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Symmetry, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We study the spin-orbital splitting of the angular momentum for nonparaxial electromagnetic fields. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Some Interval Neutrosophic Linguistic Maclaurin Symmetric Mean Operators and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Decision Making
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040127
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
There are many practical decision-making problems in people’s lives, but the information given by decision makers (DMs) is often unclear and how to describe this information is of critical importance. Therefore, we introduce interval neutrosophic linguistic numbers (INLNs) to represent the less clear
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There are many practical decision-making problems in people’s lives, but the information given by decision makers (DMs) is often unclear and how to describe this information is of critical importance. Therefore, we introduce interval neutrosophic linguistic numbers (INLNs) to represent the less clear and uncertain information and give their operational rules and comparison methods. In addition, since the Maclaurin symmetric mean (MSM) operator has the special characteristic of capturing the interrelationships among multi-input arguments, we further propose an MSM operator for INLNs (INLMSM). Furthermore, considering the weights of attributes are the important parameters and they can influence the decision results, we also propose a weighted INLMSM (WINLMSM) operator. Based on the WINLMSM operator, we develop a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) method with INLNs and some examples are used to show the procedure and effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed method is more convenient to express the complex and unclear information. At the same time, it is more scientific and flexible in solving the MADM problems by considering the interrelationships among multi-attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making 2018)
Open AccessArticle Neutrosophic Triplet Cosets and Quotient Groups
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040126
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, by utilizing the concept of a neutrosophic extended triplet (NET), we define the neutrosophic image, neutrosophic inverse-image, neutrosophic kernel, and the NET subgroup. The notion of the neutrosophic triplet coset and its relation with the classical coset are defined and
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In this paper, by utilizing the concept of a neutrosophic extended triplet (NET), we define the neutrosophic image, neutrosophic inverse-image, neutrosophic kernel, and the NET subgroup. The notion of the neutrosophic triplet coset and its relation with the classical coset are defined and the properties of the neutrosophic triplet cosets are given. Furthermore, the neutrosophic triplet normal subgroups, and neutrosophic triplet quotient groups are studied. Full article
Open AccessArticle Efficient Algorithms for Real-Time GPU Volumetric Cloud Rendering with Enhanced Geometry
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040125
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents several new techniques for volumetric cloud rendering using efficient algorithms and data structures based on ray-tracing methods for cumulus generation, achieving an optimum balance between realism and performance. These techniques target applications such as flight simulations, computer games, and educational
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This paper presents several new techniques for volumetric cloud rendering using efficient algorithms and data structures based on ray-tracing methods for cumulus generation, achieving an optimum balance between realism and performance. These techniques target applications such as flight simulations, computer games, and educational software, even with conventional graphics hardware. The contours of clouds are defined by implicit mathematical expressions or triangulated structures inside which volumetric rendering is performed. Novel techniques are used to reproduce the asymmetrical nature of clouds and the effects of light-scattering, with low computing costs. The work includes a new method to create randomized fractal clouds using a recursive grammar. The graphical results are comparable to those produced by state-of-the-art, hyper-realistic algorithms. These methods provide real-time performance, and are superior to particle-based systems. These outcomes suggest that our methods offer a good balance between realism and performance, and are suitable for use in the standard graphics industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Technology and Its Applications 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Accountability Requirements in the Cloud Provider Chain
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040124
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
In order to be responsible stewards of other people’s data, cloud providers must be accountable for their data handling practices. The potential long provider chains in cloud computing introduce additional accountability challenges, with many stakeholders involved. Symmetry is very important in any requirements’
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In order to be responsible stewards of other people’s data, cloud providers must be accountable for their data handling practices. The potential long provider chains in cloud computing introduce additional accountability challenges, with many stakeholders involved. Symmetry is very important in any requirements’ elicitation activity, since input from diverse stakeholders needs to be balanced. This article ventures to answer the question “How can one create an accountable cloud service?” by examining requirements which must be fulfilled to achieve an accountability-based approach, based on interaction with over 300 stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Approaches and Advances in Cloud Computing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Lie and Q-Conditional Symmetries of Reaction-Diffusion-Convection Equations with Exponential Nonlinearities and Their Application for Finding Exact Solutions
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040123
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
This review is devoted to search for Lie and Q-conditional (nonclassical) symmetries and exact solutions of a class of reaction-diffusion-convection equations with exponential nonlinearities. A complete Lie symmetry classification of the class is derived via two different algorithms in order to show
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This review is devoted to search for Lie and Q-conditional (nonclassical) symmetries and exact solutions of a class of reaction-diffusion-convection equations with exponential nonlinearities. A complete Lie symmetry classification of the class is derived via two different algorithms in order to show that the result depends essentially on the type of equivalence transformations used for the classification. Moreover, a complete description of Q-conditional symmetries for PDEs from the class in question is also presented. It is shown that all the well-known results for reaction-diffusion equations with exponential nonlinearities follow as particular cases from the results derived for this class of reaction-diffusion-convection equations. The symmetries obtained for constructing exact solutions of the relevant equations are successfully applied. The exact solutions are compared with those found by means of different techniques. Finally, an application of the exact solutions for solving boundary-value problems arising in population dynamics is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cosmetic Detection Framework for Face and Iris Biometrics
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040122
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Cosmetics pose challenges to the recognition performance of face and iris biometric systems due to its ability to alter natural facial and iris patterns. Facial makeup and iris contact lens are considered to be commonly applied cosmetics for the face and iris in
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Cosmetics pose challenges to the recognition performance of face and iris biometric systems due to its ability to alter natural facial and iris patterns. Facial makeup and iris contact lens are considered to be commonly applied cosmetics for the face and iris in this study. The present work aims to present a novel solution for the detection of cosmetics in both face and iris biometrics by the fusion of texture, shape and color descriptors of images. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme combines the microtexton information from the local primitives of texture descriptors with the color spaces achieved from overlapped blocks in order to achieve better detection of spots, flat areas, edges, edge ends, curves, appearance and colors. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme was applied to the YMU YouTube makeup database (YMD) facial makeup database and IIIT-Delhi Contact Lens iris database. The results demonstrate that the proposed cosmetic detection scheme is significantly improved compared to the other schemes implemented in this study. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Stability of Bounded Dynamical Networks with Symmetry
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040121
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Motivated by dynamical models describing phase separation and the motion of interfaces separating phases, we study the stability of dynamical networks in planar domains formed by triple junctions. We take into account symmetry, angle-intersection conditions at the junctions and at the points at
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Motivated by dynamical models describing phase separation and the motion of interfaces separating phases, we study the stability of dynamical networks in planar domains formed by triple junctions. We take into account symmetry, angle-intersection conditions at the junctions and at the points at which the curves intersect with the boundary. Firstly, we focus on the case of a network where two triple junctions have all their branches unattached to the boundary and then on the case of a network of hexagons, with one of them having all its branches unattached to the boundary. For both type of networks, we introduce the evolution problem, identify the steady states and study their stability in terms of the geometry of the boundary. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Symmetry Reduction and Numerical Solution of Von K a ´ rm a ´ n Swirling Viscous Flow
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040120
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, the numerical solutions of von K a´ rm a´ n swirling viscous flow are obtained based on the effective combination of the symmetry method and the Runge-Kutta method. Firstly, the multi-parameter symmetry of von K a´ rm
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In this paper, the numerical solutions of von K a ´ rm a ´ n swirling viscous flow are obtained based on the effective combination of the symmetry method and the Runge-Kutta method. Firstly, the multi-parameter symmetry of von K a ´ rm a ´ n swirling viscous flow is determined based on the differential characteristic set algorithm. Secondly, we used the symmetry to reduce von K a ´ rm a ´ n swirling viscous flow to an initial value problem of the original differential equations. Finally, we numerically solve the initial value problem of the original differential equations by using the Runge-Kutta method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Skin Lesion Detection Approach Using Neutrosophic Clustering and Adaptive Region Growing in Dermoscopy Images
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040119
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes novel skin lesion detection based on neutrosophic clustering and adaptive region growing algorithms applied to dermoscopic images, called NCARG. First, the dermoscopic images are mapped into a neutrosophic set domain using the shearlet transform results for the images. The images
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This paper proposes novel skin lesion detection based on neutrosophic clustering and adaptive region growing algorithms applied to dermoscopic images, called NCARG. First, the dermoscopic images are mapped into a neutrosophic set domain using the shearlet transform results for the images. The images are described via three memberships: true, indeterminate, and false memberships. An indeterminate filter is then defined in the neutrosophic set for reducing the indeterminacy of the images. A neutrosophic c-means clustering algorithm is applied to segment the dermoscopic images. With the clustering results, skin lesions are identified precisely using an adaptive region growing method. To evaluate the performance of this algorithm, a public data set (ISIC 2017) is employed to train and test the proposed method. Fifty images are randomly selected for training and 500 images for testing. Several metrics are measured for quantitatively evaluating the performance of NCARG. The results establish that the proposed approach has the ability to detect a lesion with high accuracy, 95.3% average value, compared to the obtained average accuracy, 80.6%, found when employing the neutrosophic similarity score and level set (NSSLS) segmentation approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Simple Method for Measuring the Bilateral Symmetry of Leaves
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040118
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Many plant leaves exhibit bilateral symmetry, but such symmetry has rarely been measured because of the lack of practical methods. We propose a simple method for achieving the above objective. A leaf is divided into left and right sides, and several equally-sized strips
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Many plant leaves exhibit bilateral symmetry, but such symmetry has rarely been measured because of the lack of practical methods. We propose a simple method for achieving the above objective. A leaf is divided into left and right sides, and several equally-sized strips are generated to intersect each side of that leaf to generate pairwise left and right sub-regions. A standardized index (SI) for measuring bilateral symmetry is built based on the left–right areal differences of those sub-regions. The leaves of 10 species of plants were sampled for testing the method’s validity. Based on the experimental data, we compared the root-mean-squared error (RMSE), SI, and areal ratio (AR) of the left side to the right side of the leaf. The SI measures the bilateral symmetry of plant leaves well, and it is better than the RMSE and AR for eliminating the effect of leaf size on the goodness of fit. The SI proposed here is the best indicator for evaluating the degree of bilateral symmetry and can be potentially used for comparing the difference in the bilateral symmetry of leaves of different plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Human Bodily Asymmetry Relates to Behavioral Lateralization and May not Reliably Reflect Developmental Instability
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040117
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: The link between behavioral lateralization and bodily asymmetry in humans is studied to investigate the reliability of fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of developmental instability; (2) Methods: Morphological asymmetries of arms and legs, obtained from 3D body scans, were correlated with
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(1) Background: The link between behavioral lateralization and bodily asymmetry in humans is studied to investigate the reliability of fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of developmental instability; (2) Methods: Morphological asymmetries of arms and legs, obtained from 3D body scans, were correlated with different measures of behavioral lateralization; (3) Results: Observed associations were in the directions expected, showing that more asymmetric use of the body increases asymmetry, especially in the arms, and more symmetric body use appears to have a symmetrizing effect; and (4) Conclusions: The results presented here question the suitability of human bodily asymmetry in arms and legs—or at least part of them—as a measure of developmental instability. There is a need for future research that identifies regions of the body that are not affected by behavioral lateralization and can reliably reflect developmental instability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications Based on Symmetrical Characteristics of the Human Body)
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Open AccessArticle An Extension of Neutrosophic AHP–SWOT Analysis for Strategic Planning and Decision-Making
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040116
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Every organization seeks to set strategies for its development and growth and to do this, it must take into account the factors that affect its success or failure. The most widely used technique in strategic planning is SWOT analysis. SWOT examines strengths (S),
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Every organization seeks to set strategies for its development and growth and to do this, it must take into account the factors that affect its success or failure. The most widely used technique in strategic planning is SWOT analysis. SWOT examines strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O) and threats (T), to select and implement the best strategy to achieve organizational goals. The chosen strategy should harness the advantages of strengths and opportunities, handle weaknesses, and avoid or mitigate threats. SWOT analysis does not quantify factors (i.e., strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) and it fails to rank available alternatives. To overcome this drawback, we integrated it with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The AHP is able to determine both quantitative and the qualitative elements by weighting and ranking them via comparison matrices. Due to the vague and inconsistent information that exists in the real world, we applied the proposed model in a neutrosophic environment. A real case study of Starbucks Company was presented to validate our model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Multiple Attribute Decision Making Method Based on DEMATEL and TOPSIS for Multi-Valued Interval Neutrosophic Sets
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040115
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Interval neutrosophic fuzzy decision making is an important part of decision making under uncertainty, which is based on preference order. In this study, a new multi-valued interval neutrosophic fuzzy multiple attribute decision making method has been developed by integrating the DEMATEL (decision making
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Interval neutrosophic fuzzy decision making is an important part of decision making under uncertainty, which is based on preference order. In this study, a new multi-valued interval neutrosophic fuzzy multiple attribute decision making method has been developed by integrating the DEMATEL (decision making trial and evaluation laboratory) method and the TOPSIS (the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution) method. Evaluation values are given in the form of multi-valued interval neutrosophic fuzzy values. By using DEMATEL, dependencies among attributes can be modeled, and attribute weights are determined. The normalized Euclidean distance and the normalized Hamming distance between multi-valued interval neutrosophic fuzzy values are defined. Alternatives are ranked by using the TOPSIS method based on the distance measures. The truck selection problem in the logistics industry is presented to illustrate the feasibility and practical advantages of the proposed method. Some comparisons of the new method with other methods are also made. Full article
Open AccessArticle Understanding Review Expertise of Developers: A Reviewer Recommendation Approach Based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040114
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
The code reviewer assignment problem affects the reviewing time of a source code change. To effectively perform the code review process of a software project, the code reviewer assignment problem must be dealt with. Reviewer recommendation can reduce the time required for finding
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The code reviewer assignment problem affects the reviewing time of a source code change. To effectively perform the code review process of a software project, the code reviewer assignment problem must be dealt with. Reviewer recommendation can reduce the time required for finding appropriate reviewers for a given source code change. In this paper, we propose a reviewer recommendation approach based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). The proposed reviewer recommendation approach consists of a review expertise generation phase and a reviewer recommendation phase. The review expertise generation phase generates the review expertise of developers for topics of source code changes from the review history of a software project. The reviewer recommendation phase computes the review scores of the developers according to the topic distribution of a given source code change and the review expertise of the developers. In an empirical evaluation of five open source projects, we confirm that the proposed reviewer recommendation approach obtains better average top-10 accuracy than existing reviewer recommendation approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Sliding Nest Window Control Chart in Data Stream Anomaly Detection
Symmetry 2018, 10(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10040113
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Since data stream anomaly detection algorithms based on sliding windows are sensitive to the abnormal deviation of individual interference data, this paper presents a sliding nest window chart anomaly detection based on the data stream (SNWCAD-DS) by employing the concept of the sliding
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Since data stream anomaly detection algorithms based on sliding windows are sensitive to the abnormal deviation of individual interference data, this paper presents a sliding nest window chart anomaly detection based on the data stream (SNWCAD-DS) by employing the concept of the sliding window and control chart. By nesting a small sliding window in a large sliding window and analyzing the deviation distance between the small window and the large sliding window, the algorithm increases the out-of-bounds detection ratio and classifies the conceptual drift data stream online. The designed algorithm is simulated on the industrial data stream of drilling engineering. The proposed algorithm SNWCAD is compared with Automatic Outlier Detection for Data Streams (A-ODDS) and Distance-Based Outline Detection for Data Stream (DBOD-DS). The experimental results show that the new algorithm can obtain higher detection accuracy than the compared algorithms. Furthermore, it can shield the influence of individual interference data and satisfy actual engineering needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Technology and Its Applications 2018)
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