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Water, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Model-Based Analysis of Macrophytes Role in the Flow Distribution in the Anastomosing River System
Water 2018, 10(7), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070953 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
The impact of vegetation on the hydrology and geomorphology of aquatic ecosystems has been studied intensively in recent years. Numerous hydraulic models developed to date help to understand and quantitatively assess the influence of in-stream macrophytes on a channel’s hydraulic conditions. However, special
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The impact of vegetation on the hydrology and geomorphology of aquatic ecosystems has been studied intensively in recent years. Numerous hydraulic models developed to date help to understand and quantitatively assess the influence of in-stream macrophytes on a channel’s hydraulic conditions. However, special focus is placed on single-thread rivers, leaving anastomosing rivers practically uninvestigated. To fill this gap, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of vegetation on flow distribution in a complex anastomosing river system situated in northeastern Poland. The newly designed, one-dimensional, steady-flow model, dedicated for anastomosing rivers used in this study indicated high influence of vegetation on water flow distribution during the whole year in general, but—as expected—significantly higher in the summer season. Simulations of in-stream vegetation removal in selected channels reflected in Manning’s coefficient alterations caused relatively high discharge transitions during the growing season. This proved the significance of feedback between process of plants growth and distribution of flow in anabranches. The results are unique and relevant and could be successfully considered for the protection of semi-natural anabranching rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Riparian Vegetation in River Functioning)
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Open AccessEditorial Soil Water Conservation: Dynamics and Impact
Water 2018, 10(7), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070952 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly
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Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This Special Issue collects 15 original contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. The collection of manuscripts presented in this Special Issue provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Water Conservation: Dynamics and Impact)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Heating Impact of a Tropical Reservoir on Downstream Water Temperature: A Case Study of the Jinghong Dam on the Lancang River
Water 2018, 10(7), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070951
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Reservoirs change downstream thermal regimes by releasing water of different temperatures to that under natural conditions, which may then alter downstream biodiversity and ecological processes. The hydropower exploitation in the mainstream Lancang-Mekong River has triggered concern for its potential effects on downstream countries,
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Reservoirs change downstream thermal regimes by releasing water of different temperatures to that under natural conditions, which may then alter downstream biodiversity and ecological processes. The hydropower exploitation in the mainstream Lancang-Mekong River has triggered concern for its potential effects on downstream countries, especially the impact of the released cold water on local fishery production. However, it was observed recently that the annual water temperature downstream of the Jinghong Reservoir (near the Chinese border) has increased by 3.0 °C compared to its historical average (1997–2004). In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) model of the Jinghong Reservoir was established to simulate its hydro- and thermodynamics. Results show that: (1) the impoundment of the Jinghong Reservoir contributed about 1.3 °C to the increment of the water temperature; (2) the solar radiation played a much more important role in comparison with atmosphere-water heat exchange in changing water temperatures; and (3) the outflow rate also imposed a significant influence on the water temperature by regulating the residence time. After impoundment, the residence time increased from 3 days to 11 days, which means that the duration that the water body can absorb solar radiation has been prolonged. The results explain the heating mechanism of the Jinghong Reservoir brought to downstream water temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Catchment Management and Reservoir Operation)
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Open AccessArticle The Development of a 1-D Integrated Hydro-Mechanical Model Based on Flume Tests to Unravel Different Hydrological Triggering Processes of Debris Flows
Water 2018, 10(7), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070950
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Many studies which try to analyze conditions for debris flow development ignore the type of initiation. Therefore, this paper deals with the following questions: What type of hydro-mechanical triggering mechanisms for debris flows can we distinguish in upstream channels of debris flow prone
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Many studies which try to analyze conditions for debris flow development ignore the type of initiation. Therefore, this paper deals with the following questions: What type of hydro-mechanical triggering mechanisms for debris flows can we distinguish in upstream channels of debris flow prone gullies? Which are the main parameters controlling the type and temporal sequence of these triggering processes, and what is their influence on the meteorological thresholds for debris flow initiation? A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume 8 m long and with a width of 0.3 m to detect the conditions for different types of triggering mechanisms. The flume experiments show a sequence of hydrological processes triggering debris flows, namely erosion and transport by intensive overland flow and by infiltrating water causing failure of channel bed material. On the basis of these experiments, an integrated hydro-mechanical model was developed, which describes Hortonian and saturation overland flow, maximum sediment transport, through flow and failure of bed material. The model was calibrated and validated using process indicator values measured during the experiments in the flume. Virtual model simulations carried out in a schematic hypothetical source area of a catchment show that slope angle and hydraulic conductivity of the bed material determine the type and sequence of these triggering processes. It was also clearly demonstrated that the type of hydrological triggering process and the influencing geometrical and hydro-mechanical parameters may have a great influence on rainfall intensity-duration threshold curves for the start of debris flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Karst Conduit Network Using Long-Distance Tracer Test in Lijiang, Southwestern China
Water 2018, 10(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070949
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The Ancient City in Lijiang of southwestern China was endowed as World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO, and the karst springs located in Black Dragon Pool are its main water source. However, the springs have dried up several times in recent years, which caused
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The Ancient City in Lijiang of southwestern China was endowed as World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO, and the karst springs located in Black Dragon Pool are its main water source. However, the springs have dried up several times in recent years, which caused serious damages to the landscape as well as the city water supply. Triggered by the dried-up event in Black Dragon Pool, a long-distance artificial tracer test up to 17 km was employed to investigate the karst conduit network distributing in the study area. Based on the tracer concentration breakthrough curves (BTCs), the hydraulic connection from the same injection point (located in a giant depression named the Jiuzi Sea) to the springs on both sides of the topography watershed was proven, and the conduit structure was discussed. According to the characteristics of BTCs and considering the low tracer concentration and tracer recovery, a conceptual structure of leaky reservoir with threshold effect above a certain groundwater level was established to interpret why the springs in Black Dragon Pool dried up several times in history, but those in the Ancient City never did. Furthermore, a method of injecting surface water into the Jiuzi Sea to raise the groundwater level up to the height of Black Dragon Pool was proposed to restore the springs. Our study provides insights into the long-distance artificial tracer test, and opens a new avenue for groundwater resource recovery of this Ancient City. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow)
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Open AccessArticle Interaction between Perched Epikarst Aquifer and Unsaturated Soil Cover in the Initiation of Shallow Landslides in Pyroclastic Soils
Water 2018, 10(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070948
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
A physically based mathematical model of the slope of Cervinara (southern Italy), which is characterized by a shallow pyroclastic soil cover laying upon a limestone fractured bedrock, has been developed. Previous and current ongoing monitoring suggested that leakage through the soil–bedrock interface occurred,
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A physically based mathematical model of the slope of Cervinara (southern Italy), which is characterized by a shallow pyroclastic soil cover laying upon a limestone fractured bedrock, has been developed. Previous and current ongoing monitoring suggested that leakage through the soil–bedrock interface occurred, with leaking water temporarily stored in a perched aquifer located in the upper part of the fractured limestone (epikarst). This aquifer supplied several springs, and recharge to the deeper groundwater circulation occurred. Hence, in the proposed model, the unsaturated water flow taking place within the soil cover is coupled with the saturated water flow in the perched aquifer. The application of the model to the simulation of the slope hydrologic behavior over a period of 11 years, between 2006–2017, provides realistic results in terms of soil storage, epikarst storage, spring discharge, and groundwater recharge. The different response times of soil and epikarst aquifer to precipitation input allow distinguishing the hydrological predisposing causes of potential landsliding (i.e., a few months of persistent rainfall that is capable of filling the epikarst aquifer) from the triggers, which are represented by single intense rainfall events. The application of the model offers a key of interpretation of the hydrological processes leading to the landslide that occurred on 16 December 1999. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Experimental and Theoretical Study on Separations by Vacuum Membrane Distillation Employing Hollow-Fiber Modules
Water 2018, 10(7), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070947
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is an attractive variant of the novel membrane distillation process, which is promising for various separations, including water desalination and bioethanol recovery through fermentation of agro-industrial by-products. This publication is part of an effort to develop a capillary membrane
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Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is an attractive variant of the novel membrane distillation process, which is promising for various separations, including water desalination and bioethanol recovery through fermentation of agro-industrial by-products. This publication is part of an effort to develop a capillary membrane module for various applications, as well as a model that would facilitate VMD process design. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory pilot VMD unit, comprising polypropylene capillary-membrane modules. Performance data, collected at modest temperatures (37 °C to 65 °C) with deionized and brackish water, confirmed the improved system productivity with increasing feed-water temperature; excellent salt rejection was obtained. The recovery of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures and from fermented winery by-products was also studied, in continuous, semi-continuous, and batch operating modes. At low-feed-solution temperature (27–47 °C), ethanol-solution was concentrated 4 to 6.5 times in continuous operation and 2 to 3 times in the semi-continuous mode. Taking advantage of the small property variation in the module axial-flow direction, a simple VMD process model was developed, satisfactorily describing the experimental data. This VMD model appears to be promising for practical applications, and warrants further R&D work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multidisciplinary Approach for Clarifying the Recharge Processes and Origin of Saline Water in the Semi-Arid Punata Alluvial fan in Bolivia
Water 2018, 10(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070946
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The analysis of stable isotopes assisted in identifying that groundwater in the Punata alluvial fan is mainly recharged by heavy flash floods, and the recharge from rainfall is of less importance. In addition, the hydrochemical analysis identified the Pucara River as the main
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The analysis of stable isotopes assisted in identifying that groundwater in the Punata alluvial fan is mainly recharged by heavy flash floods, and the recharge from rainfall is of less importance. In addition, the hydrochemical analysis identified the Pucara River as the main source of recharge. Other streams in the north and northwest of the fan do not seem to contribute to the recharge. The hydrochemistry also shows that there is an increase of the Na+ and Cl concentrations in the middle and distal part of the fan. The salinization of groundwater is most likely a result of the mixing of fresh water with residual saline pore water in the lacustrine deposits and/or ion exchange within these layers. Geophysical surveys assisted in describing the aquifer system layering, and indicated a fine-grained bottom layer where ion exchange might occur. This study demonstrates that the integration of several methods (e.g., hydrochemistry, hydrogeophysics, and stable isotopes) is valuable for clarifying ambiguities during the interpretation process and for characterizing hydrogeological processes in alluvial fans in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Surface Aeration Control in Full-Scale Oxidation Ditches through Energy Consumption Analysis
Water 2018, 10(7), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070945
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Oxidation ditches are popularly used in rural areas and decentralized treatment facilities where energy deficiency is of concern. Aeration control technologies are well established for diffusion systems in order to improve energy efficiency, but there are still challenges in their application in oxidation
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Oxidation ditches are popularly used in rural areas and decentralized treatment facilities where energy deficiency is of concern. Aeration control technologies are well established for diffusion systems in order to improve energy efficiency, but there are still challenges in their application in oxidation ditches because surface aerators have unique characteristics with respect to oxygen transfer and energy consumption. In this paper, an integral energy model was proposed to include the energy, aeration, and fluidic effects of surface aerators, by which the energy for aeration of each aerator can be estimated using online data. Two types of rotating disks with different diameters (1800 mm and 1400 mm) were monitored in situ to estimate the model parameters. Furthermore, a feedforward–feedback loop control strategy was proposed using the concept of energy analysis and optimization. The simplified control system was implemented in a full-scale Orbal oxidation ditch, achieving an approximately 10% saving in full-process energy consumption. The cost–benefit analysis and carbon emission assessment confirmed the economic feasibility and environmental contribution of the control system. The energy model can help process designers and operators to better understand and optimally control the aeration process in oxidation ditches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Seven-Year Running Effect Evaluation and Fate Analysis of Rain Gardens in Xi’an, Northwest China
Water 2018, 10(7), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070944
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Rain gardens have recently been studied as important low-impact development (LID) facilities that play a critical role in runoff volume reduction and pollutant purification. Approximately 16–40 rainfall events were monitored from March 2011 to October 2017 in order to determine the running effect
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Rain gardens have recently been studied as important low-impact development (LID) facilities that play a critical role in runoff volume reduction and pollutant purification. Approximately 16–40 rainfall events were monitored from March 2011 to October 2017 in order to determine the running effect of three rain gardens with respect to runoff volume reduction and pollutant purification. In particular, running fate analysis of rain gardens is the key focus in this study. Combined analyses revealed three key points. Firstly, performance assessment demonstrated that rain gardens effectively cut inflow volumes through the filter media; when the confluence area ratio was 6:1–20:1 (confluence ratio = roof area or road/garden area) and the rainfall was approximately 2.8–39.9 mm, the runoff volume reduction rate ranged from 9.8% to 100.0%. However, the average annual runoff reduction rate presented an initially increasing and then gradually decreasing trend with monitoring time. Secondly, according to water quality data in 54 rainfall events, the annual average concentration removal rate of NH4+-N was relatively good, but generally decreased with monitoring time. The concentration removal rate of NO3-N and total phosphorus (TP) is unstable; however, the removal rate of total suspended solids (TSS) is better than that of total nitrogen (TN). Combined with runoff reduction, the pollutant load reduction by rain gardens is greater than 50%, although this decreases with increasing monitoring time. Thirdly, through the study of 7-year running effect on runoff reduction and pollutant purification, the “three-stage purification (TSP) concept” (periods of purification growth, stability, and attenuation) with respect to pollutant load reduction processes was finally proposed, and a curve chart was drawn for pollutant load reduction and rain garden operating fate (the “P–F” curve chart). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Aquatic Ecological Health for Lake Poyang, China: Part I Index Development
Water 2018, 10(7), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070943
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The development of an ecosystem health index to assess health status in freshwater lakes is urgently needed in China, especially in polluted lakes. This study developed a specific Ecosystem Health Index (LP-EHI) for Lake Poyang in China. LP-EHI quantified lake health from the
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The development of an ecosystem health index to assess health status in freshwater lakes is urgently needed in China, especially in polluted lakes. This study developed a specific Ecosystem Health Index (LP-EHI) for Lake Poyang in China. LP-EHI quantified lake health from the perspectives of physical, chemical, biological integrity and social service. Physical integrity indices included hydrological conditions (water level and runoff), basic morphometric characteristics (lake area and shoreline), and tributary connectivity. Chemical integrity indices used water quality, nutrition, and toxicity to quantify chemical impairment. Biological integrity indicators covered six major components of the aquatic food chain, namely, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, wetland plants, fish, and wintering birds. Social service indices included drinking water, pathogenic potential, flood storage capacity, sand mining, and dish-shaped sub-lake areas under management to measure whether the lake fulfilled the needs of human society. Reference and impaired conditions for each metric were defined by “historical” conditions, “least disturbed” conditions, national standards and expert opinions. The value of LP-EHI ranging from 0 to 1 was divided into five health conditions: excellent (≥0.8), good (0.6–0.8), fair (0.4–0.6), poor (0.2–0.4) and bad (<0.2). The metrics’ reliability was further validated using a box-and-whisker plot test. The developed index (LP-EHI) is so far the most comprehensive index to evaluate ecosystem health for Lake Poyang, and is well reflected in the unique characteristics of Lake Poyang. It can enhance our understanding of lake health conditions and thus guide lake management to achieve better health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Dominant Fish and Macroinvertebrate Response to Flow Changes of the Geum River in Korea
Water 2018, 10(7), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070942
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
This study presents the impact of natural flow patterns on downstream aquatic species habitats in a reach of the Geum River, Korea. The study reach is a 13.4 km long, located downstream of the Yongdam Dam. To assess such an impact, this study
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This study presents the impact of natural flow patterns on downstream aquatic species habitats in a reach of the Geum River, Korea. The study reach is a 13.4 km long, located downstream of the Yongdam Dam. To assess such an impact, this study performed physical habitat simulations. The River2D model was used for the computation of the flow field and morphology, and the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the habitat simulation. Three habitat variables—flow depth, velocity, and substrate were used. The Zacco platypus and Baetis fuscatus were selected as the target fish and benthic macro-invertebrate, respectively. Using the building block approach (BBA), the scenarios for modifying dam operations were constructed in the study reach. Scenario 1, scenario 2, and scenario 3 were proposed by using the magnitude–duration concept, base flow allocation concept, and seasonally adjusted minimum flow allocation concept, respectively. Simulation results indicated that the scenarios’ effects significantly increased by about 14.3% for the weighted usable area (WUA). In addition, the morphology change with the restoration of flood events was investigated. It was revealed that the morphology change in the physical habitat simulations further increased by about 13% for the WUA. The change of dam operations through natural flow patterns is more advantageous to aquatic species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle Temporal Variations in the Quantity of Groundwater Flow in Nam Co Lake
Water 2018, 10(7), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070941
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims to calculate and analyze the spatial and temporal variations in the groundwater flow quantity in Nam Co Lake based on the water balance principle. The results show that a large amount of groundwater was gradually lost and that, groundwater loss
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This paper aims to calculate and analyze the spatial and temporal variations in the groundwater flow quantity in Nam Co Lake based on the water balance principle. The results show that a large amount of groundwater was gradually lost and that, groundwater loss decreased from 1.9 billion m3 to 1.5 billion m3 from the period of 1980–1984 to 1995–2009. The comparative analysis in the current study indicates that the decrease in the groundwater index has a strong linear relationship with the temperature of the ground surface on the Tibetan Plateau, with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.92. Moreover, environmental variations such as large-scale engineering construction projects and increases in water storage may have played dominant roles in the sudden changes in the water quantities of plateau lakes (e.g., Nam Co Lake) during the periods of 1990–1995 and 2000–2009. The increased water levels resulted in reduced groundwater losses, which may lead to the substantial expansion or gradual shrinkage of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau lakes over short periods of time. The results of this study provide an important reference for studying the mechanisms of lake water level changes on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Constructed Wetland-Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Greywater Treatment
Water 2018, 10(7), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070940
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Greywater reuse through decentralized and low-cost treatment systems emerges as an opportunity to tackle the existing demand for water. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CW) systems and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have emerged as attractive technologies for sustainable wastewater treatment. In this study,
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Greywater reuse through decentralized and low-cost treatment systems emerges as an opportunity to tackle the existing demand for water. In recent years, constructed wetlands (CW) systems and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have emerged as attractive technologies for sustainable wastewater treatment. In this study, constructed wetland microbial fuel cells (CW-MFCs) planted with Phragmites australis were tested to evaluate the potential of combining these two systems for synthetic greywater treatment and energy recovery. Open (CW) and closed circuit (CW-MFCs) reactors were operated for 152 days to evaluate the effect of energy recovery on the removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS). Results indicate no significant differences for sCOD and phosphate removal efficiencies. CW-MFCs and CW reactors presented sCOD removal efficiency of 91.7 ± 5.1% and 90 ± 10% and phosphate removal efficiencies of 56.3 ± 4.4% and 61.5 ± 3.5%, respectively. Nitrate removal efficiencies were higher in CW: 99.5 ± 1% versus 86.5 ± 7.1% in CW-MFCs, respectively. Energy generation reached a maximum power density of 33.52 ± 7.87 mW m−3 and 719.57 ± 67.67 mW m−3 at a poised anode potential of −150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Thus, our results suggest that the incorporation of MFC systems into constructed wetlands does allow energy recovery while providing effective greywater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Developing a Statistical Model to Improve Drinking Water Quality for Water Distribution System by Minimizing Heavy Metal Releases
Water 2018, 10(7), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070939
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a novel statistical approach for blending source waters in a public water distribution system to improve water quality (WQ) by minimizing the release of heavy metals (HMR). Normally, introducing a new source changes the original balanced environment and causes adverse
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This paper proposes a novel statistical approach for blending source waters in a public water distribution system to improve water quality (WQ) by minimizing the release of heavy metals (HMR). Normally, introducing a new source changes the original balanced environment and causes adverse effects on the WQ in a water distribution system. One harmful consequence of blending source water is the release of heavy metals, including lead, copper and iron. Most HMR studies focus on the forecasting of unfavorable effects using precise and complicated nonlinear equations. This paper uses a statistical multiple objectives optimization, namely Multiple Source Waters Blending Optimization (MSWBO), to find optimal blending ratios of source waters for minimizing three HMRs in a water supply system. In this paper, three response surface equations are applied to describe the reaction kinetics of HMR, and three dual response surface equations are used to track the standard deviations of the three response surface equations. A weighted sum method is performed for the multi-objective optimization problem to minimize three HMRs simultaneously. Finally, the experimental data of a pilot distribution system is used in the proposed statistical approach to demonstrate the model’s applicability, computational efficiency, and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Distribution Networks)
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