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Remote Sens., Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Remote and proximal hyperspectral sensing are increasingly applied in agricultural research for [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Dynamics in Vegetation GPP over the Great Khingan Mountains Using GLASS Products from 1982 to 2015
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030488
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Gross primary productivity (GPP) is an important parameter that represents the productivity of vegetation and responses to various ecological environments. The Greater Khingan Mountain (GKM) is one of the most important state-owned forest bases, and boreal forests, including the largest primeval cold-temperature bright
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Gross primary productivity (GPP) is an important parameter that represents the productivity of vegetation and responses to various ecological environments. The Greater Khingan Mountain (GKM) is one of the most important state-owned forest bases, and boreal forests, including the largest primeval cold-temperature bright coniferous forest in China, are widely distributed in the GKM. This study aimed to reveal spatiotemporal vegetation variations in the GKM on the basis of GPP products that were generated by the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) program from 1982 to 2015. First, we explored the spatiotemporal distribution of vegetation across the GKM. Then we analyzed the relationships between GPP variation and driving factors, including meteorological elements, growing season length (GSL), and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR), to investigate the dominant factor for GPP dynamics. Results demonstrated that (1) the spatial distribution of accumulated GPP (AG) in spring, summer, autumn, and the growing season varied due to three main reasons: understory vegetation, altitude, and land cover; (2) interannual AG in summer, autumn, and the growing season significantly increased at the regional scale during the past 34 years under climate warming and drying; (3) interannual changes of accumulated GPP in the growing season (AGG) at the pixel scale displayed a rapid expansion in areas with a significant increasing trend (p < 0.05) during the period of 1982–2015 and this trend was caused by the natural forest protection project launched in 1998; and finally, (4) an analysis of driving factors showed that daily sunshine duration in summer was the most important factor for GPP in the GKM and this is different from previous studies, which reported that the GSL plays a crucial role in other areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using a Similarity Matrix Approach to Evaluate the Accuracy of Rescaled Maps
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030487
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Rescaled maps have been extensively utilized to provide data at the appropriate spatial resolution for use in various Earth science models. However, a simple and easy way to evaluate these rescaled maps has not been developed. We propose a similarity matrix approach using
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Rescaled maps have been extensively utilized to provide data at the appropriate spatial resolution for use in various Earth science models. However, a simple and easy way to evaluate these rescaled maps has not been developed. We propose a similarity matrix approach using a contingency table to compute three measures: overall similarity (OS), omission error (OE), and commission error (CE) to evaluate the rescaled maps. The Majority Rule Based aggregation (MRB) method was employed to produce the upscaled maps to demonstrate this approach. In addition, previously created, coarser resolution land cover maps from other research projects were also available for comparison. The question of which is better, a map initially produced at coarse resolution or a fine resolution map rescaled to a coarse resolution, has not been quantitatively investigated. To address these issues, we selected study sites at three different extent levels. First, we selected twelve regions covering the continental USA, then we selected nine states (from the whole continental USA), and finally we selected nine Agriculture Statistical Districts (ASDs) (from within the nine selected states) as study sites. Crop/non-crop maps derived from the USDA Crop Data Layer (CDL) at 30 m as base maps were used for the upscaling and existing maps at 250 m and 1 km were utilized for the comparison. The results showed that a similarity matrix can effectively provide the map user with the information needed to assess the rescaling. Additionally, the upscaled maps can provide higher accuracy and better represent landscape pattern compared to the existing coarser maps. Therefore, we strongly recommend that an evaluation of the upscaled map and the existing coarser resolution map using a similarity matrix should be conducted before deciding which dataset to use for the modelling. Overall, extending our understanding on how to perform an evaluation of the rescaled map and investigation of the applicability of the rescaled map compared to the existing land cover map is necessary for users to most effectively use these data in Earth science models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle On Signal Modeling of Moon-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging of Earth
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030486
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The Moon-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (Moon-Based SAR), using the Moon as a platform, has a great potential to offer global-scale coverage of the earth’s surface with a high revisit cycle and is able to meet the scientific requirements for climate change study. However,
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The Moon-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (Moon-Based SAR), using the Moon as a platform, has a great potential to offer global-scale coverage of the earth’s surface with a high revisit cycle and is able to meet the scientific requirements for climate change study. However, operating in the lunar orbit, Moon-Based SAR imaging is confined within a complex geometry of the Moon-Based SAR, Moon, and Earth, where both rotation and revolution have effects. The extremely long exposure time of Moon-Based SAR presents a curved moving trajectory and the protracted time-delay in propagation makes the “stop-and-go” assumption no longer valid. Consequently, the conventional SAR imaging technique is no longer valid for Moon-Based SAR. This paper develops a Moon-Based SAR theory in which a signal model is derived. The Doppler parameters in the context of lunar revolution with the removal of ‘stop-and-go’ assumption are first estimated, and then characteristics of Moon-Based SAR imaging’s azimuthal resolution are analyzed. In addition, a signal model of Moon-Based SAR and its two-dimensional (2-D) spectrum are further derived. Numerical simulation using point targets validates the signal model and enables Doppler parameter estimation for image focusing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Imaging Theory, Techniques, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Improving SMOS Sea Surface Salinity in the Western Mediterranean Sea through Multivariate and Multifractal Analysis
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030485
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
A new methodology using a combination of debiased non-Bayesian retrieval, DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) and multifractal fusion has been used to obtain Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) fields over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean
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A new methodology using a combination of debiased non-Bayesian retrieval, DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) and multifractal fusion has been used to obtain Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) fields over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The debiased non-Bayesian retrieval mitigates the systematic errors produced by the contamination of the land over the sea. In addition, this retrieval improves the coverage by means of multiyear statistical filtering criteria. This methodology allows obtaining SMOS SSS fields in the Mediterranean Sea. However, the resulting SSS suffers from a seasonal (and other time-dependent) bias. This time-dependent bias has been characterized by means of specific Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). Finally, high resolution Sea Surface Temperature (OSTIA SST) maps have been used for improving the spatial and temporal resolution of the SMOS SSS maps. The presented methodology practically reduces the error of the SMOS SSS in the Mediterranean Sea by half. As a result, the SSS dynamics described by the new SMOS maps in the Algerian Basin and the Balearic Front agrees with the one described by in situ SSS, and the mesoscale structures described by SMOS in the Alboran Sea and in the Gulf of Lion coincide with the ones described by the high resolution remotely-sensed SST images (AVHRR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Salinity Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Independent Assessment of Sentinel-3A Wet Tropospheric Correction over the Open and Coastal Ocean
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030484
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Launched on 16 February 2016, Sentinel-3A (S3A) carries a two-band microwave radiometer (MWR) similar to that of Envisat, and is aimed at the precise retrieval of the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) through collocated measurements using the Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) instrument. This
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Launched on 16 February 2016, Sentinel-3A (S3A) carries a two-band microwave radiometer (MWR) similar to that of Envisat, and is aimed at the precise retrieval of the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) through collocated measurements using the Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) instrument. This study aims at presenting an independent assessment of the WTC derived from the S3A MWR over the open and coastal ocean. Comparisons with other four MWRs show Root Mean Square (RMS) differences (cm) of S3A with respect to these sensors of 1.0 (Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager, GMI), 1.2 (Jason-2), 1.3 (Jason-3), and 1.5 (Satellite with ARgos and ALtika (SARAL)). The linear fit with respect to these MWR shows scale factors close to 1 and small offsets, indicating a good agreement between all these sensors. In spite of the short analysis period of 10 months, a stable temporal evolution of the S3A WTC has been observed. In line with the similar two-band instruments aboard previous European Space Agency (ESA) altimetric missions, strong ice and land contamination can be observed, the latter mainly found up to 20–25 km from the coast. Comparisons with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and an independent WTC derived only from third party data are also shown, indicating good overall performance. However, improvements in both the retrieval algorithm and screening of invalid MWR observations are desirable to achieve the quality of the equivalent WTC from Jason-3. The outcome of this study is a deeper knowledge of the measurement capabilities and limitations of the type of MWR aboard S3A and of the present WTC retrieval algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Altimetry for Earth Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Groundwater Storage Variations Estimated from GRACE Data Assimilation and State-of-the-Art Land Surface Models in Australia and the North China Plain
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030483
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The accurate knowledge of the groundwater storage variation (ΔGWS) is essential for reliable water resource assessment, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments (e.g., Australia, the North China Plain (NCP)) where water storage is significantly affected by human activities and spatiotemporal climate variations. The
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The accurate knowledge of the groundwater storage variation (ΔGWS) is essential for reliable water resource assessment, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments (e.g., Australia, the North China Plain (NCP)) where water storage is significantly affected by human activities and spatiotemporal climate variations. The large-scale ΔGWS can be simulated from a land surface model (LSM), but the high model uncertainty is a major drawback that reduces the reliability of the estimates. The evaluation of the model estimate is then very important to assess its accuracy. To improve the model performance, the terrestrial water storage variation derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is commonly assimilated into LSMs to enhance the accuracy of the ΔGWS estimate. This study assimilates GRACE data into the PCRaster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) model. The GRACE data assimilation (DA) is developed based on the three-dimensional ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS 3D), which considers the statistical correlation of all extents (spatial, temporal, vertical) in the DA process. The ΔGWS estimates from GRACE DA and four LSM simulations (PCR-GLOBWB, the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE), the Water Global Assessment and Prognosis Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and World-Wide Water (W3)) are validated against the in situ groundwater data. The evaluation is conducted in terms of temporal correlation, seasonality, long-term trend, and detection of groundwater depletion. The GRACE DA estimate shows a significant improvement in all measures, notably the correlation coefficients (respect to the in situ data) are always higher than the values obtained from model simulations alone (e.g., ~0.15 greater in Australia, and ~0.1 greater in the NCP). GRACE DA also improves the estimation of groundwater depletion that the models cannot accurately capture due to the incorrect information of the groundwater demand (in, e.g., PCR-GLOBWB, WGHM) or the unavailability of a groundwater consumption routine (in, e.g., CABLE, W3). In addition, this study conducts the inter-comparison between four model simulations and reveals that PCR-GLOBWB and CABLE provide a more accurate ΔGWS estimate in Australia (subject to the calibrated parameter) while PCR-GLOBWB and WGHM are more accurate in the NCP (subject to the inclusion of anthropogenic factors). The analysis can be used to declare the status of the ΔGWS estimate, as well as itemize the possible improvements of the future model development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Groundwater from River Basin to Global Scales)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Noise Reduction in Hyperspectral Imagery: Overview and Application
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030482
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Hyperspectral remote sensing is based on measuring the scattered and reflected electromagnetic signals from the Earth’s surface emitted by the Sun. The received radiance at the sensor is usually degraded by atmospheric effects and instrumental (sensor) noises which include thermal (Johnson) noise, quantization
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Hyperspectral remote sensing is based on measuring the scattered and reflected electromagnetic signals from the Earth’s surface emitted by the Sun. The received radiance at the sensor is usually degraded by atmospheric effects and instrumental (sensor) noises which include thermal (Johnson) noise, quantization noise, and shot (photon) noise. Noise reduction is often considered as a preprocessing step for hyperspectral imagery. In the past decade, hyperspectral noise reduction techniques have evolved substantially from two dimensional bandwise techniques to three dimensional ones, and varieties of low-rank methods have been forwarded to improve the signal to noise ratio of the observed data. Despite all the developments and advances, there is a lack of a comprehensive overview of these techniques and their impact on hyperspectral imagery applications. In this paper, we address the following two main issues; (1) Providing an overview of the techniques developed in the past decade for hyperspectral image noise reduction; (2) Discussing the performance of these techniques by applying them as a preprocessing step to improve a hyperspectral image analysis task, i.e., classification. Additionally, this paper discusses about the hyperspectral image modeling and denoising challenges. Furthermore, different noise types that exist in hyperspectral images have been described. The denoising experiments have confirmed the advantages of the use of low-rank denoising techniques compared to the other denoising techniques in terms of signal to noise ratio and spectral angle distance. In the classification experiments, classification accuracies have improved when denoising techniques have been applied as a preprocessing step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Restoration and Denoising of Remote Sensing Data)
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Retrieval from Multi-GNSS PPP Ambiguity Resolution: Validation with Final Troposphere Products and a Numerical Weather Model
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030481
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The multiple global navigation satellite systems (multi-GNSS) bring great opportunity for the real-time retrieval of high-quality zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD), which is a critical quality for atmospheric science and geodetic applications. In this contribution, a multi-GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR)
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The multiple global navigation satellite systems (multi-GNSS) bring great opportunity for the real-time retrieval of high-quality zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD), which is a critical quality for atmospheric science and geodetic applications. In this contribution, a multi-GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR) analysis approach is developed for real-time tropospheric delay retrieval. To validate the proposed multi-GNSS ZTD estimates, we collected and processed data from 30 Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations; the resulting real-time tropospheric products are evaluated by using standard post-processed troposphere products and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis (ECMWF) data. An accuracy of 4.5 mm and 7.1 mm relative to the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) and U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) products is achievable for real-time tropospheric delays from multi-GNSS PPP ambiguity resolution after an initialization process of approximately 5 min. Compared to Global Positioning System (GPS) results, the accuracy of retrieved zenith tropospheric delay from multi-GNSS PPP-AR is improved by 16.7% and 31.7% with respect to USNO and CODE final products. The GNSS-derived ZTD time-series exhibits a great agreement with the ECMWF data for a long period of 30 days. The average root mean square (RMS) of the real-time zenith tropospheric delay retrieved from multi-GNSS PPP-AR is 12.5 mm with respect to ECMWF data while the accuracy of GPS-only results is 13.3 mm. Significant improvement is also achieved in terms of the initialization time of the multi-GNSS tropospheric delays, with an improvement of 50.7% compared to GPS-only fixed solutions. All these improvements demonstrate the promising prospects of the multi-GNSS PPP-AR method for time-critical meteorological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Generating Continental Scale Pixel-Based Surface Reflectance Composites in Coastal Regions with the Use of a Multi-Resolution Tidal Model
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030480
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Generating continental-scale pixel composites in dynamic coastal and estuarine environments presents a unique challenge, as the application of a temporal or seasonal approach to composite generation is confounded by tidal influences. We demonstrate how this can be resolved using an approach to compositing
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Generating continental-scale pixel composites in dynamic coastal and estuarine environments presents a unique challenge, as the application of a temporal or seasonal approach to composite generation is confounded by tidal influences. We demonstrate how this can be resolved using an approach to compositing that provides robust composites of multi-type environments. In addition to the visual aesthetics of the images created, we demonstrate the utility of these composites for further interpretation and analysis. This is enabled by the manner in which our approach captures the spatial variation in tidal dynamics through the use of a Voronoi mesh, and preserves the band relationships within the modelled spectra at each pixel. Case studies are presented which include continental-scale mosaics of the Australian coastline at high and low tide, and tailored examples demonstrating the potential of the tidally constrained composites to address a range of coastal change detection and monitoring applications. We conclude with a discussion on the potential applications of the composite products and method in the coastal and marine environment, as well as further development directions for our tidal modelling framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Combining Fractional Order Derivative and Spectral Variable Selection for Organic Matter Estimation of Homogeneous Soil Samples by VIS–NIR Spectroscopy
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030479
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Visible and near-infrared (VIS–NIR) spectroscopy has been extensively applied to estimate soil organic matter (SOM) in the laboratory. However, if field/moist VIS–NIR spectra can be directly applied to estimate SOM, then much of the time and labor would be avoided. Spectral derivative plays
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Visible and near-infrared (VIS–NIR) spectroscopy has been extensively applied to estimate soil organic matter (SOM) in the laboratory. However, if field/moist VIS–NIR spectra can be directly applied to estimate SOM, then much of the time and labor would be avoided. Spectral derivative plays an important role in eliminating unwanted interference and optimizing the estimation model. Nonetheless, the conventional integer order derivatives (i.e., the first and second derivatives) may neglect some detailed information related to SOM. Besides, the full-spectrum generally contains redundant spectral variables, which would affect the model accuracy. This study aimed to investigate different combinations of fractional order derivative (FOD) and spectral variable selection techniques (i.e., competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), elastic net (ENET) and genetic algorithm (GA)) to optimize the VIS–NIR spectral model of moist soil. Ninety-one soil samples were collected from Central China, with their SOM contents and reflectance spectra measured. Support vector machine (SVM) was applied to estimate SOM. Results indicated that moist spectra differed greatly from dried ground spectra. With increasing order of derivative, the spectral resolution improved gradually, but the spectral strength decreased simultaneously. FOD could provide a better tool to counterbalance the contradiction between spectral resolution and spectral strength. In full-spectrum SVM models, the most accurate estimation was achieved by SVM model based on 1.5-order derivative spectra, with validation R2 = 0.79 and ratio of the performance to deviation (RPD) = 2.20. Of all models studied (different combinations of FOD and variable selection techniques), the highest validation model accuracy for SOM was achieved when applying 1.5 derivative spectra and GA method (validation R2 = 0.88 and RPD = 2.89). Among the three variable selection techniques, overall, the GA method yielded the optimal predictability. However, due to its long computation time, one alternative was to use CARS method. The results of this study confirm that a suitable combination of FOD and variable selection can effectively improve the model performance of SOM in moist soil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Calculating Viewing Angles Pixel by Pixel in Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Imagery Using the Rational Function Model
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030478
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
In studies involving the extraction of surface physical parameters using optical remote sensing satellite imagery, sun-sensor geometry must be known, especially for sensor viewing angles. However, while pixel-by-pixel acquisitions of sensor viewing angles are of critical importance to many studies, currently available algorithms
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In studies involving the extraction of surface physical parameters using optical remote sensing satellite imagery, sun-sensor geometry must be known, especially for sensor viewing angles. However, while pixel-by-pixel acquisitions of sensor viewing angles are of critical importance to many studies, currently available algorithms for calculating sensor-viewing angles focus only on the center-point pixel or are complicated and are not well known. Thus, this study aims to provide a simple and general method to estimate the sensor viewing angles pixel by pixel. The Rational Function Model (RFM) is already widely used in high-resolution satellite imagery, and, thus, a method is proposed for calculating the sensor viewing angles based on the space-vector information for the observed light implied in the RFM. This method can calculate independently the sensor-viewing angles in a pixel-by-pixel fashion, regardless of the specific form of the geometric model, even for geometrically corrected imageries. The experiments reveal that the calculated values differ by approximately 10−40 for the Gaofen-1 (GF-1) Wide-Field-View-1 (WFV-1) sensor, and by ~10−70 for the Ziyuan-3 (ZY3-02) panchromatic nadir (NAD) sensor when compared to the values that are calculated using the Rigorous Sensor Model (RSM), and the discrepancy is analyzed. Generally, the viewing angles for each pixel in imagery are calculated accurately with the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Extremes and Their Impacts on Interannual Vegetation Variabilities: A Case Study in Hubei Province of Central China
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030477
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
As the frequency and intensity of climate extremes are likely to be substantially modified in upcoming decades due to climate warming, an evaluation of the response of interannual vegetation variabilities to climate extremes is imperative. This study comprehensively analyzed the spatio-temporal variabilities of
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As the frequency and intensity of climate extremes are likely to be substantially modified in upcoming decades due to climate warming, an evaluation of the response of interannual vegetation variabilities to climate extremes is imperative. This study comprehensively analyzed the spatio-temporal variabilities of 21 temperature and precipitation indices across Hubei Province in Central China based on daily meteorological records for the period 1961–2015. To quantify the sensitivity of the vegetation to climate indices in the study area, we correlated climate indices with three vegetation indicators: leaf area index, normalized difference vegetation index, and gross primary productivity. The results indicated that warm-related indices exerted considerable increasing trends, especially for summer days at a rate of 0.35 days year−1 (p < 0.01). In addition, the trends of 18 indices during 1982–2015 were larger than those during 1961–2015, indicating accelerated climate changes in Hubei Province. Spatially, extreme precipitation showed increases in the eastern regions of the study area and decreases in the western regions. Correlation analyses revealed that warm anomalies of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation resulted in extreme warm conditions and extreme precipitation in the study area. Stepwise linear regression analyses identified three temperature indices and three precipitation indices, which were mostly correlated with the three ecosystem variables at the site scale. Further multiple regressions demonstrated the main negative impacts caused by frost days, warm spell duration, extremely heavy precipitation, and consecutive dry days on the terrestrial ecosystem in Hubei Province. Our study provides an improved understanding of the effects of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems and can also offer a basis for the management of mitigating damage from climate extremes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
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Open AccessArticle IMF-Slices for GPR Data Processing Using Variational Mode Decomposition Method
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030476
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Using traditional time-frequency analysis methods, it is possible to delineate the time-frequency structures of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. A series of applications based on time-frequency analysis were proposed for the GPR data processing and imaging. With respect to signal processing, GPR data are
[...] Read more.
Using traditional time-frequency analysis methods, it is possible to delineate the time-frequency structures of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. A series of applications based on time-frequency analysis were proposed for the GPR data processing and imaging. With respect to signal processing, GPR data are typically non-stationary, which limits the applications of these methods moving forward. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) provides alternative solutions with a fresh perspective. With EMD, GPR data are decomposed into a set of sub-components, i.e., the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). However, the mode-mixing effect may also bring some negatives. To utilize the IMFs’ benefits, and avoid the negatives of the EMD, we introduce a new decomposition scheme termed variational mode decomposition (VMD) for GPR data processing for imaging. Based on the decomposition results of the VMD, we propose a new method which we refer as “the IMF-slice”. In the proposed method, the IMFs are generated by the VMD trace by trace, and then each IMF is sorted and recorded into different profiles (i.e., the IMF-slices) according to its center frequency. Using IMF-slices, the GPR data can be divided into several IMF-slices, each of which delineates a main vibration mode, and some subsurface layers and geophysical events can be identified more clearly. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested using synthetic benchmark signals, laboratory data and the field dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in GPR Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle Global Validation of MODIS C6 and C6.1 Merged Aerosol Products over Diverse Vegetated Surfaces
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030475
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collections 6 and 6.1 merged Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) aerosol products (DTBC6 and DTBC6.1) at 0.55 µm were validated from 2004–2014 against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Version 2
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In this study, the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collections 6 and 6.1 merged Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) aerosol products (DTBC6 and DTBC6.1) at 0.55 µm were validated from 2004–2014 against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Version 2 Level 2.0 AOD obtained from 68 global sites located over diverse vegetated surfaces. These surfaces were categorized by static values of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observations obtained for the same time period from the MODIS level-3 monthly NDVI product (MOD13A3), i.e., partially/non–vegetated (NDVIP ≤ 0.3), moderately–vegetated (0.3 < NDVIM ≤ 0.5) and densely–vegetated (NDVID > 0.5) surfaces. The DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 AOD products are accomplished by the NDVI criteria: (i) use the DT AOD retrievals for NDVI > 0.3, (ii) use the DB AOD retrievals for NDVI < 0.2, and (iii) use an average of the DT and DB AOD retrievals or the available one with highest quality assurance flag (DT: QAF = 3; DB: QAF ≥ 2) for 0.2 ≤ NDVI ≤ 0.3. For comparison purpose, the DTBSMS AOD retrievals were included which were accomplished using the Simplified Merge Scheme, i.e., use an average of the DTC6.1 and DBC6.1 AOD retrievals or the available one for all the NDVI values. For NDVIP surfaces, results showed that the DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 AOD retrievals performed poorly over North and South America in terms of the agreement with AERONET AOD, and over Asian region in terms of retrievals quality as the small percentage of AOD retrievals were within the expected error (EE = ± (0.05 + 0.15 × AOD). For NDVIM surfaces, retrieval errors and poor quality in DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 were observed for Asian, North American and South American sites, whereas good performance, was observed for European and African sites. For NDVID surfaces, DTBC6 does not perform well over the Asian and North American sites, although it contains retrievals only from the DT algorithm which was developed for dark surfaces. Overall, the performance of the DTBC6.1 AOD retrievals was significantly improved compared to the DTBC6, but still more improvements are required over NDVIP, NDVIM and NDVID surfaces of Asia, NDVIM and NDVID surfaces of North America, and NDVIM surfaces of South America. The performance of the DTBSMS retrievals was better than the DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 retrievals with 11–13% (31%) greater number of coincident observations, 6–9% (14–22%) greater percentage of retrievals within the EE, and 30–100% (46–100%) smaller relative mean bias compared to the DTBC6.1 (DTBC6) at a global scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle Evaluating Eight Global Reanalysis Products for Atmospheric Correction of Thermal Infrared Sensor—Application to Landsat 8 TIRS10 Data
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030474
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Global reanalysis products have been widely used for correcting the atmospheric effects of thermal infrared data, but their performances have not been comprehensively evaluated. In this paper, we evaluate eight global reanalysis products (NCEP/FNL; NCEP/DOE Reanalysis2; MERRA-3; MERRA-6; MERRA2-3; MERRA2-6; JRA-55; and ERA-Interim)
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Global reanalysis products have been widely used for correcting the atmospheric effects of thermal infrared data, but their performances have not been comprehensively evaluated. In this paper, we evaluate eight global reanalysis products (NCEP/FNL; NCEP/DOE Reanalysis2; MERRA-3; MERRA-6; MERRA2-3; MERRA2-6; JRA-55; and ERA-Interim) commonly used in the atmospheric correction of Landsat 8 TIRS10 data by referencing global radiosonde observations collected from 163 stations. The atmospheric parameters (atmospheric transmittance, upward radiance, and downward radiance) simulated with MERRA-6 and ERA-Interim were accurate than those simulated with other reanalysis products for different water vapor contents and surface elevations. When global reanalysis products were applied to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) from simulated Landsat 8 TIRS10 data, ERA-Interim and MERRA-6 were accurate than other reanalysis products. The overall LST biases and RMSEs between the retrieved LSTs and LSTs that were used to generate the top-of-atmosphere radiances were less than 0.2 K and 1.09 K, respectively. When eight reanalysis products were used to estimate LSTs from thirty-two Landsat 8 TIRS10 images covering the Heihe River basin in China, the various reanalysis products showed similar validation accuracies for LSTs with low water vapor contents. The biases ranged from 0.07 K to 0.24 K, and the STDs (RMSEs) ranged from 1.93 K (1.93 K) to 2.02 K (2.04 K). Considering the above evaluation results, MERRA-6 and ERA-Interim are recommended for thermal infrared data atmospheric corrections. Full article
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