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Energies, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle American’s Energy Future: An Analysis of the Proposed Energy Policy Plans in Presidential Election
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1000; doi:10.3390/en9121000
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
As the leader of the largest economy, President of the United States has substantive influence on addressing climate change problems. However, a presidential election is often dominated by issues other than energy problems. This paper focuses on the 2016 presidential election, and examines
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As the leader of the largest economy, President of the United States has substantive influence on addressing climate change problems. However, a presidential election is often dominated by issues other than energy problems. This paper focuses on the 2016 presidential election, and examines the energy plans proposed by the leading Democrat and Republican candidates. Our data from the Iowa caucus survey in January 2016 suggests that voters were more concerned about terrorism and economic issues than environmental issues. We then compare the Democratic and Republican candidate’s view of America’s energy future, and evaluate their proposed renewable energy targets. We find that the view on renewable energy is polarized between Democratic and Republican candidates, while candidates from both parties agree on the need for energy efficiency. Results from our ordinal least squares regression models suggests that Democratic candidates have moderate to ambitious goals for developing solar and other renewables. The Republican candidates favor fossil fuels and they choose not to provide any specific target for developing renewable energy. In addition, this trend of party polarization has grown more significant when compared with the past three presidential elections. Our observation suggests that energy policies need to be discussed more often regarding the diversification and decarbonization of the nation’s energy system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Climate Change 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental and Potential Analysis of a Single-Valve Expander for Waste Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Engine
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1001; doi:10.3390/en9121001
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 20 November 2016 / Accepted: 26 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, a Rankine cycle test system is established to recover exhaust energy from a 2.0 L gasoline engine. Experiments on the system’s performance are carried out under various working conditions. The experimental results indicate that the recovery power of the expander
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In this paper, a Rankine cycle test system is established to recover exhaust energy from a 2.0 L gasoline engine. Experiments on the system’s performance are carried out under various working conditions. The experimental results indicate that the recovery power of the expander is strongly related to the load and speed of the gasoline engine. It is found that when the output power of the gasoline engine is 39.8–76.6 kW, the net power of the expander is 1.8–2.97 kW, which is equivalent to 3.9%–4.9% of the engine power. The performance simulation shows that the mass flow rate, power output, and isentropic efficiency of the piston expander are directly determined by the intake valve timing. Selecting a suitable intake valve timing can optimize the performance of the expander. The simulation results show that a 1 kW increment in power can be obtained only by selecting an optimum intake open timing. The experimental results further verify that the single-valve piston expander, because of its small dimensions, simple structure, and high speed, is appropriate, and has great potential for energy recovery of gasoline engine exhaust and has good prospects for engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Heat Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle Hydraulic Hybrid Excavator—Mathematical Model Validation and Energy Analysis
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1002; doi:10.3390/en9121002
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
Recent demands to reduce pollutant emissions and improve energy efficiency have driven the implementation of hybrid solutions in mobile machinery. This paper presents the results of a numerical and experimental analysis conducted on a hydraulic hybrid excavator (HHE). The machinery under study is
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Recent demands to reduce pollutant emissions and improve energy efficiency have driven the implementation of hybrid solutions in mobile machinery. This paper presents the results of a numerical and experimental analysis conducted on a hydraulic hybrid excavator (HHE). The machinery under study is a middle size excavator, whose standard version was modified with the introduction of an energy recovery system (ERS). The proposed ERS layout was designed to recover the potential energy of the boom, using a hydraulic accumulator as a storage device. The recovered energy is utilized through the pilot pump of the machinery which operates as a motor, thus reducing the torque required from the internal combustion engine (ICE). The analysis reported in this paper validates the HHE model by comparing numerical and experimental data in terms of hydraulic and mechanical variables and fuel consumption. The mathematical model shows its capability to reproduce the realistic operating conditions of the realized prototype, tested on the field. A detailed energy analysis comparison between the standard and the hybrid excavator models was carried out to evaluate the energy flows along the system, showing advantages, weaknesses and possibilities to further improve the machinery efficiency. Finally, the fuel consumption estimated by the model and that measured during the experiments are presented to highlight the fuel saving percentages. The HHE model is an important starting point for the development of other energy saving solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency and Controllability of Fluid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Reorientation of Magnetic Graphene Oxide Nanosheets in Crosslinked Quaternized Polyvinyl Alcohol as Effective Solid Electrolyte
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1003; doi:10.3390/en9121003
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
This work aims to clarify the effect of magnetic graphene oxide (GO) reorientation in a polymer matrix on the ionic conduction and methanol barrier properties of nanocomposite membrane electrolytes. Magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared and dispersed on
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This work aims to clarify the effect of magnetic graphene oxide (GO) reorientation in a polymer matrix on the ionic conduction and methanol barrier properties of nanocomposite membrane electrolytes. Magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared and dispersed on GO nanosheets (GO-Fe3O4). The magnetic GO-Fe3O4 was imbedded into a quaternized polyvinyl alcohol (QPVA) matrix and crosslinked (CL-) with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain a polymeric nanocomposite. A magnetic field was applied in the through-plane direction during the drying and film formation steps. The CL-QPVA/GO-Fe3O4 nanocomposite membranes were doped with an alkali to obtain hydroxide-conducting electrolytes for direct methanol alkaline fuel cell (DMAFC) applications. The magnetic field-reoriented CL-QPVA/GO-Fe3O4 electrolyte demonstrated higher conductivity and lower methanol permeability than the unoriented CL-QPVA/GO-Fe3O4 membrane or the CL-QPVA film. The reoriented CL-QPVA/GO-Fe3O4 nanocomposite was used as the electrolyte in a DMAFC and resulted in a maximum power density of 55.4 mW·cm−2 at 60 °C, which is 73.7% higher than that of the composite without the magnetic field treatment (31.9 mW·cm−2). In contrast, the DMAFC using the CL-QPVA electrolyte generated only 22.4 mW·cm−2. This research proved the surprising benefits of magnetic-field-assisted orientation of GO-Fe3O4 in facilitating the ion conduction of a polymeric electrolyte. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methanol and Alcohol Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1004; doi:10.3390/en9121004
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG) bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of
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This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG) bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Augmented Nonlinear Controller for Maximum Power-Point Tracking with Artificial Neural Network in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1005; doi:10.3390/en9121005
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) systems have non-linear characteristics that generate maximum power at one particular operating point. Environmental factors such as irradiance and temperature variations greatly affect the maximum power point (MPP). Diverse offline and online techniques have been introduced for tracking the MPP. Here,
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Photovoltaic (PV) systems have non-linear characteristics that generate maximum power at one particular operating point. Environmental factors such as irradiance and temperature variations greatly affect the maximum power point (MPP). Diverse offline and online techniques have been introduced for tracking the MPP. Here, to track the MPP, an augmented-state feedback linearized (AFL) non-linear controller combined with an artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed. This approach linearizes the non-linear characteristics in PV systems and DC/DC converters, for tracking and optimizing the PV system operation. It also reduces the dependency of the designed controller on linearized models, to provide global stability. A complete model of the PV system is simulated. The existing maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) and DC/DC boost-converter controller techniques are compared with the proposed ANN method. Two case studies, which simulate realistic circumstances, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. The AFL with ANN controller can provide good dynamic operation, faster convergence speed, and fewer operating-point oscillations around the MPP. It also tracks the global maxima under different conditions, especially irradiance-mutating situations, more effectively than the conventional methods. Detailed mathematical models and a control approach for a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system are proposed using MATLAB/Simulink. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Soiling and Cleaning of Polymer Film Solar Reflectors
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1006; doi:10.3390/en9121006
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
This paper describes the accelerated ageing of commercially available silvered polymer film by contact cleaning using brushes and water in the presence of soiling created by dust and sand particles. These conditions represent cleaning regimes in real concentrating solar power (CSP) solar fields
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This paper describes the accelerated ageing of commercially available silvered polymer film by contact cleaning using brushes and water in the presence of soiling created by dust and sand particles. These conditions represent cleaning regimes in real concentrating solar power (CSP) solar fields in arid environments, where contact cleaning using brushes and water is often required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of these established cleaning processes on the optical and visual characteristics of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. The experiments were repeated using different experimental equipment at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Spain and Cranfield University in the UK. The results highlight differences that are attributable to the experimental methods used. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection show that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water, used in a cleaning head with both linear and rotational motion, can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Generation of Renewable Energy and Sustainable Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Unwanted Emissions in the CENELEC-A Band Generated by Distributed Energy Resources and Their Influence over Narrow Band Power Line Communications
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1007; doi:10.3390/en9121007
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on
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Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer analysis. Results show that the switching frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Cost Analysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stacks for Mass Production
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1008; doi:10.3390/en9121008
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Fuel cells are very promising technologies for efficient electrical energy generation. The development of enhanced system components and new engineering solutions is fundamental for the large-scale deployment of these devices. Besides automotive and stationary applications, fuel cells can be widely used as auxiliary
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Fuel cells are very promising technologies for efficient electrical energy generation. The development of enhanced system components and new engineering solutions is fundamental for the large-scale deployment of these devices. Besides automotive and stationary applications, fuel cells can be widely used as auxiliary power units (APUs). The concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is based on the direct feed of a methanol solution to the fuel cell anode, thus simplifying safety, delivery, and fuel distribution issues typical of conventional hydrogen-fed polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs). In order to evaluate the feasibility of concrete application of DMFC devices, a cost analysis study was carried out in the present work. A 200 W-prototype developed in the framework of a European Project (DURAMET) was selected as the model system. The DMFC stack had a modular structure allowing for a detailed evaluation of cost characteristics related to the specific components. A scale-down approach, focusing on the model device and projected to a mass production, was used. The data used in this analysis were obtained both from research laboratories and industry suppliers specialising in the manufacturing/production of specific stack components. This study demonstrates that mass production can give a concrete perspective for the large-scale diffusion of DMFCs as APUs. The results show that the cost derived for the DMFC stack is relatively close to that of competing technologies and that the introduction of innovative approaches can result in further cost savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Correlations for Windage Power Losses Modeling in an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine with Geometrical Features of the Magnets
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1009; doi:10.3390/en9121009
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, a set of correlations for the windage power losses in a 4 kW axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (AFPMSM) is presented. In order to have an efficient machine, it is necessary to optimize the total electromagnetic and mechanical losses.
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In this paper, a set of correlations for the windage power losses in a 4 kW axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (AFPMSM) is presented. In order to have an efficient machine, it is necessary to optimize the total electromagnetic and mechanical losses. Therefore, fast equations are needed to estimate the windage power losses of the machine. The geometry consists of an open rotor–stator with sixteen magnets at the periphery of the rotor with an annular opening in the entire disk. Air can flow in a channel being formed between the magnets and in a small gap region between the magnets and the stator surface. To construct the correlations, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations through the frozen rotor (FR) method are performed at the practical ranges of the geometrical parameters, namely the gap size distance, the rotational speed of the rotor, the magnet thickness and the magnet angle. Thereafter, two categories of formulations are defined to make the windage losses dimensionless based on whether the losses are mainly due to the viscous forces or the pressure forces. At the end, the correlations can be achieved via curve fittings from the numerical data. The results reveal that the pressure forces are responsible for the windage losses for the side surfaces in the air-channel, whereas for the surfaces facing the stator surface in the gap, the viscous forces mainly contribute to the windage losses. Additionally, the results of the parametric study demonstrate that the overall windage losses in the machine escalate with an increase in either the rotational Reynolds number or the magnet thickness ratio. By contrast, the windage losses decrease once the magnet angle ratio enlarges. Moreover, it can be concluded that the proposed correlations are very useful tools in the design and optimizations of this type of electrical machine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Scheduling and Real-Time State-of-Charge Management of Energy Storage System for Frequency Regulation
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1010; doi:10.3390/en9121010
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
An energy storage system (ESS) in a power system facilitates tasks such as renewable integration, peak shaving, and the use of ancillary services. Among the various functions of an ESS, this study focused on frequency regulation (or secondary reserve). This paper presents an
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An energy storage system (ESS) in a power system facilitates tasks such as renewable integration, peak shaving, and the use of ancillary services. Among the various functions of an ESS, this study focused on frequency regulation (or secondary reserve). This paper presents an optimal scheduling algorithm for frequency regulation by an ESS. This algorithm determines the bidding capacity and base point of an ESS in each operational period to achieve the maximum profit within a stable state-of-charge (SOC) range. However, the charging/discharging efficiency of an ESS causes SOC errors whenever the ESS performs frequency regulation. With an increase in SOC errors, the ESS cannot respond to an automatic generation control (AGC) signal. This situation results in low ESS performance scores, and finally, the ESS is disqualified from performing frequency regulation. This paper also presents a real-time SOC management algorithm aimed at solving the SOC error problem in real-time operations. This algorithm compensates for SOC errors by changing the base point of the ESS. The optimal scheduling algorithm is implemented in MATLAB by using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. In addition, changes in the SOC when the ESS performs frequency regulation in a real-time operation are confirmed using the PSCAD/EMTDC tool. The simulation results show that the optimal scheduling algorithm manages the SOC more efficiently than a commonly employed planning method. In addition, the proposed real-time SOC management algorithm is confirmed to be capable of performing SOC recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1011; doi:10.3390/en9121011
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing
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Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy and Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Modular Multilevel Converter with Partial Embedded Energy Storage
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1012; doi:10.3390/en9121012
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
Modular and cascaded multilevel converters provide a functional solution for the integration of energy storage systems (ESSs). This paper develops a hybrid multilevel converter based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC) that can be functionally extended with partial embedded ESS as a fraction
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Modular and cascaded multilevel converters provide a functional solution for the integration of energy storage systems (ESSs). This paper develops a hybrid multilevel converter based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC) that can be functionally extended with partial embedded ESS as a fraction of the overall converter power rating. The configuration, which can operate as a typical DC-AC converter, enables multi-directional power flow between the DC- and AC-side of the converter, as well as the embedded energy storage elements. The use of a three-phase flying-capacitor submodule eliminates the second-order harmonic oscillations present in modular cascaded multilevel converters. Current, voltage and power control are discussed in the paper while simulation results illustrate the operation of the hybrid MMC as a DC-AC converter in a typical inverter application and the additional functions and control of the embedded ESS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2nd Energy Future Conference)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Simulation of a Trigeneration Scheme for Domestic Purposes Based on Hybrid Techniques
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1013; doi:10.3390/en9121013
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, the design of a system providing electricity by coupling photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collectors and a wind turbine (WT), sanitary hot water (SHW) coming from the PVT and evacuated tube collectors (ETCs) and fresh water (FW) produced in two seawater desalting facilities
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In this paper, the design of a system providing electricity by coupling photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collectors and a wind turbine (WT), sanitary hot water (SHW) coming from the PVT and evacuated tube collectors (ETCs) and fresh water (FW) produced in two seawater desalting facilities (membrane distillation, MD, and reverse osmosis, RO), has been carefully analyzed by means of a dynamic model developed in TRNSYS®. This analysis is compulsory to operate a lab-scale pilot plant that is being erected at Zaragoza, Spain. A new model-type has been included in TRNSYS® in order to include the MD unit in the scheme. A sensitivity analysis of some free-design variables, such that the ETC surface, PVT and ETC tilt, water storage tank, batteries capacities, and mass flow rates delivered to the SHW service and/or feeding the MD unit has been performed in order to propose the definite design of the scheme. The proposed base case was able to produce up to 15,311 L per year in the MD system and cover an electric energy demand of 1890 kWh. Coverage of SHW, water (including RO and MD) and power is respectively 99.3%, 100% and 70%. However, daily and yearly assessment of FW, SHW and power produced with the optimized design gave a better coverage of water and energy demands for a typical single family home. The improved and definite design was able to increase its MD production in 35% and the electric energy in 7% compared with base case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cooling and Heating)
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting Crude Oil Price Using EEMD and RVM with Adaptive PSO-Based Kernels
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1014; doi:10.3390/en9121014
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Crude oil, as one of the most important energy sources in the world, plays a crucial role in global economic events. An accurate prediction for crude oil price is an interesting and challenging task for enterprises, governments, investors, and researchers. To cope with
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Crude oil, as one of the most important energy sources in the world, plays a crucial role in global economic events. An accurate prediction for crude oil price is an interesting and challenging task for enterprises, governments, investors, and researchers. To cope with this issue, in this paper, we proposed a method integrating ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO), and relevance vector machine (RVM)—namely, EEMD-APSO-RVM—to predict crude oil price based on the “decomposition and ensemble” framework. Specifically, the raw time series of crude oil price were firstly decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and one residue by EEMD. Then, RVM with combined kernels was applied to predict target value for the residue and each IMF individually. To improve the prediction performance of each component, an extended particle swarm optimization (PSO) was utilized to simultaneously optimize the weights and parameters of single kernels for the combined kernel of RVM. Finally, simple addition was used to aggregate all the predicted results of components into an ensemble result as the final result. Extensive experiments were conducted on the crude oil spot price of the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) to illustrate and evaluate the proposed method. The experimental results are superior to those by several state-of-the-art benchmark methods in terms of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute percent error (MAPE), and directional statistic (Dstat), showing that the proposed EEMD-APSO-RVM is promising for forecasting crude oil price. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1015; doi:10.3390/en9121015
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange
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Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC) to electrolysis cell (EC). Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen Production, Separation and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Cementing Properties on the Thermal and Mechanical Stability of Geothermal Wells
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1016; doi:10.3390/en9121016
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, a two-dimensional (2-D) Finite Element (FE) analysis of a geothermal well was performed with respect to five different cross-sections corresponding to the design specifications for the geothermal well that is currently constructed in Pohang, South Korea. Among the essential components
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In this paper, a two-dimensional (2-D) Finite Element (FE) analysis of a geothermal well was performed with respect to five different cross-sections corresponding to the design specifications for the geothermal well that is currently constructed in Pohang, South Korea. Among the essential components (such as ground formation, casing, and cementing) of a geothermal well, the thermal and mechanical stability of the cementing component was discussed based on a series of parametric studies with consideration of the thermal conductivity and Young’s modulus of the cementing component. With increasing number of casing layers, the cementing component experiences less stress concentration. In addition, the lower thermal conductivity of the cementing material is advantageous for effectively controlling radial displacement. Consequently, it should be noted in geothermal well cementing construction that long-term strength degradation of the cementing might cause the severe structural instability of an entire geothermal well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ensemble Learning Approach for Probabilistic Forecasting of Solar Power Generation
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1017; doi:10.3390/en9121017
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Probabilistic forecasting accounts for the uncertainty in prediction that arises from inaccurate input data due to measurement errors, as well as the inherent inaccuracy of a prediction model. Because of the variable nature of renewable power generation depending on weather conditions, probabilistic forecasting
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Probabilistic forecasting accounts for the uncertainty in prediction that arises from inaccurate input data due to measurement errors, as well as the inherent inaccuracy of a prediction model. Because of the variable nature of renewable power generation depending on weather conditions, probabilistic forecasting is well suited to it. For a grid-tied solar farm, it is increasingly important to forecast the solar power generation several hours ahead. In this study, we propose three different methods for ensemble probabilistic forecasting, derived from seven individual machine learning models, to generate 24-h ahead solar power forecasts. We have shown that while all of the individual machine learning models are more accurate than the traditional benchmark models, like autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), the ensemble models offer even more accurate results than any individual machine learning model alone does. Furthermore, it is observed that running separate models on the data belonging to the same hour of the day vastly improves the accuracy of the results. Getting more accurate forecasts will help the stakeholders come up with better decisions in resource planning and control when large-scale solar farms are integrated into the power grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of Crack Extension Patterns in Hydraulic Fracturing with Shale, Sandstone and Granite Cores
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1018; doi:10.3390/en9121018
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Hydraulic fracturing is an important method of reservoir stimulation in the exploitation of geothermal resources, and conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources. In this article, hydraulic fracturing experiments with shale, sandstone cores (from southern Sichuan Basin), and granite cores (from Inner Mongolia)
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Hydraulic fracturing is an important method of reservoir stimulation in the exploitation of geothermal resources, and conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources. In this article, hydraulic fracturing experiments with shale, sandstone cores (from southern Sichuan Basin), and granite cores (from Inner Mongolia) were conducted to investigate the different hydraulic fracture extension patterns in these three reservoir rocks. The different reactions between reservoir lithology and pump pressure can be reflected by the pump pressure monitoring curves of hydraulic fracture experiments. An X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner was employed to obtain the spatial distribution of hydraulic fractures in fractured shale, sandstone, and granite cores. From the microscopic and macroscopic observation of hydraulic fractures, different extension patterns of the hydraulic fracture can be analyzed. In fractured sandstone, symmetrical hydraulic fracture morphology could be formed, while some micro cracks were also induced near the injection hole. Although the macroscopic cracks in fractured granite cores are barely observed by naked eye, the results of X-ray CT scanning obviously show the morphology of hydraulic fractures. It is indicated that the typical bedding planes well developed in shale formation play an important role in the propagation of hydraulic fractures in shale cores. The results also demonstrated that heterogeneity influenced the pathway of the hydraulic fracture in granite cores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oil and Gas Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Usability and Accuracy of the Simplified One-Diode Models for Photovoltaic Modules
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1019; doi:10.3390/en9121019
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
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Abstract
Models for photovoltaic (PV) cells and panels, based on the diode equivalent circuit, have been widely used because they are effective tools for system design. Many authors have presented simplified one-diode models whose three or four parameters are calculated using the data extracted
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Models for photovoltaic (PV) cells and panels, based on the diode equivalent circuit, have been widely used because they are effective tools for system design. Many authors have presented simplified one-diode models whose three or four parameters are calculated using the data extracted from the datasheets issued by PV panel manufactures and adopting some simplifying hypotheses and numerical solving techniques. Sometimes it may be difficult to make a choice among so many models. To help researchers and designers working in the area of photovoltaic systems in selecting the model that is fit for purpose, a criterion for rating both the usability and accuracy of simplified one-diode models is proposed in this paper. The paper minutely describes the adopted hypotheses, analytical procedures and operative steps to calculate the parameters of the most famous simplified one-diode equivalent circuits. To test the achievable accuracy of the models, a comparison between the characteristics of some commercial PV modules issued by PV panel manufacturers and the calculated current-voltage (I-V) curves, at constant solar irradiance and/or cell temperature, is carried out. The study shows that, even if different usability ratings and accuracies are observed, the simplified one-diode models can be considered very effective tools. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy Optimization and Fuel Economy Investigation of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Integrated with Diesel/RCCI Engines
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1020; doi:10.3390/en9121020
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 4 December 2016
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Abstract
Among different types of low temperature combustion (LTC) regimes, eactively controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has received a lot of attention as a promising advanced combustion engine technology with high indicated thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter
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Among different types of low temperature combustion (LTC) regimes, eactively controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has received a lot of attention as a promising advanced combustion engine technology with high indicated thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxides ( NO x ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. In this study, an RCCI engine for the purpose of fuel economy investigation is incorporated in series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) architecture, which allows the engine to run completely in the narrow RCCI mode for common driving cycles. Three different types of energy management control (EMC) strategies are designed and implemented to achieve the best fuel economy. The EMC strategies encompass rule-based control (RBC), offline, and online optimal controllers, including dynamic programing (DP) and model predictive control (MPC), respectively. The simulation results show a 13.1% to 14.2% fuel economy saving by using an RCCI engine over a modern spark ignition (SI) engine in SHEV for different driving cycles. This fuel economy saving is reduced to 3% in comparison with a modern compression ignition (CI) engine, while NO x emissions are significantly lower. Simulation results show that the RCCI engine offers more fuel economy improvement in more aggressive driving cycles (e.g., US06), compared to less aggressive driving cycles (e.g., UDDS). In addition, the MPC results show that sub-optimal fuel economy is achieved by predicting the vehicle speed profile for a time horizon of 70 s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines)
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Open AccessArticle Gas Hydrate Growth Kinetics: A Parametric Study
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1021; doi:10.3390/en9121021
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
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Abstract
Gas hydrate growth kinetics was studied at a pressure of 90 bars to investigate the effect of temperature, initial water content, stirring rate, and reactor size in stirred semi-batch autoclave reactors. The mixing energy during hydrate growth was estimated by logging the power
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Gas hydrate growth kinetics was studied at a pressure of 90 bars to investigate the effect of temperature, initial water content, stirring rate, and reactor size in stirred semi-batch autoclave reactors. The mixing energy during hydrate growth was estimated by logging the power consumed. The theoretical model by Garcia-Ochoa and Gomez for estimation of the mass transfer parameters in stirred tanks has been used to evaluate the dispersion parameters of the system. The mean bubble size, impeller power input per unit volume, and impeller Reynold’s number/tip velocity were used for analyzing observed trends from the gas hydrate growth data. The growth behavior was analyzed based on the gas consumption and the growth rate per unit initial water content. The results showed that the growth rate strongly depended on the flow pattern in the cell, the gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics, and the mixing efficiency from stirring. Scale-up effects indicate that maintaining the growth rate per unit volume of reactants upon scale-up with geometric similarity does not depend only on gas dispersion in the liquid phase but may rather be a function of the specific thermal conductance, and heat and mass transfer limitations created by the limit to the degree of the liquid phase dispersion is batched and semi-batched stirred tank reactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methane Hydrate Research and Development)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Impedance-Based Fault Location Methods for Power Underground Distribution Systems
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1022; doi:10.3390/en9121022
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract
In the last few decades, the Smart Grid paradigm presence has increased within power systems. These new kinds of networks demand new Operations and Planning approaches, following improvements in the quality of service. In this sense, the role of the Distribution Management System,
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In the last few decades, the Smart Grid paradigm presence has increased within power systems. These new kinds of networks demand new Operations and Planning approaches, following improvements in the quality of service. In this sense, the role of the Distribution Management System, through its Outage Management System, is essential to guarantee the network reliability. This system is responsible for minimizing the consequences arising from a fault event (or network failure). Obviously, knowing where the fault appears is critical for a good reaction of this system. Therefore, several fault location techniques have been proposed. However, most of them provide individual results, associated with specific testbeds, which make the comparison between them difficult. Due to this, a review of fault location methods has been done in this paper, analyzing them for their use on underground distribution lines. Specifically, this study is focused on an impedance-based method because their requirements are in line with the typical instrumentation deployed in distribution networks. This work is completed with an exhaustive analysis of these methods over a PSCADTM X4 implementation of the standard IEEE Node Test Feeder, which truly allows us to consistently compare the results of these location methods and to determine the advantages and drawbacks of each of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Power System Operations and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle Inverse Aerodynamic Optimization Considering Impacts of Design Tip Speed Ratio for Variable-Speed Wind Turbines
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1023; doi:10.3390/en9121023
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Abstract
Because of the slow dynamic behavior of the large-inertia wind turbine rotor, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) are actually unable to keep operating at the design tip speed ratio (TSR) during the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) process. Moreover, it has been pointed out
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Because of the slow dynamic behavior of the large-inertia wind turbine rotor, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) are actually unable to keep operating at the design tip speed ratio (TSR) during the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) process. Moreover, it has been pointed out that although a larger design TSR can increase the maximum power coefficient, it also greatly prolongs the MPPT process of VSWTs. Consequently, turbines spend more time operating at the off-design TSRs and the wind energy capture efficiency is decreased. Therefore, in the inverse aerodynamic design of VSWTs, the static aerodynamic performance (i.e., the maximum power coefficient) and the dynamic process of MPPT should be comprehensively modeled for determining an appropriate design TSR. In this paper, based on the inverse design method, an aerodynamic optimization method for VSWTs, fully considering the impacts of the design TSR on the static and dynamic behavior of wind turbines is proposed. In this method, to achieve higher wind energy production, the design TSR, chord length and twist angle are jointly optimized, which is structurally different from the conventional separated design procedure. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulation results based on the Bladed software. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Mitigation of the Impact of High Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration on Residential Distribution Grid Using Smart Charging Strategies
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1024; doi:10.3390/en9121024
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Abstract
Vehicle electrification presents a great opportunity to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions. The greater use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), however, puts stress on local distribution networks. This paper presents an optimal PEV charging control method integrated with utility demand response (DR) signals
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Vehicle electrification presents a great opportunity to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions. The greater use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), however, puts stress on local distribution networks. This paper presents an optimal PEV charging control method integrated with utility demand response (DR) signals to mitigate the impact of PEV charging to several aspects of a grid, including load surge, distribution accumulative voltage deviation, and transformer aging. To build a realistic PEV charging load model, the results of National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) have been analyzed and a stochastic PEV charging model has been defined based on survey results. The residential distribution grid contains 120 houses and is modeled in GridLAB-D. Co-simulation is performed using Matlab and GridLAB-D to enable the optimal control algorithm in Matlab to control PEV charging loads in the residential grid modeled in GridLAB-D. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal charging control method in mitigating the negative impacts of PEV charging on the residential grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Microgrids: Developing the Intelligent Power Grid of Tomorrow)
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting the State of Health of Electric Vehicle Batteries to Evaluate the Viability of Car Sharing Practices
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1025; doi:10.3390/en9121025
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Abstract
Car-sharing practices are introducing electric vehicles (EVs) into their fleet. However, the literature suggests that at this point shared EV systems are failing to reach satisfactory commercial viability. A potential reason for this is the effect of higher vehicle usage, which is characteristic
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Car-sharing practices are introducing electric vehicles (EVs) into their fleet. However, the literature suggests that at this point shared EV systems are failing to reach satisfactory commercial viability. A potential reason for this is the effect of higher vehicle usage, which is characteristic of car sharing, and the implications on the battery’s state of health (SoH). In this paper, we forecast the SoH of two identical EVs being used in different car-sharing practices. For this purpose, we use real life transaction data from charging stations and different EV sensors. The results indicate that insight into users’ driving and charging behavior can provide a valuable point of reference for car-sharing system designers. In particular, the forecasting results show that the moment when an EV battery reaches its theoretical end of life can differ in as much as a quarter of the time when vehicles are shared under different conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1026; doi:10.3390/en9121026
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Abstract
This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP) and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP) technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover
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This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP) and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP) technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP) of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Shell and Helically-Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers with Various Dimple Arrangements in Condensers for Odor Control in a Pyrolysis System
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1027; doi:10.3390/en9121027
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
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Abstract
This study performed evaluations of the shell and helically-coiled tube heat exchangers with various dimple arrangements, that is, flat, inline, staggered, and bulged, at different Dean numbers (De) and inlet temperatures of a hot channel. Conjugated heat transfer was analyzed to
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This study performed evaluations of the shell and helically-coiled tube heat exchangers with various dimple arrangements, that is, flat, inline, staggered, and bulged, at different Dean numbers (De) and inlet temperatures of a hot channel. Conjugated heat transfer was analyzed to evaluate the heat transfer performance of the exchangers through temperature difference between the inlet and outlet, Nusselt number inside the coiled tube, and pressure drop of the coiled tube by using 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with shear stress transport turbulence closure. A grid dependency test was performed to determine the optimal number of the grid system. The numerical results were validated using the experimental data, and showed good agreement. The inline and staggered arrangements show the highest temperature differences through all De. The staggered arrangement shows the best heat transfer performance, whereas the inline arrangement shows the second highest performance with all ranges of De and the hot channel’s inlet temperature. The inline and staggered arrangements show the highest pressure drop among all inlet temperatures of the hot channel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Fluid Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle Predictive Modeling of a Buoyancy-Operated Cooling Tower under Unsaturated Conditions: Adjoint Sensitivity Model and Optimal Best-Estimate Results with Reduced Predicted Uncertainties
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1028; doi:10.3390/en9121028
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract
Nuclear and other large-scale energy-producing plants must include systems that guarantee the safe discharge of residual heat from the industrial process into the atmosphere. This function is usually performed by one or several cooling towers. The amount of heat released by a cooling
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Nuclear and other large-scale energy-producing plants must include systems that guarantee the safe discharge of residual heat from the industrial process into the atmosphere. This function is usually performed by one or several cooling towers. The amount of heat released by a cooling tower into the external environment can be quantified by using a numerical simulation model of the physical processes occurring in the respective tower, augmented by experimentally measured data that accounts for external conditions such as outlet air temperature, outlet water temperature, and outlet air relative humidity. The model’s responses of interest depend on many model parameters including correlations, boundary conditions, and material properties. Changes in these model parameters induce changes in the computed quantities of interest (called “model responses”), which are quantified by the sensitivities (i.e., functional derivatives) of the model responses with respect to the model parameters. These sensitivities are computed in this work by applying the general adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (ASAM) for nonlinear systems. These sensitivities are subsequently used for: (i) Ranking the parameters in their importance to contributing to response uncertainties; (ii) Propagating the uncertainties (covariances) in these model parameters to quantify the uncertainties (covariances) in the model responses; (iii) Performing model validation and predictive modeling. The comprehensive predictive modeling methodology used in this work, which includes assimilation of experimental measurements and calibration of model parameters, is applied to the cooling tower model under unsaturated conditions. The predicted response uncertainties (standard deviations) thus obtained are smaller than both the computed and the measured standards deviations for the respective responses, even for responses where no experimental data were available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Predictive Modeling of Nuclear Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Wind Turbine Blade Rotation on Triggering Lightning: An Experimental Study
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1029; doi:10.3390/en9121029
Received: 2 October 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract
Compared with other lightning targets on the ground, the most notable feature of a wind turbine is that the blades are usually in a rotating state when lightning strikes. To study the mechanism of blade rotation influencing wind turbine on triggering lightning, lightning
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Compared with other lightning targets on the ground, the most notable feature of a wind turbine is that the blades are usually in a rotating state when lightning strikes. To study the mechanism of blade rotation influencing wind turbine on triggering lightning, lightning discharge comparison tests based on a typical 2-MW 1:30-scaled wind turbine model with an arching high-voltage electrode were conducted under different modes of stationary and rotating blades. Negative polarity switching impulses of 250/2500 μs were applied to the arching electrode. The up-and-down method was adopted for 50% discharge voltage and the discharge process was observed. The experimental results showed that under the condition of a 4 m gap, the breakdown voltage decreases and the connection point of the leaders approaches the high-voltage electrode with increasing blade speed, indicating that the wind turbine’s blade rotation enhances the triggering of lightning. The analysis showed that the blade rotation could be altering the charge distribution on the blade tip, resulting in varied ascending leader development on the blade tip, which affected the discharge development process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Privacy-Preserving Distributed Optimal Scheduling for Interconnected Microgrids
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1031; doi:10.3390/en9121031
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract
With the development of microgrids (MGs), interconnected operation of multiple MGs is becoming a promising strategy for the smart grid. In this paper, a privacy-preserving distributed optimal scheduling method is proposed for the interconnected microgrids (IMG) with a battery energy storage system (BESS)
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With the development of microgrids (MGs), interconnected operation of multiple MGs is becoming a promising strategy for the smart grid. In this paper, a privacy-preserving distributed optimal scheduling method is proposed for the interconnected microgrids (IMG) with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and renewable energy resources (RESs). The optimal scheduling problem is modeled to minimize the coalitional operation cost of the IMG, including the fuel cost of conventional distributed generators and the life loss cost of BESSs. By using the framework of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), a distributed optimal scheduling model and an iteration solution algorithm for the IMG is introduced; only the expected exchanging power (EEP) of each MG is required during the iterations. Furthermore, a privacy-preserving strategy for the sharing of the EEP among MGs is designed to work with the mechanism of the distributed algorithm. According to the security analysis, the EEP can be delivered in a cooperative and privacy-preserving way. A case study and numerical results are given in terms of the convergence of the algorithm, the comparison of the costs and the implementation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Microgrids: Developing the Intelligent Power Grid of Tomorrow)
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Open AccessArticle The Desalination Process Driven by Wave Energy: A Challenge for the Future
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1032; doi:10.3390/en9121032
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract
The correlation between water and energy is currently the focus of several investigations. In particular, desalination is a technological process characterized by high energy consumption; nevertheless, desalination represents the only practicable solution in several areas, where the availability of fresh water is limited
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The correlation between water and energy is currently the focus of several investigations. In particular, desalination is a technological process characterized by high energy consumption; nevertheless, desalination represents the only practicable solution in several areas, where the availability of fresh water is limited but brackish water or seawater are present. These natural resources (energy and water) are essential for each other; energy system conversion needs water, and electrical energy is necessary for water treatment or transport. Several interesting aspects include the study of saline desalination as an answer to freshwater needs and the application of renewable energy (RE) devices to satisfy electrical energy requirement for the desalination process. A merge between renewable energy and desalination is beneficial in that it is a sustainable and challenging option for the future. This work investigates the possibility of using renewable energy sources to supply the desalination process. In particular, as a case study, we analyze the application of wave energy sources in the Sicilian context. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental and Simulation Studies of Strength and Fracture Behaviors of Wind Turbine Bearing Steel Processed by High Pressure Torsion
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1033; doi:10.3390/en9121033
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract
White structure flaking (WSF) has been found to be one of the failure modes in bearing steels under rolling contacts through the formation of cracks associated with a microstructural change called white etching area (WEA). In the present research, the effects of the
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White structure flaking (WSF) has been found to be one of the failure modes in bearing steels under rolling contacts through the formation of cracks associated with a microstructural change called white etching area (WEA). In the present research, the effects of the high-pressure torsion (HPT) process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an AISI 52100 alloy are studied. An annealed AISI 52100 was subjected to high-pressure torsion at room temperature under a pressure of up to ~6 GPa for up to three turns. Finite-element modeling (FEM) was used to simulate the process under high-pressure torsion and quasi-constrained conditions to reveal the material property changes occurring in HPT. Scanning electron microscopy and microhardness testing after processing were used to investigate the microstructural and mechanical property evolution of the steel. Strain induced microstructural transformations occur and affect the mechanical properties in a similar way to the well-known white etching area (WEA) found beneath the surface of wind turbine bearings. Here, HPT is used to study the feasibility of creating microstructural changes that are similar to WEA. This paper presents the preliminary results of using HPT to produce WEAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Renewable Sources for the Energy Consumption in Malta in the Mediterranean Sea
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1034; doi:10.3390/en9121034
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy production in the Maltese islands, focusing on the employment of renewable energies in order to increase their energy independence. The main renewable source here proposed is wave energy: thanks to a strategic
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The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy production in the Maltese islands, focusing on the employment of renewable energies in order to increase their energy independence. The main renewable source here proposed is wave energy: thanks to a strategic position, Malta will be able to produce electrical energy using an innovative type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) based on the prototype of a linear generator realized by University of Palermo. The use of this new technology will be able to cut down the electrical energy production from traditional power plants and, consequently, the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Wave energy source and off-shore photovoltaic (PV) technology are here proposed. Particularly, the installation of 12 wave farms, for a total installed capacity of 86 MW, will generate about 9.5% of Malta’s energy requirement in 2025, while the installation of 9.6 MW of off-shore PV will generate about 0.73%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Output Performance Model of Turbodrill Blade Used in a Slim Borehole
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1035; doi:10.3390/en9121035
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract
Small-diameter turbodrills have great potential for use in slim boreholes because of their lower cost and higher efficiency when used in geothermal energy and other underground resource applications. Multistage hydraulic components consisting of stators and rotors are key aspects of turbodrills. This study
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Small-diameter turbodrills have great potential for use in slim boreholes because of their lower cost and higher efficiency when used in geothermal energy and other underground resource applications. Multistage hydraulic components consisting of stators and rotors are key aspects of turbodrills. This study aimed to develop a suitable blade that can be used under high temperature in granite formations. First, prediction models for single- and multi-stage blades were established based on Bernoulli’s Equation. The design requirement of the blade for high-temperature geothermal drilling in granite was proposed. A Φ89 blade was developed based on the dimensionless parameter method and Bezier curve; the parameters of the blade, including its radial size, symotric parameters, and blade profiles, were input into ANASYS and CFX to establish a calculation model of the single-stage blade. The optimization of the blade structure of the small-diameter turbodrill enabled a multistage turbodrill model to be established and the turbodrill’s overall output performance to be predicted. The results demonstrate that the design can meet the turbodrill’s performance requirements and that the multistage model can effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1036; doi:10.3390/en9121036
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind
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Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Shear Resistance Properties of Modified Nano-SiO2/AA/AM Copolymer Oil Displacement Agent
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1037; doi:10.3390/en9121037
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
To address the problem regarding poor shear resistance of commonly employed polymers for oil displacement, modified nano-SiO2/AA/AM copolymer (HPMNS) oil displacement agents were synthesized using acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM), and modified nano-SiO2 of different modification degrees as raw materials.
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To address the problem regarding poor shear resistance of commonly employed polymers for oil displacement, modified nano-SiO2/AA/AM copolymer (HPMNS) oil displacement agents were synthesized using acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM), and modified nano-SiO2 of different modification degrees as raw materials. HPMNS was characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR), dynamic/static light scattering, and scanning electron microscope. A comparative study of the shear resistance properties for partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and HPMNS was conducted. Compared to HPAM, the introduced hyperbranched structure endowed HPMNS with good shear resistance, which was quantified from the viscosity retention ratio of the polymer solutions. From the perspective of rheological property, HPMNS also showed great shear stability after shearing by a Mixing Speed Governor and porous media shear model. Furthermore, with a higher degree of modification, HPMNS-2 had better shear stability in terms of viscosity and rheological property than HPMNS-1. The phenomena were due to its lower hydrodynamic radius, weight-average molecular weight, and better flexibility of its molecular chains. In addition, upon the indoor displacement test, the resistance factor and residual resistance factor values of HPMNS-2 were higher than those of HPAM. This behavior is beneficial for increasing oil recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oil and Gas Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Renewable Energy Policies on the Adoption of Anaerobic Digesters with Farm-Fed Wastes in Great Britain
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1038; doi:10.3390/en9121038
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
This paper explores the effects of the feed-in tariff (FiT) and renewable heat incentive (RHI) schemes on the adoption of anaerobic digesters (AD), and the potential energy generation from farm-fed wastes in Great Britain. This paper adopts a linear programming model, developed in
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This paper explores the effects of the feed-in tariff (FiT) and renewable heat incentive (RHI) schemes on the adoption of anaerobic digesters (AD), and the potential energy generation from farm-fed wastes in Great Britain. This paper adopts a linear programming model, developed in the International Energy Agency (IEA) TIMES platform, aiming to quantify the degree of adoption of AD and the type of energy generation technologies that can be driven by digester biogas to reduce farm energy costs. The results show that the adoption of AD is cost-beneficial for all farms, but different rates of the FiT and RHI schemes will influence the competitiveness between the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems and the utilisation of biogas to only generate heat. The choice of technology is further dependent on the electricity/heat use ratio of the farms and the energy content of the feedstock. The results show that pig farms will more readily adopt CHP, because of its relatively higher electricity-to-heat use ratio, compared to other types of farms, which will favour biogas boilers. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Exploring Stochastic Sampling in Nuclear Data Uncertainties Assessment for Reactor Physics Applications and Validation Studies
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1039; doi:10.3390/en9121039
Received: 25 September 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
The quantification of uncertainties of various calculation results, caused by the uncertainties associated with the input nuclear data, is a common task in nuclear reactor physics applications. Modern computation resources and improved knowledge on nuclear data allow nowadays to significantly advance the capabilities
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The quantification of uncertainties of various calculation results, caused by the uncertainties associated with the input nuclear data, is a common task in nuclear reactor physics applications. Modern computation resources and improved knowledge on nuclear data allow nowadays to significantly advance the capabilities for practical investigations. Stochastic sampling is the method which has received recently a high momentum for its use and exploration in the domain of reactor design and safety analysis. An application of a stochastic sampling based tool towards nuclear reactor dosimetry studies is considered in the given paper with certain exemplary test evaluations. The stochastic sampling not only allows the input nuclear data uncertainties propagation through the calculations, but also an associated correlation analysis performance with no additional computation costs and for any parameters of interest can be done. Thus, an example of assessment of the Pearson correlation coefficients for several models, used in practical validation studies, is shown here. As a next step, the analysis of the obtained information is proposed for discussion, with focus on the systems similarities assessment. The benefits of the employed method and tools with respect to practical reactor dosimetry studies are consequently outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Predictive Modeling of Nuclear Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Flexible Ramping Capacity Model for Generation Scheduling with High Levels of Wind Energy Penetration
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1040; doi:10.3390/en9121040
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 19 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 11 December 2016
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Abstract
The penetration level of renewable generation has increased significantly in recent years, which has led to operational concerns associated with the system ramping capability. Here, we propose the flexible ramping capacity (FRC) model, which considers the practical ramping capability of generation resources as
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The penetration level of renewable generation has increased significantly in recent years, which has led to operational concerns associated with the system ramping capability. Here, we propose the flexible ramping capacity (FRC) model, which considers the practical ramping capability of generation resources as well as the uncertainty in net load. The FRC model also incorporates the demand curve of the ramping capacity, which represents the hourly economic value of the ramping capacity. The model is formulated mathematically using ramp constraints, which are incorporated into unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) processes. Simulations are carried out using a 10-unit system to compare the FRC model with conventional methods. We show that the FRC method can improve reliability and reduce expected operating costs. The simulation results also show that, by using the FRC model, system reliability can be satisfied at high wind power generation levels while achieving economic efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2017)
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Open AccessArticle A Parallel Probabilistic Load Flow Method Considering Nodal Correlations
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1041; doi:10.3390/en9121041
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 26 November 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
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Abstract
With the introduction of more and more random factors in power systems, probabilistic load flow (PLF) has become one of the most important tasks for power system planning and operation. Cumulants-based PLF is an effective algorithm to calculate PLF in an analytical way,
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With the introduction of more and more random factors in power systems, probabilistic load flow (PLF) has become one of the most important tasks for power system planning and operation. Cumulants-based PLF is an effective algorithm to calculate PLF in an analytical way, however, the correlations among the nodal injections to the system level have rarely been studied. A novel parallel cumulants-based PLF method considering nodal correlations is proposed in this paper, which is able to deal with the correlations among all system nodes, and avoid the Jacobian matrix inversion in the traditional cumulants-based PLF as well. In addition, parallel computing is introduced to improve the efficiency of the numerical calculations. The accuracy of the proposed method is validated by numerical tests on the standard IEEE-14 system, comparing with the results from Correlation Latin hypercube sampling Monte Carlo Simulation (CLMCS) method. And the efficiency and parallel performance is proven by the tests on the modified IEEE-300, C703, N1047 systems with distributed generation (DG). Numerical simulations show that the proposed parallel cumulants-based PLF method considering nodal correlations is able to get more accurate results using less computational time and physical memory, and have higher efficiency and better parallel performance than the traditional one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Power System Operations and Planning)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Approach for Microgrid Protection Based upon Combined ANFIS and Hilbert Space-Based Power Setting
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1042; doi:10.3390/en9121042
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
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Abstract
Nowadays, the use of distributed generation (DG) has increased because of benefits such as increased reliability, reduced losses, improvement in the line capacity, and less environmental pollution. The protection of microgrids, which consist of generation sources, is one of the most crucial concerns
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Nowadays, the use of distributed generation (DG) has increased because of benefits such as increased reliability, reduced losses, improvement in the line capacity, and less environmental pollution. The protection of microgrids, which consist of generation sources, is one of the most crucial concerns of basic distribution operators. One of the key issues in this field is the protection of microgrids against permanent and temporary failures by improving the safety and reliability of the network. The traditional method has a number of disadvantages. The reliability and stability of a power system in a microgrid depend to a great extent on the efficiency of the protection scheme. The application of Artificial Intelligence approaches was introduced recently in the protection of distribution networks. The fault detection method depends on differential relay based on Hilbert Space-Based Power (HSBP) theory to achieve fastest primary protection. It is backed up by a total harmonic distortion (THD) detection method that takes over in case of a failure in the primary method. The backup protection would be completely independent of the main protection. This is rarely attained in practice. This paper proposes a new algorithm to improve protection performance by adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The protection can be obtained in a novel way based on this theory. An advantage of this algorithm is that the protection system operates in fewer than two cycles after the occurrence of the fault. Another advantage is that the error detection is not dependent on the selection of threshold values, and all types of internal fault can identify and show that the algorithm operates correctly for all types of faults while preventing unwanted tripping, even if the data were distorted by current transformer (CT) saturation or by data mismatches. The simulation results show that the proposed circuit can identify the faulty phase in the microgrid quickly and correctly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cold Storage for a Single-Family House in Italy
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1043; doi:10.3390/en9121043
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
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Abstract
This work deals with the operation, modeling, simulation, and cost evaluation of two different cold storage systems for a single-family house in Italy, that differ from one another on the cold storage material. The two materials used to perform the numerical simulations of
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This work deals with the operation, modeling, simulation, and cost evaluation of two different cold storage systems for a single-family house in Italy, that differ from one another on the cold storage material. The two materials used to perform the numerical simulations of the cold storage systems are represented by cold water and a phase change material (PCM), and the numerical simulations have been realized by means of numerical codes written in Matlab environment. The main finding of the present work is represented by the fact that, for the considered user characteristics, and under the Italian electricity tariff policy, the use of a proper designed cold storage system characterized by an effective operation strategy could represent a viable solution from an economical point of view. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Mitigation for High Frequency Switching Transients Due to Energization in Offshore Wind Farms
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1044; doi:10.3390/en9121044
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive investigation on high frequency (HF) switching transients due to energization of vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs) in offshore wind farms (OWFs). This research not only concerns the modeling of main components in collector grids of an OWF for transient
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This paper presents a comprehensive investigation on high frequency (HF) switching transients due to energization of vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs) in offshore wind farms (OWFs). This research not only concerns the modeling of main components in collector grids of an OWF for transient analysis (including VCBs, wind turbine transformers (WTTs), submarine cables), but also compares the effectiveness between several mainstream switching overvoltage (SOV) protection methods and a new mitigation method called smart choke. In order to accurately reproduce such HF switching transients considering the current chopping, dielectric strength (DS) recovery capability and HF quenching capability of VCBs, three models are developed, i.e., a user–defined VCB model, a HF transformer terminal model and a three-core (TC) frequency dependent model of submarine cables, which are validated through simulations and compared with measurements. Based on the above models and a real OWF configuration, a simulation model is built and several typical switching transient cases are investigated to analyze the switching transient process and phenomena. Subsequently, according to the characteristics of overvoltages, appropriate parameters of SOV mitigation methods are determined to improve their effectiveness. Simulation results indicate that the user–defined VCB model can satisfactorily simulate prestrikes and the proposed component models display HF characteristics, which are consistent with onsite measurement behaviors. Moreover, the employed protection methods can suppress induced SOVs, which have a steep front, a high oscillation frequency and a high amplitude, among which the smart choke presents a preferable HF damping effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Demand in Azerbaijan Using Cointegration Techniques
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1045; doi:10.3390/en9121045
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
Policymakers in developing and transitional economies require sound models to: (i) understand the drivers of rapidly growing energy consumption and (ii) produce forecasts of future energy demand. This paper attempts to model electricity demand in Azerbaijan and provide future forecast scenarios—as far as
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Policymakers in developing and transitional economies require sound models to: (i) understand the drivers of rapidly growing energy consumption and (ii) produce forecasts of future energy demand. This paper attempts to model electricity demand in Azerbaijan and provide future forecast scenarios—as far as we are aware this is the first such attempt for Azerbaijan using a comprehensive modelling framework. Electricity consumption increased and decreased considerably in Azerbaijan from 1995 to 2013 (the period used for the empirical analysis)—it increased on average by about 4% per annum from 1995 to 2006 but decreased by about 4½% per annum from 2006 to 2010 and increased thereafter. It is therefore vital that Azerbaijani planners and policymakers understand what drives electricity demand and be able to forecast how it will grow in order to plan for future power production. However, modeling electricity demand for such a country has many challenges. Azerbaijan is rich in energy resources, consequently GDP is heavily influenced by oil prices; hence, real non-oil GDP is employed as the activity driver in this research (unlike almost all previous aggregate energy demand studies). Moreover, electricity prices are administered rather than market driven. Therefore, different cointegration and error correction techniques are employed to estimate a number of per capita electricity demand models for Azerbaijan, which are used to produce forecast scenarios for up to 2025. The resulting estimated models (in terms of coefficients, etc.) and forecasts of electricity demand for Azerbaijan in 2025 prove to be very similar; with the Business as Usual forecast ranging from about of 19½ to 21 TWh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study of 6LoPLC for Home Energy Management Systems
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1046; doi:10.3390/en9121046
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
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Abstract
Ubiquitous connectivity is already transforming residential dwellings into smart homes. As citizens continue to embrace the smart home paradigm, a new generation of low-rate and low-power communication systems is required to leverage the mass market presented by energy management in homes. Although Power
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Ubiquitous connectivity is already transforming residential dwellings into smart homes. As citizens continue to embrace the smart home paradigm, a new generation of low-rate and low-power communication systems is required to leverage the mass market presented by energy management in homes. Although Power Line Communication (PLC) technology has evolved in the last decade, the adaptation of PLC for constrained networks is not fully charted. By adapting some features of IEEE 802.15.4 and IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) into power lines, this paper demonstrates a low-rate, low-power PLC system over the IPv6 network (referred to as 6LoPLC), for Home Energy Management System (HEMS) applications. The overall idea is to provide a framework for assessing various scenarios that cannot be easily investigated with the limited number of evaluation hardware available. In this respect, a network model is developed in NS-3 (Version 21) to measure several important characteristics of the designed system and then validated with experimental results obtained using the Hanadu evaluation kits. Following the good agreement between the two, the NS-3 model is utilised to investigate more complex scenarios and various use-cases, such as the effects of impulsive noise, the number of nodes and packet size on the latency and Bit Error Rate (BER) performances. We further demonstrate that for different network and application configurations, optimal data sizes exist. For instance, the results reveal that in order to guarantee 99% system reliability, the HEMS application data must not exceed 64 bytes. Finally, it is shown that with impulsive noise in a HEMS network comprising 50 appliances, provided the size of the payload does not exceed 64 bytes, monitoring and control applications incur a maximum latency of 238.117 ms and 248.959 ms, respectively; both of which are within acceptable limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Home Energy Management)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Dynamic Analysis of Semi-Submersible Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1047; doi:10.3390/en9121047
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
The strong and stable wind at offshore locations and the increasing demand for energy have made the application of wind turbines in deeper water surge. A novel concept of a 5 MW baseline Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (FVAWT) and a 5 MW
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The strong and stable wind at offshore locations and the increasing demand for energy have made the application of wind turbines in deeper water surge. A novel concept of a 5 MW baseline Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (FVAWT) and a 5 MW optimised FVAWT with the DeepWind Darrieus rotor and the optimised DeepWind Darrieus rotor, respectively, were studied extensively. The structural responses, fatigue damages, platform global motions and mooring line dynamics of the FVAWTs were investigated comprehensively during normal operating conditions under steady wind and turbulent wind conditions, using a coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic code (the Simo-Riflex-DMS code) which was developed by Wang et al. for modeling FVAWTs. This coupled code incorporates the models for the turbulent wind field, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, and generator controller. The simulation is performed in a fully coupled manner in time domain. The comparison of responses under different wind conditions were used to demonstrate the effect of turbulence on both FVAWTs dynamic responses. The turbulent wind condition has the advantage of reducing the 2P effects. Furthermore, comparative studies of the FVAWTs responses were undertaken to explore the advantages of adopting the optimised 5 MW DeepWind Darrieus rotor over the baseline model. The results identified the 5 MW optimised FVAWT to having: lower Fore-Aft (FA) but higher lower Side-Side (SS) bending moments of structural components; lower motions amplitude; lower short-term fatigue equivalent loads and a further reduced 2P effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation for Wind Turbine Loads Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Validation of Generic Models for Variable Speed Operation Wind Turbines Following the Recent Guidelines Issued by IEC 61400-27
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1048; doi:10.3390/en9121048
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
Considerable efforts are currently being made by several international working groups focused on the development of generic, also known as simplified or standard, wind turbine models for power system stability studies. In this sense, the first edition of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-27-1,
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Considerable efforts are currently being made by several international working groups focused on the development of generic, also known as simplified or standard, wind turbine models for power system stability studies. In this sense, the first edition of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-27-1, which defines generic dynamic simulation models for wind turbines, was published in February 2015. Nevertheless, the correlations of the IEC generic models with respect to specific wind turbine manufacturer models are required by the wind power industry to validate the accuracy and corresponding usability of these standard models. The present work conducts the validation of the two topologies of variable speed wind turbines that present not only the largest market share, but also the most technological advances. Specifically, the doubly-fed induction machine and the full-scale converter (FSC) topology are modeled based on the IEC 61400-27-1 guidelines. The models are simulated for a wide range of voltage dips with different characteristics and wind turbine operating conditions. The simulated response of the IEC generic model is compared to the corresponding simplified model of a wind turbine manufacturer, showing a good correlation in most cases. Validation error sources are analyzed in detail, as well. In addition, this paper reviews in detail the previous work done in this field. Results suggest that wind turbine manufacturers are able to adjust the IEC generic models to represent the behavior of their specific wind turbines for power system stability analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2017)
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Open AccessArticle On the Reliability of Optimization Results for Trigeneration Systems in Buildings, in the Presence of Price Uncertainties and Erroneous Load Estimation
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1049; doi:10.3390/en9121049
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
Cogeneration and trigeneration plants are widely recognized as promising technologies for increasing energy efficiency in buildings. However, their overall potential is scarcely exploited, due to the difficulties in achieving economic viability and the risk of investment related to uncertainties in future energy loads
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Cogeneration and trigeneration plants are widely recognized as promising technologies for increasing energy efficiency in buildings. However, their overall potential is scarcely exploited, due to the difficulties in achieving economic viability and the risk of investment related to uncertainties in future energy loads and prices. Several stochastic optimization models have been proposed in the literature to account for uncertainties, but these instruments share in a common reliance on user-defined probability functions for each stochastic parameter. Being such functions hard to predict, in this paper an analysis of the influence of erroneous estimation of the uncertain energy loads and prices on the optimal plant design and operation is proposed. With reference to a hotel building, a number of realistic scenarios is developed, exploring all the most frequent errors occurring in the estimation of energy loads and prices. Then, profit-oriented optimizations are performed for the examined scenarios, by means of a deterministic mixed integer linear programming algorithm. From a comparison between the achieved results, it emerges that: (i) the plant profitability is prevalently influenced by the average “spark-spread” (i.e., ratio between electricity and fuel price) and, secondarily, from the shape of the daily price profiles; (ii) the “optimal sizes” of the main components are scarcely influenced by the daily load profiles, while they are more strictly related with the average “power to heat” and “power to cooling” ratios of the building. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research and Application of a Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Data Decomposition for Electrical Load Forecasting
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1050; doi:10.3390/en9121050
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Accurate short-term electrical load forecasting plays a pivotal role in the national economy and people’s livelihood through providing effective future plans and ensuring a reliable supply of sustainable electricity. Although considerable work has been done to select suitable models and optimize the model
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Accurate short-term electrical load forecasting plays a pivotal role in the national economy and people’s livelihood through providing effective future plans and ensuring a reliable supply of sustainable electricity. Although considerable work has been done to select suitable models and optimize the model parameters to forecast the short-term electrical load, few models are built based on the characteristics of time series, which will have a great impact on the forecasting accuracy. For that reason, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on data decomposition considering periodicity, trend and randomness of the original electrical load time series data. Through preprocessing and analyzing the original time series, the generalized regression neural network optimized by genetic algorithm is used to forecast the short-term electrical load. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid model can not only achieve a good fitting ability, but it can also approximate the actual values when dealing with non-linear time series data with periodicity, trend and randomness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Modeling and Control of Magnetic Bearings for a Ring-Type Flywheel Energy Storage System
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1051; doi:10.3390/en9121051
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
This study is concerned with the magnetic force models of magnetic bearing in a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The magnetic bearing is of hybrid type, with axial passive magnetic bearing (PMB) and radial hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). For the PMB, a pair
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This study is concerned with the magnetic force models of magnetic bearing in a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The magnetic bearing is of hybrid type, with axial passive magnetic bearing (PMB) and radial hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). For the PMB, a pair of ring-type Halbach arrays of permanent magnets are arranged vertically to support the rotor weight. For the HMB, a set of ring-type Halbach array is placed on the rotor side, which corresponds to coil sets on the stator side. The HMB can produce both attraction and repulsion forces on the radial direction, depending on the direction of the coil currents. It is found that the ring-type configuration and the differential winding scheme for coil sets can yield linear magnetic force models for both PMB and HMB. Based on the obtained magnetic force model, an integral sliding mode controller is designed for the stable rotor levitation in the radial direction. The experimental results show that the rotor can be stabilized to the bearing center, verifying the accuracy of the magnetic force models and effectiveness of the levitation controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Low-Carbon Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Optimized Control Strategies of a High-Speed Traction Machine with Five Phases and Bi-Harmonic Electromotive Force
Energies 2016, 9(12), 952; doi:10.3390/en9120952
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first (E1) and third (E3) harmonics are
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The purpose of the paper is to present the potentialities in terms of the control of a new kind of PM synchronous machine. With five phases and electromotive forces whose first ( E 1 ) and third ( E 3 ) harmonics are of similar amplitude, the studied machine, so-called bi-harmonic, has properties that are interesting for traction machine payload. With three-phase machines, supplied by a mono-harmonic sinusoidal current, the weak number of freedom degrees limits the strategy of control for traction machines especially when voltage saturation occurs at high speeds. As the torque is managed for three-phase machines by a current with only one harmonic, flux weakening is necessary to increase speed when the voltage limitation is reached. The studied five-phase machine, thanks to the increase in the number of freedom degrees for control, aims to alleviate this fact. In this paper, three optimized control strategies are compared in terms of efficiency and associated torque/speed characteristics. These strategies take into account numerous constraints either from the supply (with limited voltage) or from the machine (with limited current densities and maximum acceptable copper, iron and permanent magnet losses). The obtained results prove the wide potentialities of such a kind of five-phase bi-harmonic machine in terms of control under constraints. It is thus shown that the classical Maximum Torque Per Ampere (MTPA) strategy developed for the three-phase machine is clearly not satisfying on the whole range of speed because of the presence of iron losses whose values can no more be neglected at high speeds. Two other strategies have been then proposed to be able to manage the compromises, at high speeds, between the high values of torque and efficiency under the constraints of admissible total losses either in the rotor or in the stator. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Two Processes Forming CaCO3 Precipitates by Electrolysis
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1052; doi:10.3390/en9121052
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
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Abstract
As one of the carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technologies, mineral carbonation which has been introduced to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere is a technology that makes it possible to capture CO2 and recycle byproducts as
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As one of the carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technologies, mineral carbonation which has been introduced to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere is a technology that makes it possible to capture CO2 and recycle byproducts as resources. However, existing mineral carbonation requires additional energy and costs, as it entails high temperature and high pressure reaction conditions. This study compared two processes which electrolyze NaCl and CaCl2 solution to produce CO2 absorbent needed to generate CaCO3, and which were conducted at room temperature and pressure unlike existing mineral carbonation. As a result, high-purity calcite was obtained through Process 1 using NaCl solution, and aragonite and portlandite were obtained in addition to calcite through Process 2 (two steps) using CaCl2 solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Profitability Variations of a Solar System with an Evacuated Tube Collector According to Schedules and Frequency of Hot Water Demand
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1053; doi:10.3390/en9121053
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
The use of solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collectors has been experiencing a rapid growth in recent years. Times when there is demand for hot water, the days of use and the volumes demanded may determine the profitability of these systems,
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The use of solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collectors has been experiencing a rapid growth in recent years. Times when there is demand for hot water, the days of use and the volumes demanded may determine the profitability of these systems, even within the same city. Therefore, this paper characterizes the behavior of a solar system with active circulation with the objective of determining the profitability variations according to the timing and schedule of demand. Through a simplified methodology based on regression equations, calculated for each hour of the day based on data from an experimental facility, the useful energy is estimated from the time and frequency of the demand for hot water at 60 °C. The analysis of the potential profitability of the system in more than 1000 scenarios analyzed shows huge differences depending on the number of days when the water is demanded, the time when demand occurs, the irradiation and the average price of energy. In cities with high irradiation and high energy prices, the system could be profitable even in homes where it is used only on weekends. The study of profitability in a building of 10 homes shows that by applying an average European household’s profile for hot water demand, levels close to full potential would be reached; for this, it is necessary to optimize the collection surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Generation of Renewable Energy and Sustainable Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Supporting Renewables’ Penetration in Remote Areas through the Transformation of Non-Powered Dams
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1054; doi:10.3390/en9121054
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Supplying power to remote areas may be a challenge, even for those communities already connected to the main grid. Power is often transmitted from long distances, under adverse weather conditions, and with aged equipment. As a rule, modernizing grid infrastructure in such areas
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Supplying power to remote areas may be a challenge, even for those communities already connected to the main grid. Power is often transmitted from long distances, under adverse weather conditions, and with aged equipment. As a rule, modernizing grid infrastructure in such areas to make it more resilient faces certain financial limitations. Local distribution may face stability issues and disruptions through the year and—equally important—it cannot absorb significant amounts of locally-produced power. The European policy has underlined the importance of energy production in local level towards meeting energy security and climate targets. However, the current status of these areas makes the utilization of the local potential prohibitive. This study builds on the observation that in the vicinity of such mountainous areas, irrigation dams often cover different non energy-related needs (e.g., irrigation, drinking water). Transforming these dams to small-scale hydropower (SHP) facilities can have a twofold effect: it can enhance the local energy portfolio with a renewable energy source that can be regulated and managed. Moreover, hydropower can provide additional flexibility to the local system and through reservoir operation to allow the connection of additional solar photovoltaic capacities. The developed methodological approach was tested in remote communities of mountainous Greece, where an earth-fill dam provides irrigation water. The results show a significant increase of renewables’ penetration and enhanced communities’ electricity autarky. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in Remote Sites)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Strategies to Improve the Thermal Performance of Steel Frames in Curtain Wall Systems
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1055; doi:10.3390/en9121055
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high
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Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high thermal conductivity, its thermal performance can be important for the improvement of the overall thermal performance of the curtain wall system, as well as the energy efficiency of the building envelope. This study aims to evaluate variety of design strategies to improve the thermal performance of steel curtain wall frames. Five base cases and three further steps were selected for two different head profile shapes based on a state-of-the art technology review, and their thermal transmittances were calculated through simulations according to the ISO 12631 standard which is an international standard for calculating thermal transmittance of curtain wall system. Measured results that were obtained from hot-box tests were compared with the calculated results to validate the simulation method of this study. The shape of the head profile did not strongly influence the overall thermal transmittance, and the choice of strategies for the rabbet space was more important. More effective strategies could be decided according to the steps for variation development. This result can serve as a guideline for the design of high-performance curtain wall frames. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Conservation in Infrastructures 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Conversion: A Comparison of Fix- and Self-Referenced Wave Energy Converters
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1056; doi:10.3390/en9121056
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
The paper presents an investigation of fix-referenced and self-referenced wave energy converters and a comparison of their corresponding wave energy conversion capacities from real seas. For conducting the comparisons, two popular wave energy converters, point absorber and oscillating water column, and their power
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The paper presents an investigation of fix-referenced and self-referenced wave energy converters and a comparison of their corresponding wave energy conversion capacities from real seas. For conducting the comparisons, two popular wave energy converters, point absorber and oscillating water column, and their power conversion capacities in the fixed-referenced and self-referenced forms have been numerically studied and compared. In the numerical models, the device’s power extractions from seas are maximized using the correspondingly optimized power take-offs in different sea states, thus their power conversion capacities can be calculated and compared. From the comparisons and analyses, it is shown that the energy conversion capacities of the self-referenced devices can be significantly increased if the motions of the device itself can be utilized for wave energy conversion; and the self-referenced devices can be possibly designed to be compliant in long waves, which could be a very beneficial factor for device survivability in the extreme wave conditions (normally long waves). In this regards, the self-referenced WECs (wave energy converters) may be better options in terms of wave energy conversion from the targeted waves in seas (frequently the most occurred), and in terms of the device survivability, especially in the extreme waves when compared to the fix-referenced counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling of Wave and Tidal Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Droop Control for Microgrids Based on the Synergetic Control of Multi-Agent Systems
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1057; doi:10.3390/en9121057
Received: 25 September 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, a distributed synergetic control based on multi-agent systems is proposed to solve the problems of frequency and voltage errors, system stability and power sharing accuracy in the traditional droop control of microgrids. Starting with power flow equations, we build the
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In this paper, a distributed synergetic control based on multi-agent systems is proposed to solve the problems of frequency and voltage errors, system stability and power sharing accuracy in the traditional droop control of microgrids. Starting with power flow equations, we build the secondary-order dynamic model of DG, which consists of three parts: (1) active power allocation; (2) active power-frequency; and (3) reactive power-voltage droop control. Considering time-delays in communication networks, a leaderless synergetic control algorithm is proposed to allocate the active power in inverse proportion to the droop coefficient, and the synergetic control with a virtual leader is proposed to control the system frequency and voltage to keep at the expected value. Besides, the direct Lyapunov method is introduced to verify the globally asymptotical stability. Moreover, the impacts of communication disturbance are also discussed from the aspects of control precision and system stability. Finally, based on a test microgrid, numerous cases are designed as illustration, and the simulation results validate the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Membrane Permeability Rates of Vanadium Ions and Their Effects on Temperature Variation in Vanadium Redox Batteries
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1058; doi:10.3390/en9121058
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
The inevitable diffusion of vanadium ions across the membrane can cause considerable capacity loss and temperature increase in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) over long term operation. Reliable experimental data of the permeability rates of vanadium ions are needed for membrane selection and
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The inevitable diffusion of vanadium ions across the membrane can cause considerable capacity loss and temperature increase in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) over long term operation. Reliable experimental data of the permeability rates of vanadium ions are needed for membrane selection and for use in mathematical models to predict long-term behavior. In this paper a number of ion exchange membranes were selected for detailed evaluation using a modified approach to obtain more accurate permeation rates of V2+, V3+, VO2+ and VO2+ ions. Three commercial ion exchange membranes—FAP450, VB2 and F930—are investigated. The obtained diffusion coefficients are then employed in dynamic models to predict the thermal behavior under specific operating conditions. The simulation results prove that smaller and more balanced permeability rates of V2+ and VO2+ ions are more important to avoid large temperature increases in the cell stack during stand-by periods at high states-of-charge with pumps off. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Flow Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Attribute Technological Modeling of Coal Deposits Based on the Fuzzy TOPSIS and C-Mean Clustering Algorithms
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1059; doi:10.3390/en9121059
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
The main aim of a coal deposit model is to provide an effective basis for mine production planning. The most applied approach is related to block modeling as a reasonable global representation of the coal deposit. By selection of adequate block size, deposits
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The main aim of a coal deposit model is to provide an effective basis for mine production planning. The most applied approach is related to block modeling as a reasonable global representation of the coal deposit. By selection of adequate block size, deposits can be well represented. A block has a location in XYZ space and is characterized by adequate attributes obtained from drill holes data. From a technological point of view, i.e., a thermal power plant’s requirements, heating value, sulfur and ash content are the most important attributes of coal. Distribution of attributes’ values within a coal deposit can vary significantly over space and within each block as well. To decrease the uncertainty of attributes’ values within blocks the concept of fuzzy triangular numbers is applied. Production planning in such an environment is a very hard task, especially in the presence of requirements. Such requirements are considered as target values while the values of block attributes are the actual values. To make production planning easier we have developed a coal deposit model based on clustering the relative closeness of actual values to the target values. The relative closeness is obtained by the TOPSIS method while technological clusters are formed by fuzzy C-mean clustering. Coal deposits are thus represented by multi-attribute technological mining cuts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Project Management for a Wind Turbine Construction by Applying Fuzzy Multiple Objective Linear Programming Models
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1060; doi:10.3390/en9121060
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Meeting the demand of energy is a challenge for many countries these days, and generating electricity from renewable resources has become a main trend for future economic development. The construction of a renewable energy plant is costly and timely; therefore, a good project
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Meeting the demand of energy is a challenge for many countries these days, and generating electricity from renewable resources has become a main trend for future economic development. The construction of a renewable energy plant is costly and timely; therefore, a good project management model is essential. In this paper, a fuzzy multiple objective linear programming (FMOLP) model is constructed based on program evaluation and review technique (PERT) first. With the consideration of the different degrees of importance of the multiple objectives, a fuzzy multiple weighted-objective linear programming (FMWOLP) model is constructed next. Through each proposed model, a compromise solution can be devised to maximize the total degree of satisfaction while considering multiple objectives. The results can provide references for the management on what activities and how long these activities should be crashed, how much the total project cost should be, and how long the total project duration time should be. Finally, the proposed models are applied to a case study of a wind turbine construction in Taiwan. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Classification of Gene Expression Data Using Multiobjective Differential Evolution
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1061; doi:10.3390/en9121061
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 16 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Gene expression data are usually redundant, and only a subset of them presents distinct profiles for different classes of samples. Thus, selecting high discriminative genes from gene expression data has become increasingly interesting in bioinformatics. In this paper, a multiobjective binary differential evolution
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Gene expression data are usually redundant, and only a subset of them presents distinct profiles for different classes of samples. Thus, selecting high discriminative genes from gene expression data has become increasingly interesting in bioinformatics. In this paper, a multiobjective binary differential evolution method (MOBDE) is proposed to select a small subset of informative genes relevant to the classification. In the proposed method, firstly, the Fisher-Markov selector is used to choose top features of gene expression data. Secondly, to make differential evolution suitable for the binary problem, a novel binary mutation method is proposed to balance the exploration and exploitation ability. Thirdly, the multiobjective binary differential evolution is proposed by integrating the summation of normalized objectives and diversity selection into the binary differential evolution algorithm. Finally, the MOBDE algorithm is used for feature selection, and support vector machine (SVM) is used as the classifier with the leave-one-out cross-validation method (LOOCV). In order to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm, the proposed method is tested on ten gene expression datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is very effective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Analysis Based on SD Model for Energy-Related CO2 Mitigation in the Chinese Household Sector
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1062; doi:10.3390/en9121062
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has become a global consensus in response to global warming and climate change, especially to China, the largest CO2 emitter in the world. Most studies have focused on CO2 emissions from the production sector,
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Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has become a global consensus in response to global warming and climate change, especially to China, the largest CO2 emitter in the world. Most studies have focused on CO2 emissions from the production sector, however, the household sector plays an important role in the total energy-related CO2 emissions. This study formulates an integrated model based on logarithmic mean Divisia index methodology and a system dynamics model to dynamically simulate household energy consumption and CO2 emissions under different conditions. Results show the following: (1) the integrated model performs well in calculating the contribution of influencing factors on household CO2 emissions and analyzing the options for CO2 emission mitigation; (2) the increase in income is the dominant driving force of household CO2 emissions, and as a result of the improved standard of living in China a sustained increase in household CO2 emissions can be expected; (3) with decreasing energy intensity, CO2 emissions will decrease to 404.26 Mt-CO2 in 2020, which is 9.84% lower than the emissions in 2014; (4) the reduction potential by developing non-fossil energy sources is limited, and raising the rate of urbanization cannot reduce the household CO2 emission under the comprehensive influence of other factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Climate Change 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Realistic Quantum Control of Energy Transfer in Photosynthetic Processes
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1063; doi:10.3390/en9121063
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
The occurrence of coherence phenomenon as a result of the interference of the probability amplitude terms is among the principle features of quantum mechanics concepts. Current experiments display the presence of quantum techniques whose coherence is supplied over large interval times. Specifically, photosynthetic
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The occurrence of coherence phenomenon as a result of the interference of the probability amplitude terms is among the principle features of quantum mechanics concepts. Current experiments display the presence of quantum techniques whose coherence is supplied over large interval times. Specifically, photosynthetic mechanisms in light-harvesting complexes furnish oscillatory behaviors owing to quantum coherence. In this manuscript, we study the coherent quantum energy transfer for a single-excitation and nonlocal correlation in a dimer system (donor+acceptor) displayed by two-level systems (TLSs), interacting with a cavity field with a time-dependent coupling effect considering the realistic situation of coupling between each TLS and the cavity field. We analyze and explore the specific conditions which are viable with real experimental realization for the ultimate transfer of quantum energy and nonlocal quantum correlation. We show that the enhancement of the probability for a single-excitation energy transfer greatly benefits from the energy detuning, photon-number transition, classicality of the field, and the time-dependent coupling effect. We also find that the entanglement between the donor and acceptor is very sensitive to the physical parameters and it can be generated during the coherent energy transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioenergy and Biofuel)
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Open AccessArticle AC Voltage Control of DC/DC Converters Based on Modular Multilevel Converters in Multi-Terminal High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Systems
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1064; doi:10.3390/en9121064
Received: 21 August 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
The AC voltage control of a DC/DC converter based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is considered under normal operation and during a local DC fault. By actively setting the AC voltage according to the two DC voltages of the DC/DC converter, the
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The AC voltage control of a DC/DC converter based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is considered under normal operation and during a local DC fault. By actively setting the AC voltage according to the two DC voltages of the DC/DC converter, the modulation index can be near unity, and the DC voltage is effectively utilized to output higher AC voltage. This significantly decreases submodule (SM) capacitance and conduction losses of the DC/DC converter, yielding reduced capital cost, volume, and higher efficiency. Additionally, the AC voltage is limited in the controllable range of both the MMCs in the DC/DC converter; thus, over-modulation and uncontrolled currents are actively avoided. The AC voltage control of the DC/DC converter during local DC faults, i.e., standby operation, is also proposed, where only the MMC connected on the faulty cable is blocked, while the other MMC remains operational with zero AC voltage output. Thus, the capacitor voltages can be regulated at the rated value and the decrease of the SM capacitor voltages after the blocking of the DC/DC converter is avoided. Moreover, the fault can still be isolated as quickly as the conventional approach, where both MMCs are blocked and the DC/DC converter is not exposed to the risk of overcurrent. The proposed AC voltage control strategy is assessed in a three-terminal high-voltage direct current (HVDC) system incorporating a DC/DC converter, and the simulation results confirm its feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2nd Energy Future Conference)
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Open AccessArticle Green Small Cell Operation of Ultra-Dense Networks Using Device Assistance
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1065; doi:10.3390/en9121065
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 28 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
As higher performance is demanded in 5G networks, energy consumption in wireless networks increases along with the advances of various technologies, so enhancing energy efficiency also becomes an important goal to implement 5G wireless networks. In this paper, we study the energy efficiency
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As higher performance is demanded in 5G networks, energy consumption in wireless networks increases along with the advances of various technologies, so enhancing energy efficiency also becomes an important goal to implement 5G wireless networks. In this paper, we study the energy efficiency maximization problem focused on finding a suitable set of turned-on small cell access points (APs). Finding the suitable on/off states of APs is challenging since the APs can be deployed by users while centralized network planning is not always possible. Therefore, when APs in small cells are randomly deployed and thus redundant in many cases, a mechanism of dynamic AP turning-on/off is required. We propose a device-assisted framework that exploits feedback messages from the user equipment (UE). To solve the problem, we apply an optimization method using belief propagation (BP) on a factor graph. Then, we propose a family of online algorithms inspired by BP, called DANCE, that requires low computational complexity. We perform numerical simulations, and the extensive simulations confirm that BP enhances energy efficiency significantly. Furthermore, simple, but practical DANCE exhibits close performance to BP and also better performance than other popular existing methods. Specifically, in a small-sized network, BP enhances energy efficiency 129%. Furthermore, in ultra-dense networks, DANCE algorithms successfully achieve orders of magnitude higher energy efficiency than that of the baseline. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fault-Ride through Strategy for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generators in Variable-Speed Wind Turbines
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1066; doi:10.3390/en9121066
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Currently, the electric power production by wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) has increased significantly. Consequently, wind turbine (WT) generators are requested to fulfill the grid code (GC) requirements stated by network operators. In case of grid faults/voltage dips, a mismatch between the generated
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Currently, the electric power production by wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) has increased significantly. Consequently, wind turbine (WT) generators are requested to fulfill the grid code (GC) requirements stated by network operators. In case of grid faults/voltage dips, a mismatch between the generated active power from the wind generator and the active power delivered to the grid is produced. The conventional approach is using a braking chopper (BC) in the DC-link to dissipate this active power. This paper proposes a fault-ride through (FRT) strategy for variable-speed WECSs based on permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs). The proposed strategy exploits the rotor inertia of the WECS (inertia of the WT and PMSG) to store the surplus active power during the grid faults/voltage dips. Thus, no additional hardware components are requested. Furthermore, a direct model predictive control (DMPC) scheme for the PMSG is proposed in order to enhance the dynamic behavior of the WECS. The behavior of the proposed FRT strategy is verified and compared with the conventional BC approach for all the operation conditions by simulation results. Finally, the simulation results confirm the feasibility of the proposed FRT strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Machines and Drives for Renewable Energy Harvesting)
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Open AccessArticle Decoupling Design and Verification of a Free-Piston Linear Generator
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1067; doi:10.3390/en9121067
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 30 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG) constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system
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This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG) constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system power and efficiency, which provides a theoretical design method from the viewpoint of the overall power and efficiency demands. The energy flow and conversion processes of the FPLG are analyzed, and the power and efficiency demands of the thermal-mechanical and mechanical-electrical energy conversion are confirmed. The energy and efficiency distributions of the expansion and compression strokes within a single stable operation cycle are analyzed and determined. Detailed design methodologies of crucial geometric dimensions and operational parameters of each key component are described. The feasibility of the proposed decoupling design approach is validated through several design examples with different output power. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection)
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Open AccessArticle HVDC-System-Interaction Assessment through Line-Flow Change-Distribution Factor and Transient-Stability Analysis at Planning Stage
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1068; doi:10.3390/en9121068
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Many of the recent projects for new transmission line have considered the high-voltage direct current (HVDC) system, owing to the many advantages of the direct current (DC) system. The most noteworthy advantage is that a cable can serve as a substitute for the
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Many of the recent projects for new transmission line have considered the high-voltage direct current (HVDC) system, owing to the many advantages of the direct current (DC) system. The most noteworthy advantage is that a cable can serve as a substitute for the overhead transmission line in residential areas; therefore, the HVDC system application is increasing, and as the number of DC systems in the power system increases, the interaction assessment regarding the HVDC system gains importance. An index named multi-infeed interaction factor (MIIF) is commonly used to estimate the interaction between power converters; however, the HVDC system is composed of two converters and a transmission line. The MIIF represents the interaction between the rectifiers and inverters, but not for the whole system. In this work, a method to assess the interaction of the whole system was therefore studied. To decide on the location of the new HVDC transmission system at the planning stage, in consideration of the interaction of the existing DC system, the line flow change distribution factor, according to the HVDC-transmission capacity change, was examined. Also, a power system transient -stability analysis was performed with different HVDC system locations, depending on the distribution factor. The simulation results indicate that when the factor is higher, two HVDC systems have a stronger interaction and are less stable in the transient state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Power System Operations and Planning)