Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Water, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Agricultural intensification has the undesirable effect of degrading water quality. Water quality [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-140
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Multi-Source Uncertainty Analysis in Simulating Floodplain Inundation under Climate Change
Water 2018, 10(6), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060809 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
PDF Full-text (7982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Floodplains are highly complex and dynamic systems in terms of their hydrology. Thus, they harbor highly specialized floodplain plant species depending on different inundation characteristics. Climate change will most likely alter those characteristics. This study investigates the potential impact of climate change on
[...] Read more.
Floodplains are highly complex and dynamic systems in terms of their hydrology. Thus, they harbor highly specialized floodplain plant species depending on different inundation characteristics. Climate change will most likely alter those characteristics. This study investigates the potential impact of climate change on the inundation characteristics of a floodplain of the Rhine River in Hesse, Germany. We report on the cascading uncertainty introduced through climate projections, climate model structure, and parameter uncertainty. The established modeling framework integrates projections of two general circulation models (GCMs), three emission scenarios, a rainfall–runoff model, and a coupled surface water–groundwater model. Our results indicate large spatial and quantitative uncertainties in the simulated inundation characteristics, which are mainly attributed to the GCMs. Overall, a shift in the inundation pattern, possible in both directions, and an increase in inundation extent are simulated. This can cause significant changes in the habitats of species adapted to these highly-endangered ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Research on Cascade Reservoirs’ Short-Term Optimal Operation under the Effect of Reverse Regulation
Water 2018, 10(6), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060808 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
PDF Full-text (3122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently research on joint operation of a large reservoir and its re-regulating reservoir focuses on either water quantity regulation or water head regulation. The accuracy of relevant models is in need of improvement if the influence of factors such as water flow hysteresis
[...] Read more.
Currently research on joint operation of a large reservoir and its re-regulating reservoir focuses on either water quantity regulation or water head regulation. The accuracy of relevant models is in need of improvement if the influence of factors such as water flow hysteresis and the aftereffect of tail water level variation are taken into consideration. In this paper, given the actual production of Pankou-Xiaoxuan cascade hydropower stations that combines two operation modes (‘electricity to water’ and ‘water to electricity’), a coupling model of their short-term optimal operation is developed, which considers Xiaoxuan reservoir’s regulating effect on Pankou reservoir’s outflow volume and water head. Factors such as water flow hysteresis and the aftereffect of tail water level variation are also considered to enhance the model’s accuracy. The Backward Propagation (BP) neural network is employed for precise calculation of the downstream reservoir’s inflow and the upstream reservoir’s tail water level. Besides, we put forth Accompanying Progressive Optimality Algorithm (APOA) to solve the coupling model with aftereffect. An example is given to verify the scientificity of the proposed model and the advantages of APOA. Through analysis of the model calculation results, the optimal operation rules of the cascade reservoirs are obtained in terms of water quantity regulation and water head regulation, which can provide scientific reference for cascade reservoirs’ optimal operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Catchment Management and Reservoir Operation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improving the Muskingum Flood Routing Method Using a Hybrid of Particle Swarm Optimization and Bat Algorithm
Water 2018, 10(6), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060807 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
PDF Full-text (2168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flood prediction and control are among the major tools for decision makers and water resources planners to avoid flood disasters. The Muskingum model is one of the most widely used methods for flood routing prediction. The Muskingum model contains four parameters that must
[...] Read more.
Flood prediction and control are among the major tools for decision makers and water resources planners to avoid flood disasters. The Muskingum model is one of the most widely used methods for flood routing prediction. The Muskingum model contains four parameters that must be determined for accurate flood routing. In this context, an optimization process that self-searches for the optimal values of these four parameters might improve the traditional Muskingum model. In this study, a hybrid of the bat algorithm (BA) and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, i.e., the hybrid bat-swarm algorithm (HBSA), was developed for the optimal determination of these four parameters. Data for the three different case studies from the USA and the UK were utilized to examine the suitability of the proposed HBSA for flood routing. Comparative analyses based on the sum of squared deviations (SSD), sum of absolute deviations (SAD), error of peak discharge, and error of time to peak showed that the proposed HBSA based on the Muskingum model achieved excellent flood routing accuracy compared to that of other methods while requiring less computational time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Forecasting Using Machine Learning Methods)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Water Quality Prediction Model of a Water Diversion Project Based on the Improved Artificial Bee Colony–Backpropagation Neural Network
Water 2018, 10(6), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060806
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
PDF Full-text (5551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prediction of water quality which can ensure the water supply and prevent water pollution is essential for a successful water transfer project. In recent years, with the development of artificial intelligence, the backpropagation (BP) neural network has been increasingly applied for the prediction
[...] Read more.
Prediction of water quality which can ensure the water supply and prevent water pollution is essential for a successful water transfer project. In recent years, with the development of artificial intelligence, the backpropagation (BP) neural network has been increasingly applied for the prediction and forecasting field. However, the BP neural network frame cannot satisfy the demand of higher accuracy. In this study, we extracted monitoring data from the water transfer channel of both the water resource and the intake area as training samples and selected some distinct indices as input factors to establish a BP neural network whose connection weight values between network layers and the threshold of each layer had already been optimized by an improved artificial bee colony (IABC) algorithm. Compared with the traditional BP and ABC-BP neural network model, it was shown that the IABC-BP neural network has a greater ability for forecasting and could achieve much better accuracy, nearly 25% more precise than the BP neural network. The new model is particularly practical for the water quality prediction of a water diversion project and could be readily applied in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality: A Component of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Presence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Utilized as Water Reuse for Irrigation
Water 2018, 10(6), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060805
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
PDF Full-text (1120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Providing safe water through water reuse is becoming a global necessity. One concern with water reuse is the introduction of unregulated contaminants to the environment that cannot be easily removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The occurrence of ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and
[...] Read more.
Providing safe water through water reuse is becoming a global necessity. One concern with water reuse is the introduction of unregulated contaminants to the environment that cannot be easily removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The occurrence of ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli through the treatment stages of a WWTP (raw sewage, post-secondary, post-UV and post-chlorination) was investigated from January to May 2016. The highest concentrations of antibiotic resistant E. coli in the effluent were detected in April after rainfall. Ampicillin-resistant E. coli was the most common at the post UV and chlorination stages comprising 63% of the total E. coli population. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis showed that one in five isolates was resistant to three or more antibiotics, and the majority of these E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, followed by sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. The highest MIC was detected at the finished water after application of multiple disinfection methods. Tetracycline resistance was the least observed among others, indicating that certain drug families may respond to wastewater treatment differently. Currently, there are no policies to enforce the monitoring of antibiotic-resistant pathogen removal in WWTP. Better guidelines are needed to better regulate reuse water and prevent health risk upon exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Delineation of Suitable Zones for the Application of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) in Coastal Aquifers Using Quantitative Parameters and the Analytical Hierarchy Process
Water 2018, 10(6), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060804
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
PDF Full-text (29622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coastal aquifer salinization is usually related to groundwater overexploitation and water table decline. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) can be applied as a measure to reverse and prevent this phenomenon. A detailed literature review was performed to identify the various methods and parameters commonly
[...] Read more.
Coastal aquifer salinization is usually related to groundwater overexploitation and water table decline. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) can be applied as a measure to reverse and prevent this phenomenon. A detailed literature review was performed to identify the various methods and parameters commonly used to determine suitable sites of MAR application. Based on the review results, a new multi-criteria index (SuSAM) that is compatible to coastal aquifers was developed to delineate suitable zones for MAR application. New parameters were introduced into the index, such as distance from the shore and hydraulic resistance of the vadose zone, while factor weights were determined using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and single sensitivity analysis. The applicability of the new index was examined in the coastal aquifer of the Anthemountas basin located in northern Greece. The most suitable areas for MAR application cover 28% of the aquifer’s surface area, while 16% of the area was characterized as non-suitable for MAR application. The new method constitutes the first step of the managed aquifer recharge concept for the delineation of MAR-suitable zones in coastal aquifers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salinization of Coastal Aquifer Systems)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Modeling the Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Head in an Urbanized Area under Low Impact Development
Water 2018, 10(6), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060803
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4848 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing impervious land cover has great impacts on groundwater regimes in urbanized areas. Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a sustainable solution for groundwater conservation. However, the effects of LID on the spatial-temporal distribution of groundwater are not yet fully understood.
[...] Read more.
Increasing impervious land cover has great impacts on groundwater regimes in urbanized areas. Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a sustainable solution for groundwater conservation. However, the effects of LID on the spatial-temporal distribution of groundwater are not yet fully understood. In this case study, a coupled Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and Finite Element Subsurface FLOW system (FEFLOW) model was used to simulate surface and groundwater flow in an urbanized area in Shenzhen, China. After verification, the model was used to analyze the spatial-seasonal variations of groundwater head and hydrological processes under different LID scenarios. The results indicate that if the runoff from 7.5% and 15% of impervious area is treated by LID facilities, the annual surface runoff decreases by 5% and 9%, respectively, and the spatial average groundwater head relative to sea level pressure increases by 0.9 m and 1.7 m in the study area, respectively. The rise in groundwater head generally decreases from the recharge zones to the discharge zones surrounded by the streams and coastal waters. However, the groundwater head change is determined not only by the location in the catchment, but also by the hydraulic conductivity of underlying aquifer and LID infiltration intensity. Moreover, LID significantly enhances groundwater recharge and aquifer storage in the wet seasons; in turn it increases aquifer release and groundwater discharge in the dry seasons. However, LID has the potential to increase the risk of groundwater flooding during wet seasons in areas with poor aquifer drainage capacity and shallow groundwater depth. The findings from this study provide the basis for further assessing the benefit and risk of LID infiltration for groundwater supplementation in the urbanized areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial The Impact of Climate on Hydrological Extremes
Water 2018, 10(6), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060802
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High and low flows and associated floods and droughts are extreme hydrological phenomena mainly caused by meteorological anomalies and modified by catchment processes and human activities. They exert increasing on human, economic, and natural environmental systems around the world. In this context, global
[...] Read more.
High and low flows and associated floods and droughts are extreme hydrological phenomena mainly caused by meteorological anomalies and modified by catchment processes and human activities. They exert increasing on human, economic, and natural environmental systems around the world. In this context, global climate change along with local fluctuations may eventually trigger a disproportionate response in hydrological extremes. This special issue focuses on observed extreme events in the recent past, how these extremes are linked to a changing global/regional climate, and the manner in which they may shift in the coming years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate on Hydrological Extremes)
Open AccessArticle Effects of the Notch Angle, Notch Length and Injection Rate on Hydraulic Fracturing under True Triaxial Stress: An Experimental Study
Water 2018, 10(6), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060801
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focused on the effects of the notch angle, notch length, and injection rate on hydraulic fracturing. True triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted with 300 × 300 × 300 mm cement mortar blocks. The test results showed that the fracture initiation
[...] Read more.
This study focused on the effects of the notch angle, notch length, and injection rate on hydraulic fracturing. True triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted with 300 × 300 × 300 mm cement mortar blocks. The test results showed that the fracture initiation pressure decreased as the notch length and injection rate increased, whereas, the fracture initiation pressure decreased as the notch angle decreased. Furthermore, the direction of the hydraulic fracture was always along the direction of the maximum principle stress. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quantification of Seasonal Precipitation over the upper Chao Phraya River Basin in the Past Fifty Years Based on Monsoon and El Niño/Southern Oscillation Related Climate Indices
Water 2018, 10(6), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060800
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
For better water resources management, we proposed a method to estimate basin-scale seasonal rainfall over selected areas of the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand, from existing climate indices that represent variations in the Asian summer monsoon, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and sea surface
[...] Read more.
For better water resources management, we proposed a method to estimate basin-scale seasonal rainfall over selected areas of the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand, from existing climate indices that represent variations in the Asian summer monsoon, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Pacific Ocean. The basin-scale seasonal rainfall between 1965 and 2015 was calculated for the upper Ping River Basin (PRB) and the upper Nan River Basin (NRB) from a gridded rainfall dataset and rainfall data collected at several gauging stations. The corresponding climate indices, i.e., the Equatorial-Southern Oscillation Index (EQ-SOI), Indian Monsoon Index (IMI), and SST-related indices, were examined to quantify seasonal rainfall. Based on variations in the rainfall anomaly and each climate index, we found that IMI is the primary variable that can explain variations in seasonal rainfall when EQ-SOI is negative. Through a multiple regression analysis, we found that EQ-SOI and two SST-related indices, i.e., Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index (PDO) and SST anomalies in the tropical western Pacific (SSTNW), can quantify the seasonal rainfall for years with positive EQ-SOI. The seasonal rainfall calculated for 1975 to 2015 based on the proposed method was highly correlated with the observed rainfall, with correlation coefficients of 0.8 and 0.86 for PRB and NRB, respectively. These results suggest that the existing indices are useful for quantifying basin-scale seasonal rainfall, provided a proper classification and combination of the climate indices are introduced. The developed method could forecast seasonal rainfall over the target basins if well-forecasted climate indices are provided with sufficient leading time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Catchment Management and Reservoir Operation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Research on Characteristics of Groundwater Recharge in the Weishan Irrigated District Based on a Bromide Tracer
Water 2018, 10(6), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060799
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
PDF Full-text (5686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bromide was used as tracer in the Weishan Irrigated District to determine the groundwater recharge as well as to evaluate the impacts of different irrigation basin locations, irrigation regimes, and crop types on the recharge. The comprehensive recharge coefficient and the Kriging Spatial
[...] Read more.
Bromide was used as tracer in the Weishan Irrigated District to determine the groundwater recharge as well as to evaluate the impacts of different irrigation basin locations, irrigation regimes, and crop types on the recharge. The comprehensive recharge coefficient and the Kriging Spatial Interpolation methods were used to distinguish the effects of precipitation and surface water irrigation on the groundwater recharge rate. The results show that the recharge rates ranged from 85.8 to 243 mm/a, with an average of 168 mm/a. The average recharge rate in the upstream district is greater in the downstream and the average recharge rate of irrigated land (193 mm/a) is greater than non-irrigated land (110 mm/a). The recharge rates in fields of winter wheat-summer maize and cotton with irrigation are 210 mm/a and 140 mm/a, respectively, while they are 115 mm/a and 94.1 mm/a under no irrigation conditions. The comprehensive recharge coefficient of groundwater in the upstream irrigation area is larger than that in the downstream. By comparing the spatial distribution of the groundwater level and the comprehensive recharge coefficient, it is found that there is a positive relationship between the groundwater level and the comprehensive recharge coefficient. The results of this study can provide reference and guidance to a water resources analysis of the Weishan Irrigated District. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Assessment of Green Water Based on the SWAT Model: A Case Study in the Hai River Basin, China
Water 2018, 10(6), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060798
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
PDF Full-text (4170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green water accounts for two-thirds of precipitation, and the proportion could be even higher in dry years. Conflicts between water supply and demand have gradually become severe in the Hai River Basin (HRB) due to the socio-economic development. Thus, the exploitation and the
[...] Read more.
Green water accounts for two-thirds of precipitation, and the proportion could be even higher in dry years. Conflicts between water supply and demand have gradually become severe in the Hai River Basin (HRB) due to the socio-economic development. Thus, the exploitation and the utilization of green water have attracted increasing attention. By gathering the related hydrological, meteorological, and geographic data, the spatiotemporal distribution of green water in HRB and the impacts of land use types on green water are analyzed based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in this study. Furthermore, three new indices are proposed for evaluation, including the maximum possible storage of green water (MSGW), the consumed green water (CGW), and the utilizable green water (UGW). The results show that (1) the MSGW is relatively low in plain areas and its spatial distribution is significantly associated with the soil type; (2) according to the evaluation results of CGW and UGW in HRB, a further improvement of utilization efficiency of green water could be achieved; (3) in general, the utilization efficiency of precipitation in farmlands is higher than other land use types, which means that the planting of appropriate plants could be helpful to enhance the utilization efficiency of green water. Our results summarize the spatiotemporal distribution of green water resource and provide a reference for water resources management in other water-short agricultural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Disinfection Methods for Swimming Pool Water: Byproduct Formation and Control
Water 2018, 10(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060797
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
PDF Full-text (1374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive and critical comparison of 10 disinfection methods of swimming pool water: chlorination, electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMO), ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, UV/chlorine, UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), UV/H2O2/chlorine, ozone (O3)/chlorine, O
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive and critical comparison of 10 disinfection methods of swimming pool water: chlorination, electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMO), ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, UV/chlorine, UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), UV/H2O2/chlorine, ozone (O3)/chlorine, O3/H2O2/chlorine, O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine for the formation, control and elimination of potentially toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs): trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs) and chloramines (CAMs). The statistical comparison is carried out using data on 32 swimming pools accumulated from the reviewed studies. The results indicate that O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine are the most promising methods, as the concentration of the studied DBPs (THMs and HANs) with these methods was reduced considerably compared with chlorination, EGMO, UV irradiation, UV/chlorine and O3/chlorine. However, the concentration of the studied DBPs including HAAs and CAMs remained much higher with O3/chlorine compared with the limits set by the WHO for drinking water quality. Moreover, the enhancement in the formation of THMs, HANs and CH with UV/chlorine compared with UV irradiation and the increase in the level of HANs with O3/UV/chlorine compared with O3/UV indicate the complexity of the combined processes, which should be optimized to control the toxicity and improve the quality of swimming pool water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Recent Glacier Mass Balance and Area Changes from DEMs and Landsat Images in Upper Reach of Shule River Basin, Northeastern Edge of Tibetan Plateau during 2000 to 2015
Water 2018, 10(6), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060796
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
PDF Full-text (3807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glacier changes in the Upper Reach of the Shule River Basin (URSRB) serve as a good indicator of climate change in the western part of the Qilian Mountains, located on the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. However, information on recent glacier changes
[...] Read more.
Glacier changes in the Upper Reach of the Shule River Basin (URSRB) serve as a good indicator of climate change in the western part of the Qilian Mountains, located on the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. However, information on recent glacier changes in the URSRB is limited. In this study, the changes in ice surface elevation were determined using geodetic methods based on digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (2000), and from pairs of Third Resources Satellite (ZY-3) of China (taken around 2013). In addition, glacier area changes from 2000–2015, were derived from Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images. The results suggest that 478 glaciers with an area of 375.1 ± 2.68 km2 remained in the URSRB in 2015. Ice cover diminished by 57.5 ± 2.68 km2 (11.9 ± 0.60%), or 0.79 ± 0.04% a−1 and 35 small glaciers disappeared from 2000 to 2015 in the URSRB. The most pronounced glacier shrinkage occurred during 2004 to 2009. The average ice surface elevation of the URSRB from 1999 to 2013 reduced by about 4.98 ± 0.6 m, which is equal to a mass loss of 0.383 ± 0.046 m·a−1. This reduction indicates that the ice storage loss has accelerated since 1999, compared to a mass loss of 0.21 ± 0.04 m·a−1 around Tuanjiefeng from 1966 to 1999, as reported by Xu et al. (2013). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Variability of Short-Term Diel Water Temperature Amplitudes in a Mountain Lake
Water 2018, 10(6), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060795
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
PDF Full-text (5046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the variability of short-term water temperature amplitudes in Lake Morskie Oko, situated in the Tatra Mountains National Park, which makes the human impact on the lake very limited. The objective of the study was to determine to
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of the variability of short-term water temperature amplitudes in Lake Morskie Oko, situated in the Tatra Mountains National Park, which makes the human impact on the lake very limited. The objective of the study was to determine to what extent an increase in depth contributes to suppressing daily water temperature amplitudes. It was shown, among other things, that water temperature amplitudes were the lowest in the period of occurrence of the ice cover, higher in the period of occurrence of other (than ice cover) ice phenomena, and the highest in the case of their lack. The analysis of profiles of water temperature amplitudes (in the case of lack of ice phenomena) resulted in determination of their six types. A strong correlation was observed in which the effect of mean daily air temperature and the effect of wind on water level amplitudes are considerably lower during the occurrence of ice phenomena in comparison to the period when the water surface is free from such phenomena. It was demonstrated that the near-bottom waters in Lake Morskie Oko are very stable in terms of temperature. The short transition period from ice cover to free water surface was determined to be very important, because it constitutes a threshold in the effect of air temperature and wind on changes in thermal dynamics of water (in this case expressed in amplitude values). Finally, proposals are presented for future expansion of the scope of research on water temperature amplitudes. This work is important, because the amplitudes were investigated not only at the surface of the lake, but also at its bottom, and also during the ice cover period, when the lake was isolated from the atmospheric influences. This study may contribute to better understanding of the lake water temperature responses to climate change and thus to more accurate prediction these patterns in lake globally. Moreover, understanding of changes in water temperature is closely related to the variability of its heat resources, and these in the future may be used on a large scale. In the case of a mountain lake such as Morskie Oko, the heat of water may be used, for example, for heating tourist shelters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top