintered joints obtained by different sintering processes such as electric current assisted sintering, spark plasma sintering, and laser sintering, etc. Although the research on rapid sintering processes for nanosilver pastes has made a great breakthrough over the past few decades, investigations on mechanisms of rapid sintering, and the performance of joints fabricated by pastes with different compositions and morphologies are still far from enough. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface Circuits for Microsensor Integrated Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle 2D Optical Gratings Based on Hexagonal Voids on Transparent Elastomeric Substrate
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070345
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
PDF Full-text (2659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A chromatic vectorial strain sensor constituted by hexagonal voids on transparent elastomeric substrate has been successfully fabricated via soft colloidal lithography. Initially a highly ordered 1.6 microns polystyrene spheres monolayer colloidal crystal has been realized by wedge-shaped cell method and used as a
[...] Read more.
A chromatic vectorial strain sensor constituted by hexagonal voids on transparent elastomeric substrate has been successfully fabricated via soft colloidal lithography. Initially a highly ordered 1.6 microns polystyrene spheres monolayer colloidal crystal has been realized by wedge-shaped cell method and used as a suitable mold to replicate the periodic structure on a polydimethylsiloxane sheet. The replicated 2D array is characterized by high periodicity and regularity over a large area, as evidenced by morphological and optical properties obtained by means of SEM, absorption and reflectance spectroscopy. In particular, the optical features of the nanostructured elastomer have been investigated in respect to uniaxial deformation up to 10% of its initial length, demonstrating a linear, tunable and reversible response, with a sensitivity of 4.5 ± 0.1 nm/%. Finally, it has been demonstrated that the specific geometrical configuration allows determining simultaneously the vectorial strain-stress information in the x and y directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials Based Microdevices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Frequency Characteristic of Resonant Micro Fluidic Chip for Oil Detection Based on Resistance Parameter
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070344
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
PDF Full-text (4365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monitoring the working condition of hydraulic equipment is significance in industrial fields. The abnormal wear of the hydraulic system can be revealed by detecting the variety and size of micro metal debris in the hydraulic oil. We thus present the design and implementation
[...] Read more.
Monitoring the working condition of hydraulic equipment is significance in industrial fields. The abnormal wear of the hydraulic system can be revealed by detecting the variety and size of micro metal debris in the hydraulic oil. We thus present the design and implementation of a micro detection system of hydraulic oil metal debris based on inductor capacitor (LC) resonant circuit in this paper. By changing the resonant frequency of the micro fluidic chip, we can detect the metal debris of hydraulic oil and analyze the sensitivity of the micro fluidic chip at different resonant frequencies. We then obtained the most suitable resonant frequency. The chip would generate a positive resistance pulse when the iron particles pass through the detection area and the sensitivity of the chip decreased with resonant frequency. The chip would generate a negative resistance pulse when the copper particles pass through the detection area and the sensitivity of the chip increased with resonant frequency. The experimental results show that the change of resonant frequency has a great effect on the copper particles and little on the iron particles. Thus, a relatively big resonant frequency can be selected for chip designing and testing. In practice, we can choose a relatively big resonant frequency in this micro fluidic chip designing. The resonant micro fluidic chip is capable of detecting 20–30 μm iron particles and 70–80 μm copper particles at 0.9 MHz resonant frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS Sensors: Fabrication and Application)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Resonant Directly Coupled Inductors–Capacitors Ladder Network Shows a New, Interesting Property Useful for Application in the Sensor Field, Down to Micrometric Dimensions
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070343
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
PDF Full-text (11891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study of ladder networks made by sequences of directly coupled inductor–capacitor single cells has led us to discover a new property, which may be of certain interest in the sensor field. In the case of n cells, the n-frequencies vector characterizing each
[...] Read more.
The study of ladder networks made by sequences of directly coupled inductor–capacitor single cells has led us to discover a new property, which may be of certain interest in the sensor field. In the case of n cells, the n-frequencies vector characterizing each node may allow for the identification of that capacitor (sensor), which has experienced a variation of its nominal value. This localization is possible independently from the observable node of the ladder network as proven by the application of the following multivariate data analysis techniques: principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis. This property can be applied on a large scale down to micrometric dimensions in agreement with the technologic ability to shrink the capacitive sensor dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interface Circuits for Microsensor Integrated Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle AFM-Based Characterization Method of Capacitive MEMS Pressure Sensors for Cardiological Applications
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070342
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
PDF Full-text (7380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current CMOS-micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technologies permit cardiological implantable devices with sensing capabilities, such as the iStents, to be developed in such a way that MEMS sensors can be monolithically integrated together with a powering/transmitting CMOS circuitry. This system on chip fabrication allows
[...] Read more.
Current CMOS-micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technologies permit cardiological implantable devices with sensing capabilities, such as the iStents, to be developed in such a way that MEMS sensors can be monolithically integrated together with a powering/transmitting CMOS circuitry. This system on chip fabrication allows the devices to meet the crucial requirements of accuracy, reliability, low-power, and reduced size that any life-sustaining medical application imposes. In this regard, the characterization of stand-alone prototype sensors in an efficient but affordable way to verify sensor performance and to better recognize further areas of improvement is highly advisable. This work proposes a novel characterization method based on an atomic force microscope (AFM) in contact mode that permits to calculate the maximum deflection of the flexible top plate of a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor without coating, under a concentrated load applied to its center. The experimental measurements obtained with this method have allowed to verify the bending behavior of the sensor as predicted by simulation of analytical and finite element (FE) models. This validation process has been carried out on two sensor prototypes with circular and square geometries that were designed using a computer-aided design tool specially-developed for capacitive MEMS pressure sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of CMOS-MEMS/NEMS Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Comprehensive Simulations for Ultraviolet Lithography Process of Thick SU-8 Photoresist
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070341
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thick SU-8 photoresist has been a popular photoresist material to fabricate various mechanical, biological, and chemical devices for many years. The accuracy and precision of the ultraviolet (UV) lithography process of thick SU-8 depend on key parameters in the set-up, the material properties
[...] Read more.
Thick SU-8 photoresist has been a popular photoresist material to fabricate various mechanical, biological, and chemical devices for many years. The accuracy and precision of the ultraviolet (UV) lithography process of thick SU-8 depend on key parameters in the set-up, the material properties of the SU-8 resist, and the thickness of the resist structure. As feature sizes get smaller and pattern complexity increases, accurate control and efficient optimization of the lithography process are significantly expected. Numerical simulations can be employed to improve understanding and process design of the SU-8 lithography, thereby allowing rapid related product and process development. A typical comprehensive lithography of UV lithography of thick SU-8 includes aerial image simulation, exposure simulation, post-exposure bake (PEB) simulation, and development simulation, and this article presents an overview of the essential aspects in the comprehensive simulation. At first, models for the lithography process of the SU-8 are discussed. Then, main algorithms for etching surface evolvement, including the string, ray tracing, cellular automaton, and fast marching algorithms, are introduced and compared with each other in terms of performance. After that, some simulation results of the UV lithography process of the SU-8 are presented, demonstrating the promising potential and efficiency of the simulation technology. Finally, a prospect is discussed for some open questions in three-dimensional (3D) comprehensive simulation of the UV lithography of the SU-8. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micro-/Nano-system and Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Salivary Exosome and Cell-Free DNA for Cancer Detection
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070340
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liquid biopsies are easier to acquire patient derived samples than conventional tissue biopsies, and their use enables real-time monitoring of the disease through continuous sampling after initial diagnosis, resulting in a paradigm shift to customized treatment according to the patient’s prognosis. Among the
[...] Read more.
Liquid biopsies are easier to acquire patient derived samples than conventional tissue biopsies, and their use enables real-time monitoring of the disease through continuous sampling after initial diagnosis, resulting in a paradigm shift to customized treatment according to the patient’s prognosis. Among the various liquid biopsy samples, saliva is easily obtained by spitting or swab sucking without needing an expert for sample collection. In addition, it is known that disease related biomarkers that exist in the blood and have undergone extensive research exist in saliva even at a lower concentration than the blood. Thus, interest in the use of saliva as a liquid biopsy has increased. In this review, we focused on the salivary exosome and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) among the various biomarkers in saliva. Since the exosome and cfDNA in saliva are present at lower concentrations than the biomarkers in blood, it is important to separate and concentrate them before conducting down-stream analyses such as exosome cargo analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and sequencing. However, saliva is difficult to apply directly to microfluidics-based systems for separation because of its high viscosity and the presence of various foreign substances. Therefore, we reviewed the microfluidics-based saliva pretreatment method and then compared the commercially available kit and the microfluidic chip for isolation and enrichment of the exosome and cfDNA in saliva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Circulating Biomarkers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Possibility of Controlling Self-Organized Patterns with Totalistic Cellular Automata Consisting of Both Rules like Game of Life and Rules Producing Turing Patterns
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070339
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
PDF Full-text (9783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The basic rules of self-organization using a totalistic cellular automaton (CA) were investigated, for which the cell state was determined by summing the states of neighboring cells, like in Conway’s Game of Life. This study used a short-range and long-range summation of the
[...] Read more.
The basic rules of self-organization using a totalistic cellular automaton (CA) were investigated, for which the cell state was determined by summing the states of neighboring cells, like in Conway’s Game of Life. This study used a short-range and long-range summation of the cell states around the focal cell. These resemble reaction-diffusion (RD) equations, in which self-organizing behavior emerges from interactions between an activating factor and an inhibiting factor. In addition, Game-of-Life-type rules, in which a cell cannot survive when adjoined by too many or too few living cells, were applied. Our model was able to mimic patterns characteristic of biological cells, including movement, growth, and reproduction. This result suggests the possibility of controlling self-organized patterns. Our model can also be applied to the control of engineering systems, such as multirobot swarms and self-assembling microrobots. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Adaptive Backstepping Design of a Microgyroscope
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070338
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel algorithm for the design and analysis of an adaptive backstepping controller (ABC) for a microgyroscope. Firstly, Lagrange–Maxwell electromechanical equations are established to derive the dynamic model of a z-axis microgyroscope. Secondly, a nonlinear controller as a backstepping
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel algorithm for the design and analysis of an adaptive backstepping controller (ABC) for a microgyroscope. Firstly, Lagrange–Maxwell electromechanical equations are established to derive the dynamic model of a z-axis microgyroscope. Secondly, a nonlinear controller as a backstepping design approach is introduced and deployed in order to drive the trajectory tracking errors to converge to zero with asymptotic stability. Meanwhile, an adaptive estimator is developed and implemented with the backstepping controller to update the value of the parameter estimates in the Lyapunov framework in real-time. In addition, the unknown system parameters including the angular velocity may be estimated online if the persistent excitation (PE) requirement is met. A robust compensator is incorporated in the adaptive backstepping algorithm to suppress the parameter variations and external disturbances. Finally, simulation studies are conducted to prove the validity of the proposed ABC scheme with guaranteed asymptotic stability and excellent tracking performance, as well as consistent parameter estimates in the presence of model uncertainties and disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS Sensors: Fabrication and Application)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview A Review of the Precision Glass Molding of Chalcogenide Glass (ChG) for Infrared Optics
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070337
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
PDF Full-text (17003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chalcogenide glass (ChG) is increasingly demanded in infrared optical systems owing to its excellent infrared optical properties. ChG infrared optics including ChG aspherical and freeform optics are mainly fabricated using the single point diamond turning (SPDT) technique, which is characterized by high cost
[...] Read more.
Chalcogenide glass (ChG) is increasingly demanded in infrared optical systems owing to its excellent infrared optical properties. ChG infrared optics including ChG aspherical and freeform optics are mainly fabricated using the single point diamond turning (SPDT) technique, which is characterized by high cost and low efficiency. This paper presents an overview of the ChG infrared optics fabrication technique through precision glass molding (PGM). It introduces the thermo-mechanical properties of ChG and models the elastic-viscoplasticity constitutive of ChG. The forming accuracy and surface defects of the formed ChG are discussed, and the countermeasures to improve the optics quality are also reviewed. Moreover, the latest advancements in ChG precision molding are detailed, including the aspherical lens molding process, the ChG freeform optics molding process, and some new improvements in PGM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials Based Microdevices)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top