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Genes, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In the absence of BPS1 gene function, plants overproduce a mobile BPS1 signaling compound in roots, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Identification of a Common Different Gene Expression Signature in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) remain poorly understood. Gene expression profiling is helpful to discover the molecular changes taking place in ICM. The aim of this study was to identify the genes that are significantly changed during the
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The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) remain poorly understood. Gene expression profiling is helpful to discover the molecular changes taking place in ICM. The aim of this study was to identify the genes that are significantly changed during the development of heart failure caused by ICM. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from 162 control samples and 227 ICM patients. PANTHER was used to perform gene ontology (GO), and Reactome for pathway enrichment analysis. A protein–protein interaction network was established using STRING and Cytoscape. A further validation was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 255 common DEGs was found. Gene ontology, pathway enrichment, and protein–protein interaction analysis showed that nucleic acid-binding proteins, enzymes, and transcription factors accounted for a great part of the DEGs, while immune system signaling and cytokine signaling displayed the most significant changes. Furthermore, seven hub genes and nine transcription factors were identified. Interestingly, the top five upregulated DEGs were located on chromosome Y, and four of the top five downregulated DEGs were involved in immune and inflammation signaling. Further, the top DEGs were validated by RT-PCR in human samples. Our study explored the possible molecular mechanisms of heart failure caused by ischemic heart disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Metagenomics of Bacterial Diversity in Villa Luz Caves with Sulfur Water Springs
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
New biotechnology applications require in-depth preliminary studies of biodiversity. The methods of massive sequencing using metagenomics and bioinformatics tools offer us sufficient and reliable knowledge to understand environmental diversity, to know new microorganisms, and to take advantage of their functional genes. Villa Luz
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New biotechnology applications require in-depth preliminary studies of biodiversity. The methods of massive sequencing using metagenomics and bioinformatics tools offer us sufficient and reliable knowledge to understand environmental diversity, to know new microorganisms, and to take advantage of their functional genes. Villa Luz caves, in the southern Mexican state of Tabasco, are fed by at least 26 groundwater inlets, containing 300–500 mg L−1 H2S and <0.1 mg L−1 O2. We extracted environmental DNA for metagenomic analysis of collected samples in five selected Villa Luz caves sites, with pH values from 2.5 to 7. Foreign organisms found in this underground ecosystem can oxidize H2S to H2SO4. These include: biovermiculites, a bacterial association that can grow on the rock walls; snottites, that are whitish, viscous biofilms hanging from the rock walls, and sacks or bags of phlegm, which live within the aquatic environment of the springs. Through the emergency food assistance program (TEFAP) pyrosequencing, a total of 20,901 readings of amplification products from hypervariable regions V1 and V3 of 16S rRNA bacterial gene in whole and pure metagenomic DNA samples were generated. Seven bacterial phyla were identified. As a result, Proteobacteria was more frequent than Acidobacteria. Finally, acidophilic Proteobacteria was detected in UJAT5 sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Extremophiles)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of the Potato bHLH Transcription Factor Family
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Plant basic/helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors participate in a number of biological processes, such as growth, development and abiotic stress responses. The bHLH family has been identified in many plants, and several bHLH transcription factors have been functionally characterized in Arabidopsis. However, no
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Plant basic/helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors participate in a number of biological processes, such as growth, development and abiotic stress responses. The bHLH family has been identified in many plants, and several bHLH transcription factors have been functionally characterized in Arabidopsis. However, no systematic identification of bHLH family members has been reported in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here, 124 StbHLH genes were identified and named according to their chromosomal locations. The intron numbers varied from zero to seven. Most StbHLH proteins had the highly conserved intron phase 0, which accounted for 86.2% of the introns. According to the Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, 259 bHLH proteins acquired from Arabidopsis and potato were divided into 15 groups. All of the StbHLH genes were randomly distributed on 12 chromosomes, and 20 tandem duplicated genes and four pairs of duplicated gene segments were detected in the StbHLH family. The gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that StbHLH mainly function in protein and DNA binding. Through the RNA-seq and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses, StbHLH were found to be expressed in various tissues and to respond to abiotic stresses, including salt, drought and heat. StbHLH1, 41 and 60 were highly expressed in flower tissues, and were predicted to be involved in flower development by GO annotation. StbHLH45 was highly expressed in salt, drought and heat stress, which suggested its important role in abiotic stress response. The results provide comprehensive information for further analyses of the molecular functions of the StbHLH gene family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle MHC-Dependent Mate Selection within 872 Spousal Pairs of European Ancestry from the Health and Retirement Study
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Disassortative mating refers to the phenomenon in which individuals with dissimilar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected by chance. Although the existence of disassortative mating is well established in plant and animal species, the only documented
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Disassortative mating refers to the phenomenon in which individuals with dissimilar genotypes and/or phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected by chance. Although the existence of disassortative mating is well established in plant and animal species, the only documented example of negative assortment in humans involves dissimilarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus. Previous studies investigating mating patterns at the MHC have been hampered by limited sample size and contradictory findings. Inspired by the sparse and conflicting evidence, we investigated the role that the MHC region played in human mate selection using genome-wide association data from 872 European American spouses from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). First, we treated the MHC region as a whole, and investigated genomic similarity between spouses using three levels of genomic variation: single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles (both four-digit and two-digit classifications), and amino acid polymorphisms. The extent of MHC dissimilarity between spouses was assessed using a permutation approach. Second, we investigated fine scale mating patterns by testing for deviations from random mating at individual SNPs, HLA genes, and amino acids in HLA molecules. Third, we assessed how extreme the spousal relatedness at the MHC region was compared to the rest of the genome, to distinguish the MHC-specific effects from genome-wide effects. We show that neither the MHC region, nor any single SNPs, classic HLA alleles, or amino acid polymorphisms within the MHC region, were significantly dissimilar between spouses relative to non-spouse pairs. However, dissimilarity in the MHC region was extreme relative to the rest of genome for both spousal and non-spouse pairs. Despite the long-standing controversy, our analyses did not support a significant role of MHC dissimilarity in human mate choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Genetic Loci)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Gene Expression in Response to Salinity and Temperature in a Haloarcula Strain from Great Salt Lake, Utah
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Haloarchaea that inhabit Great Salt Lake (GSL), a thalassohaline terminal lake, must respond to the fluctuating climate conditions of the elevated desert of Utah. We investigated how shifting environmental factors, specifically salinity and temperature, affected gene expression in the GSL haloarchaea, NA6-27, which
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Haloarchaea that inhabit Great Salt Lake (GSL), a thalassohaline terminal lake, must respond to the fluctuating climate conditions of the elevated desert of Utah. We investigated how shifting environmental factors, specifically salinity and temperature, affected gene expression in the GSL haloarchaea, NA6-27, which we isolated from the hypersaline north arm of the lake. Combined data from cultivation, microscopy, lipid analysis, antibiotic sensitivity, and 16S rRNA gene alignment, suggest that NA6-27 is a member of the Haloarcula genus. Our prior study demonstrated that archaea in the Haloarcula genus were stable in the GSL microbial community over seasons and years. In this study, RNA arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR) was used to determine the transcriptional responses of NA6-27 grown under suboptimal salinity and temperature conditions. We observed alteration of the expression of genes related to general stress responses, such as transcription, translation, replication, signal transduction, and energy metabolism. Of the ten genes that were expressed differentially under stress, eight of these genes responded in both conditions, highlighting this general response. We also noted gene regulation specific to salinity and temperature conditions, such as osmoregulation and transport. Taken together, these data indicate that the GSL Haloarcula strain, NA6-27, demonstrates both general and specific responses to salinity and/or temperature stress, and suggest a mechanistic model for homeostasis that may explain the stable presence of this genus in the community as environmental conditions shift. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Extremophiles)
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Open AccessArticle MiR-93-5p Promotes Cell Proliferation through Down-Regulating PPARGC1A in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Bioinformatics Analysis and Experimental Verification
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PPARGC1A, formerly known as PGC-1a) is a transcriptional coactivator and metabolic regulator. Previous studies are mainly focused on the association between PPARGC1A and hepatoma. However, the regulatory mechanism remains unknown. A microRNA associated with cancer (oncomiR), miR-93-5p,
[...] Read more.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PPARGC1A, formerly known as PGC-1a) is a transcriptional coactivator and metabolic regulator. Previous studies are mainly focused on the association between PPARGC1A and hepatoma. However, the regulatory mechanism remains unknown. A microRNA associated with cancer (oncomiR), miR-93-5p, has recently been found to play an essential role in tumorigenesis and progression of various carcinomas, including liver cancer. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the regulatory mechanism underlying these two proteins in hepatoma cells. Firstly, an integrative analysis was performed with miRNA–mRNA modules on microarray and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data and obtained the core regulatory network and miR-93-5p/PPARGC1A pair. Then, a series of experiments were conducted in hepatoma cells with the results including miR-93-5p upregulated and promoted cell proliferation. Thirdly, the inverse correlation between miR-93-5p and PPARGC1A expression was validated. Finally, we inferred that miR-93-5p plays an essential role in inhibiting PPARGC1A expression by directly targeting the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of its mRNA. In conclusion, these results suggested that miR-93-5p overexpression contributes to hepatoma development by inhibiting PPARGC1A. It is anticipated to be a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with liver cancer in the future. Full article
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Open AccessReview Single-Cell Genomic Analysis in Plants
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Individual cells in an organism are variable, which strongly impacts cellular processes. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled single-cell genomic analysis to become widespread, addressing shortcomings of analyses conducted on populations of bulk cells. While the field of single-cell plant genomics is in
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Individual cells in an organism are variable, which strongly impacts cellular processes. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled single-cell genomic analysis to become widespread, addressing shortcomings of analyses conducted on populations of bulk cells. While the field of single-cell plant genomics is in its infancy, there is great potential to gain insights into cell lineage and functional cell types to help understand complex cellular interactions in plants. In this review, we discuss current approaches for single-cell plant genomic analysis, with a focus on single-cell isolation, DNA amplification, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. We outline the technical challenges of analysing material from a single plant cell, and then examine applications of single-cell genomics and the integration of this approach with genome editing. Finally, we indicate future directions we expect in the rapidly developing field of plant single-cell genomic analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics and Epigenomics for Trait Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle Applications of Probe Capture Enrichment Next Generation Sequencing for Whole Mitochondrial Genome and 426 Nuclear SNPs for Forensically Challenging Samples
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The application of next generation sequencing (NGS) for the analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, short tandem repeats (STRs), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) has demonstrated great promise for challenging forensic specimens, such as degraded, limited, and mixed samples. Target enrichment using probe capture
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The application of next generation sequencing (NGS) for the analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, short tandem repeats (STRs), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) has demonstrated great promise for challenging forensic specimens, such as degraded, limited, and mixed samples. Target enrichment using probe capture rather than PCR amplification offers advantages for analysis of degraded DNA since two intact PCR primer sites in the template DNA molecule are not required. Furthermore, NGS software programs can help remove PCR duplicates to determine initial template copy numbers of a shotgun library. Moreover, the same shotgun library prepared from a limited DNA source can be enriched for mtDNA as well as nuclear markers by hybrid capture with the relevant probe panels. Here, we demonstrate the use of this strategy in the analysis of limited and mock degraded samples using our custom probe capture panels for massively parallel sequencing of the whole mtgenome and 426 SNP markers. We also applied the mtgenome capture panel in a mixed sample and analyzed using both phylogenetic and variant frequency based bioinformatics tools to resolve the minor and major contributors. Finally, the results obtained on individual telogen hairs demonstrate the potential of probe capture NGS analysis for both mtDNA and nuclear SNPs for challenging forensic specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forensic Genomics)
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Open AccessReview PGC1α: Friend or Foe in Cancer?
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
The PGC1 family (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivators) of transcriptional coactivators are considered master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. The PGC1α isoform is expressed especially in metabolically active tissues, such as the liver, kidneys and brain, and responds to energy-demanding situations.
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The PGC1 family (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivators) of transcriptional coactivators are considered master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. The PGC1α isoform is expressed especially in metabolically active tissues, such as the liver, kidneys and brain, and responds to energy-demanding situations. Given the altered and highly adaptable metabolism of tumor cells, it is of interest to investigate PGC1α in cancer. Both high and low levels of PGC1α expression have been reported to be associated with cancer and worse prognosis, and PGC1α has been attributed with oncogenic as well as tumor suppressive features. Early in carcinogenesis PGC1α may be downregulated due to a protective anticancer role, and low levels likely reflect a glycolytic phenotype. We suggest mechanisms of PGC1α downregulation and how these might be connected to the increased cancer risk that obesity is now known to entail. Later in tumor progression PGC1α is often upregulated and is reported to contribute to increased lipid and fatty acid metabolism and/or a tumor cell phenotype with an overall metabolic plasticity that likely supports drug resistance as well as metastasis. We conclude that in cancer PGC1α is neither friend nor foe, but rather the obedient servant reacting to metabolic and environmental cues to benefit the tumor cell. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Austrian and Belgian Wheat Germplasm within a Regional Context Based on DArT Markers
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Analysis of crop genetic diversity and structure provides valuable information needed to broaden the narrow genetic base as well as to enhance the breeding and conservation strategies of crops. In this study, 95 Austrian and Belgian wheat cultivars maintained at the Centre for
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Analysis of crop genetic diversity and structure provides valuable information needed to broaden the narrow genetic base as well as to enhance the breeding and conservation strategies of crops. In this study, 95 Austrian and Belgian wheat cultivars maintained at the Centre for Genetic Resources (CGN) in the Netherlands were characterised using 1052 diversity array technology (DArT) markers to evaluate their genetic diversity, relationships and population structure. The rarefacted allelic richness recorded in the Austrian and Belgian breeding pools (A25 = 1.396 and 1.341, respectively) indicated that the Austrian germplasm contained a higher genetic diversity than the Belgian pool. The expected heterozygosity (HE) values of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.411 and 0.375, respectively. Moreover, the values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.337 and 0.298, respectively. Neighbour-joining tree divided each of the Austrian and Belgian germplasm pools into two genetically distinct groups. The structure analyses of the Austrian and Belgian pools were in a complete concordance with their neighbour-joining trees. Furthermore, the 95 cultivars were compared to 618 wheat genotypes from nine European countries based on a total of 141 common DArT markers in order to place the Austrian and Belgian wheat germplasm in a wider European context. The rarefacted allelic richness (A10) varied from 1.224 (Denmark) to 1.397 (Austria). Cluster and principal coordinates (PCoA) analyses divided the wheat genotypes of the nine European countries into two main clusters. The first cluster comprised the Northern and Western European wheat genotypes, whereas the second included the Central European cultivars. The structure analysis of the 618 European wheat genotypes was in a complete concordance with the results of cluster and PCoA analyses. Interestingly, a highly significant difference was recorded between regions (26.53%). In conclusion, this is the first study to reveal the high diversity levels and structure of the uncharacterised Austrian and Belgian wheat germplasm maintained at the CGN as well as place them in a wider European context. The results should help plant breeders to utilise the most promising wheat genotypes of this study in future breeding programmes for enhancing wheat cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics and Epigenomics for Trait Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle The IFNG rs1861494 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Is Associated with Protection against Tuberculosis Disease in Argentina
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Interferon gamma (IFNG) plays a key role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and several polymorphisms located in its gene are associated with risk of tuberculosis in diverse populations. Nevertheless, the genetic resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in Argentina is unknown. The IFNG rs1861494
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Interferon gamma (IFNG) plays a key role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and several polymorphisms located in its gene are associated with risk of tuberculosis in diverse populations. Nevertheless, the genetic resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in Argentina is unknown. The IFNG rs1861494 polymorphism (G→A) was reported to alter the binding of transcription factors to this region, influencing IFNG production. Using a case-control study, we found an association between the AA and AG genotypes and tuberculosis resistance (AA vs. GG: odds ratio (OR) = 0.235, p-value = 0.012; AG vs. GG: OR = 0.303, p-value = 0.044; AA vs. AG: OR = 0.776, p-value = 0.427; AA + AG vs. GG: OR = 0.270, p-value = 0.022). Moreover, Mtb-antigen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and AA carriers secreted the highest amounts of IFNG in culture supernatants (p-value = 0.034) and presented the greatest percentage of CD4+IFNG+ lymphocytes (p-value = 0.035), in comparison with GG carriers. No association between the polymorphism and clinical parameters of tuberculosis severity was detected. However, our findings indicate that the rs1861494 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) could be considered as a biomarker of tuberculosis resistance in the Argentinean population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Variations in Evolution and Human Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Using Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups in Genetic Association Studies and Suggested Implications
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Y-chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroups are more widely used in population genetics than in genetic epidemiology, although associations between Y-DNA haplogroups and several traits, including cardiometabolic traits, have been reported. In apparently homogeneous populations defined by principal component analyses, there is still Y-DNA haplogroup variation
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Y-chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroups are more widely used in population genetics than in genetic epidemiology, although associations between Y-DNA haplogroups and several traits, including cardiometabolic traits, have been reported. In apparently homogeneous populations defined by principal component analyses, there is still Y-DNA haplogroup variation which will result from population history. Therefore, hidden stratification and/or differential phenotypic effects by Y-DNA haplogroups could exist. To test this, we hypothesised that stratifying individuals according to their Y-DNA haplogroups before testing for associations between autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes will yield difference in association. For proof of concept, we derived Y-DNA haplogroups from 6537 males from two epidemiological cohorts, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 5080; 816 Y-DNA SNPs) and the 1958 Birth Cohort (n = 1457; 1849 Y-DNA SNPs), and studied the robust associations between 32 SNPs and body mass index (BMI), including SNPs in or near Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein (FTO) which yield the strongest effects. Overall, no association was replicated in both cohorts when Y-DNA haplogroups were considered and this suggests that, for BMI at least, there is little evidence of differences in phenotype or SNP association by Y-DNA structure. Further studies using other traits, phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), other haplogroups and/or autosomal SNPs are required to test the generalisability and utility of this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Genetic Loci)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Network-Based Identification of Competing Endogenous RNAs in Thyroid Carcinoma
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
RNAs may act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), a critical mechanism in determining gene expression regulations in many cancers. However, the roles of ceRNAs in thyroid carcinoma remains elusive. In this study, we have developed a novel pipeline called Molecular Network-based Identification of
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RNAs may act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), a critical mechanism in determining gene expression regulations in many cancers. However, the roles of ceRNAs in thyroid carcinoma remains elusive. In this study, we have developed a novel pipeline called Molecular Network-based Identification of ceRNA (MNIceRNA) to identify ceRNAs in thyroid carcinoma. MNIceRNA first constructs micro RNA (miRNA)–messenger RNA (mRNA)long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) networks from miRcode database and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), based on which to identify key drivers of differentially expressed RNAs between normal and tumor samples. It then infers ceRNAs of the identified key drivers using the long non-coding competing endogenous database (lnCeDB). We applied the pipeline into The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) thyroid carcinoma data. As a result, 598 lncRNAs, 1025 mRNAs, and 90 microRNA (miRNAs) were inferred to be differentially expressed between normal and thyroid cancer samples. We then obtained eight key driver miRNAs, among which hsa-mir-221 and hsa-mir-222 were key driver RNAs identified by both miRNA–mRNA–lncRNA and WGCNA network. In addition, hsa-mir-375 was inferred to be significant for patients’ survival with 34 associated ceRNAs, among which RUNX2, DUSP6 and SEMA3D are known oncogenes regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation in thyroid cancer. These ceRNAs are critical in revealing the secrets behind thyroid cancer progression and may serve as future therapeutic biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Approaches for Disease Gene Identification)
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Open AccessReview Isoform Sequencing and State-of-Art Applications for Unravelling Complexity of Plant Transcriptomes
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing developed by PacBio, also called third-generation sequencing (TGS), offers longer reads than the second-generation sequencing (SGS). Given its ability to obtain full-length transcripts without assembly, isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) of transcriptomes by PacBio is advantageous for genome annotation, identification of
[...] Read more.
Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing developed by PacBio, also called third-generation sequencing (TGS), offers longer reads than the second-generation sequencing (SGS). Given its ability to obtain full-length transcripts without assembly, isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) of transcriptomes by PacBio is advantageous for genome annotation, identification of novel genes and isoforms, as well as the discovery of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). In addition, Iso-Seq gives access to the direct detection of alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation (APA), gene fusion, and DNA modifications. Such applications of Iso-Seq facilitate the understanding of gene structure, post-transcriptional regulatory networks, and subsequently proteomic diversity. In this review, we summarize its applications in plant transcriptome study, specifically pointing out challenges associated with each step in the experimental design and highlight the development of bioinformatic pipelines. We aim to provide the community with an integrative overview and a comprehensive guidance to Iso-Seq, and thus to promote its applications in plant research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics and Epigenomics for Trait Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle Copy Number Variation in SOX6 Contributes to Chicken Muscle Development
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Copy number variations (CNVs), which cover many functional genes, are associated with complex diseases, phenotypic diversity and traits that are economically important to raising chickens. The sex-determining region Y-box 6 (Sox6) plays a key role in fast-twitch muscle fiber differentiation of
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Copy number variations (CNVs), which cover many functional genes, are associated with complex diseases, phenotypic diversity and traits that are economically important to raising chickens. The sex-determining region Y-box 6 (Sox6) plays a key role in fast-twitch muscle fiber differentiation of zebrafish and mice, but it is still unknown whether SOX6 plays a role in chicken skeletal muscle development. We identified two copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) which were significantly related to different traits on the genome level in chickens by AccuCopy® and CNVplex® analyses. Notably, five white recessive rock (CN = 1, CN = 3) variant individuals and two Xinghua (CN = 3) variant individuals contain a CNP13 (chromosome5: 10,500,294–10,675,531) which overlaps with SOX6. There is a disordered region in SOX6 proteins 265–579 aa coded by a partial CNV overlapping region. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression level of SOX6 mRNA was positively associated with CNV and highly expressed during the skeletal muscle cell differentiation in chickens. After the knockdown of the SOX6, the expression levels of IGFIR1, MYF6, SOX9, SHOX and CCND1 were significantly down-regulated. All of them directly linked to muscle development. These results suggest that the number of CNVs in the CNP13 is positively associated with the expression level of SOX6, which promotes the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells by up-regulating the expression levels of the muscle-growth-related genes in chickens as in other animal species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Genetic Loci)
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