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Genes, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The Djungarian and Campbell’s dwarf hamsters provide an interesting example of the early steps of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview The Present and Future of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) and Whole Metagenome Sequencing (WMS) for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistant Microorganisms and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes across the Food Chain
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is a critical step within risk assessment schemes, as it is the basis for informing global strategies, monitoring the effectiveness of public health interventions, and detecting new trends and emerging threats linked to food. Surveillance of AMR is currently
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is a critical step within risk assessment schemes, as it is the basis for informing global strategies, monitoring the effectiveness of public health interventions, and detecting new trends and emerging threats linked to food. Surveillance of AMR is currently based on the isolation of indicator microorganisms and the phenotypic characterization of clinical, environmental and food strains isolated. However, this approach provides very limited information on the mechanisms driving AMR or on the presence or spread of AMR genes throughout the food chain. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of bacterial pathogens has shown potential for epidemiological surveillance, outbreak detection, and infection control. In addition, whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) allows for the culture-independent analysis of complex microbial communities, providing useful information on AMR genes occurrence. Both technologies can assist the tracking of AMR genes and mobile genetic elements, providing the necessary information for the implementation of quantitative risk assessments and allowing for the identification of hotspots and routes of transmission of AMR across the food chain. This review article summarizes the information currently available on the use of WGS and WMS for surveillance of AMR in foodborne pathogenic bacteria and food-related samples and discusses future needs that will have to be considered for the routine implementation of these next-generation sequencing methodologies with this aim. In particular, methodological constraints that impede the use at a global scale of these high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are identified, and the standardization of methods and protocols is suggested as a measure to upgrade HTS-based AMR surveillance schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle Validation of Ion TorrentTM Inherited Disease Panel with the PGMTM Sequencing Platform for Rapid and Comprehensive Mutation Detection
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Quick and accurate molecular testing is necessary for the better management of many inherited diseases. Recent technological advances in various next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, such as target panel-based sequencing, has enabled comprehensive, quick, and precise interrogation of many genetic variations. As a
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Quick and accurate molecular testing is necessary for the better management of many inherited diseases. Recent technological advances in various next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, such as target panel-based sequencing, has enabled comprehensive, quick, and precise interrogation of many genetic variations. As a result, these technologies have become a valuable tool for gene discovery and for clinical diagnostics. The AmpliSeq Inherited Disease Panel (IDP) consists of 328 genes underlying more than 700 inherited diseases. Here, we aimed to assess the performance of the IDP as a sensitive and rapid comprehensive gene panel testing. A total of 88 patients with inherited diseases and causal mutations that were previously identified by Sanger sequencing were randomly selected for assessing the performance of the IDP. The IDP successfully detected 93.1% of the mutations in our validation cohort, achieving high overall gene coverage (98%). The sensitivity for detecting single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and short Indels was 97.3% and 69.2%, respectively. IDP, when coupled with Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM), delivers comprehensive and rapid sequencing for genes that are responsible for various inherited diseases. Our validation results suggest the suitability of this panel for use as a first-line screening test after applying the necessary clinical validation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Applications for Next Generation Sequencing)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of DNA Methylation Reveals Specific Regulations on Ethylene Pathway in Tomato Fruit
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
DNA methylation is an essential feature of epigenetic regulation and plays a role in various physiological and biochemical processes at CG, CHG, and CHH sites in plants. LeERF1 is an ethylene response factor (ERF) found in tomatoes which plays an important role in
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DNA methylation is an essential feature of epigenetic regulation and plays a role in various physiological and biochemical processes at CG, CHG, and CHH sites in plants. LeERF1 is an ethylene response factor (ERF) found in tomatoes which plays an important role in ethylene signal transduction. To explore the characteristics of DNA methylation in the ethylene pathway, sense-/antisense-LeERF1 transgenic tomato fruit were chosen for deep sequencing and bioinformatics parsing. The methylation type with the greatest distribution was CG, (71.60–72.80%) and CHH was found least frequently (10.70–12.50%). The level of DNA methylation was different among different tomato genomic regions. The differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were conjointly analyzed and 3030 different expressed genes were found, of which several are involved in ethylene synthesis and signaling transduction (such as ACS, ACO, MADS-Box, ERFs, and F-box). Furthermore, the relationships between DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) were also deciphered, providing basic information for the further study of DNA methylation and small RNAs involved in the ethylene pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessReview Influence of Maternal Aging on Mitochondrial Heterogeneity, Inheritance, and Function in Oocytes and Preimplantation Embryos
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Contrasting the equal contribution of nuclear genetic material from maternal and paternal sources to offspring, passage of mitochondria, and thus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), is uniparental through the egg. Since mitochondria in eggs are ancestral to all somatic mitochondria of the next generation and
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Contrasting the equal contribution of nuclear genetic material from maternal and paternal sources to offspring, passage of mitochondria, and thus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), is uniparental through the egg. Since mitochondria in eggs are ancestral to all somatic mitochondria of the next generation and to all cells of future generations, oocytes must prepare for the high energetic demands of maturation, fertilization and embryogenesis while simultaneously ensuring that their mitochondrial genomes are inherited in an undamaged state. Although significant effort has been made to understand how the mtDNA bottleneck and purifying selection act coordinately to prevent silent and unchecked spreading of invisible mtDNA mutations through the female germ line across successive generations, it is unknown if and how somatic cells of the immediate next generation are spared from inheritance of detrimental mtDNA molecules. Here, we review unique aspects of mitochondrial activity and segregation in eggs and early embryos, and how these events play into embryonic developmental competency in the face of advancing maternal age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria and Aging)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Guppy Sex Chromosome System and the Sexually Antagonistic Polymorphism Hypothesis for Y Chromosome Recombination Suppression
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Sex chromosomes regularly evolve suppressed recombination, distinguishing them from other chromosomes, and the reason for this has been debated for many years. It is now clear that non-recombining sex-linked regions have arisen in different ways in different organisms. A major hypothesis is that
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Sex chromosomes regularly evolve suppressed recombination, distinguishing them from other chromosomes, and the reason for this has been debated for many years. It is now clear that non-recombining sex-linked regions have arisen in different ways in different organisms. A major hypothesis is that a sex-determining gene arises on a chromosome and that sexually antagonistic (SA) selection (sometimes called intra-locus sexual conflict) acting at a linked gene has led to the evolution of recombination suppression in the region, to reduce the frequency of low fitness recombinant genotypes produced. The sex chromosome system of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is often cited as supporting this hypothesis because SA selection has been demonstrated to act on male coloration in natural populations of this fish, and probably contributes to maintaining polymorphisms for the genetic factors involved. I review classical genetic and new molecular genetic results from the guppy, and other fish, including approaches for identifying the genome regions carrying sex-determining loci, and suggest that the guppy may exemplify a recently proposed route to sex chromosome evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolutionary Life Cycle of Sex Chromosomes)
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Open AccessReview Regulation Mediated by N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Signals in the Rhizobium-Legume Symbiosis
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Soil-dwelling bacteria collectively referred to as rhizobia synthesize and perceive N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to regulate gene expression in a population density-dependent manner. AHL-mediated signaling in these bacteria regulates several functions which are important for the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legume
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Soil-dwelling bacteria collectively referred to as rhizobia synthesize and perceive N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to regulate gene expression in a population density-dependent manner. AHL-mediated signaling in these bacteria regulates several functions which are important for the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legume plants. Moreover, rhizobial AHL act as interkingdom signals triggering plant responses that impact the plant-bacteria interaction. Both the regulatory mechanisms that control AHL synthesis in rhizobia and the set of bacterial genes and associated traits under quorum sensing (QS) control vary greatly among the rhizobial species. In this article, we focus on the well-known QS system of the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) meliloti. Bacterial genes, environmental factors and transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms that control AHL production in this Rhizobium, as well as the effects of the signaling molecule on bacterial phenotypes and plant responses will be reviewed. Current knowledge of S. meliloti QS will be compared with that of other rhizobia. Finally, participation of the legume host in QS by interfering with rhizobial AHL perception through the production of molecular mimics will also be addressed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Genomic Differentiation during Speciation-with-Gene-Flow: Comparing Geographic and Host-Related Variation in Divergent Life History Adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic
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A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a geographic survey of genomic variation across four sites where apple and hawthorn flies co-occur from north to south in the Midwestern USA. The results demonstrated that the majority of the genome showing significant geographic and host-related variation can be accounted for by initial diapause intensity and eclosion time. Local genomic differences between sympatric apple and hawthorn flies were subsumed within broader geographic clines; allele frequency differences within the races across the Midwest were two to three-fold greater than those between the races in sympatry. As a result, sympatric apple and hawthorn populations displayed more limited genomic clustering compared to geographic populations within the races. The findings suggest that with reduced gene flow and increased selection on diapause equivalent to that seen between geographic sites, the host races may be recognized as different genotypic entities in sympatry, and perhaps species, a hypothesis requiring future genomic analysis of related sibling species to R. pomonella to test. Our findings concerning the way selection and geography interplay could be of broad significance for many cases of earlier stages of divergence-with-gene flow, including (1) where only modest increases in geographic isolation and the strength of selection may greatly impact genetic coupling and (2) the dynamics of how spatial and temporal standing variation is extracted by selection to generate differences between new and discrete units of biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Genetics of Reproductive Isolation)
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Open AccessArticle Conventional Pathology Versus Gene Signatures for Assessing Luminal A and B Type Breast Cancers: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
In this study, in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) early stage breast cancer patients who were considered candidates for 70-gene signature (70-GS, “MammaPrint”) use, we compared molecular subtyping (MS) based on the previously validated 80-gene signature (80-GS, “BluePrint”) versus surrogate pathological subtyping (PS). Between
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In this study, in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) early stage breast cancer patients who were considered candidates for 70-gene signature (70-GS, “MammaPrint”) use, we compared molecular subtyping (MS) based on the previously validated 80-gene signature (80-GS, “BluePrint”) versus surrogate pathological subtyping (PS). Between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015, 595 clinical intermediate risk ER+ early stage breast cancer patients were enrolled. Hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 receptor status were determined by conventional pathology using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Ki67 was assessed in a subset of patients. The overall concordance between PS and MS for luminal type cancers (A and B together) was 98%. The concordance between PS and MS for luminal A and luminal B type cancers based on the Bloom Richardson histological grade (BR) (n = 586) or Ki67 (n = 185) was low: 64% (Kappa 0.20 [95% CI 0.11–0.28]) and 65% (Kappa 0.22 [95% CI 0.062–0.37]), respectively. In this prospective study (NCT02209857) of a selection of ER+ and predominantly HER2− early-stage breast cancer patients, the additional ability of the 80-GS to distinguish between luminal, HER2-type and basal-like cancers was inherently very limited. The distinction of luminal-type tumors into A and B according to Ki67 status or BR grade versus the 70-GS revealed poor concordance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Identification and Characterization of the WOX Family Genes in Five Solanaceae Species Reveal Their Conserved Roles in Peptide Signaling
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Members of the plant-specific WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) transcription factor family have been reported to play important roles in peptide signaling that regulates stem cell maintenance and cell fate specification in various developmental processes. Even though remarkable advances have been made in studying WOX
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Members of the plant-specific WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) transcription factor family have been reported to play important roles in peptide signaling that regulates stem cell maintenance and cell fate specification in various developmental processes. Even though remarkable advances have been made in studying WOX genes in Arabidopsis, little is known about this family in Solanaceae species. A total of 45 WOX members from five Solanaceae species were identified, including eight members from Solanum tuberosum, eight from Nicotiana tomentosiformis, 10 from Solanum lycopersicum, 10 from Nicotiana sylvestris and nine from Nicotiana tabacum. The newly identified WOX members were classified into three clades and nine subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis using three different methods. The patterns of exon-intron structure and motif organization of the WOX proteins agreed with the phylogenetic results. Gene duplication events and ongoing evolution were revealed by additional branches on the phylogenetic tree and the presence of a partial WUS-box in some non-WUS clade members. Gene expression with or without CLE (clavata3 (clv3)/embryo surrounding region-related) peptide treatments revealed that tobacco WOX genes showed similar or distinct expression patterns compared with their Arabidopsis homologues, suggesting either functional conservation or divergence. Expression of Nicotiana tabacum WUSCHEL (NtabWUS) in the organizing center could rescue the wus-1 mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis, implying conserved roles of the Solanaceae WOX proteins in peptide-mediated regulation of plant development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle Chronic and Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Botswana
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global problem; however, the burden of HBV infection in pregnant women in Botswana is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of chronic and occult HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected pregnant women
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The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global problem; however, the burden of HBV infection in pregnant women in Botswana is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of chronic and occult HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana. Samples from 752 pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBsAg-positive samples were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA load. Samples that were HBsAg negative were screened for occult HBV infection by determining the HBV DNA load. HBV genotypes were determined based on a 415-base-pair fragment of the surface gene. Among the 752 women tested during pregnancy or early postpartum, 16 (2.1%) (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0–2.2) were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was higher (3.1%) among HIV-infected (95% CI: 3.0–3.2) compared with HIV-uninfected women (1.1%) (95% CI: 1.07–1.1, p = 0.057). Among the 622 HBsAg-negative women, the prevalence of occult HBV infection was 6.6% (95% CI: 6.5–6.7). Three of thirteen HBsAg-positive participants were HBeAg-positive, and all were HIV-negative. Of the 11 maternal samples successfully genotyped, five (45.5%) were genotype D3, five (45.5%) were genotype A1, and one was genotype E (9%). Low and similar proportions of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana had occult or chronic HBV infection. We identified a subset of HIV-negative pregnant women who had high HBV DNA levels and were HBeAg-positive, and thus likely to transmit HBV to their infants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Cross-Entropy Based Multi-Filter Ensemble Method for Gene Selection
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
The gene expression profile has the characteristics of a high dimension, low sample, and continuous type, and it is a great challenge to use gene expression profile data for the classification of tumor samples. This paper proposes a cross-entropy based multi-filter ensemble (CEMFE)
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The gene expression profile has the characteristics of a high dimension, low sample, and continuous type, and it is a great challenge to use gene expression profile data for the classification of tumor samples. This paper proposes a cross-entropy based multi-filter ensemble (CEMFE) method for microarray data classification. Firstly, multiple filters are used to select the microarray data in order to obtain a plurality of the pre-selected feature subsets with a different classification ability. The top N genes with the highest rank of each subset are integrated so as to form a new data set. Secondly, the cross-entropy algorithm is used to remove the redundant data in the data set. Finally, the wrapper method, which is based on forward feature selection, is used to select the best feature subset. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more efficient than other gene selection methods and that it can achieve a higher classification accuracy under fewer characteristic genes. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication AtPAP2, a Unique Member of the PAP Family, Functions in the Plasma Membrane
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play various physiological roles in plants. AtPAP2 was previously shown to localize to both chloroplasts and mitochondria and to modulate carbon metabolism in Arabidopsis. Over-expression of AtPAP2 resulted in faster growth and increased biomass in several plant species,
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Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play various physiological roles in plants. AtPAP2 was previously shown to localize to both chloroplasts and mitochondria and to modulate carbon metabolism in Arabidopsis. Over-expression of AtPAP2 resulted in faster growth and increased biomass in several plant species, indicating its great potential for crop improvement of phosphate use and yield. Here, we studied the localization of AtPAP2 by transient expression in tobacco leaves. The results showed AtPAP2 was localized to the plasma membrane through the secretory pathway, which is different from previous studies. We also found that AtPAP2 had a close relationship with fungal PAP2-like proteins based on phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the C-terminal transmembrane domain conserved in land plants is unique among other AtPAPs except AtPAP9, which is a close homolog of AtPAP2. Taken together, our results provide information for further study of AtPAP2 in understanding its special function in crop improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics and Epigenomics for Trait Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants and Class 1 and Class 2 Integrons in Salmonella enterica spp., Multidrug-Resistant Isolates from Pigs
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and Salmonella spp., are primary concerns in public health. The present study characterizes the AMR determinants of 62 multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica spp., isolates from swine, which were obtained between 2004–2006, a major source of human salmonellosis. The AMR
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and Salmonella spp., are primary concerns in public health. The present study characterizes the AMR determinants of 62 multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica spp., isolates from swine, which were obtained between 2004–2006, a major source of human salmonellosis. The AMR determinants were investigated by PCR, checking the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons and 29 resistance genes. Genes sul1, blaTEM1-like, aadA2, tet(A), and dfrA12 were more prevalent (p < 0.05) within the determinants that were checked for each of these antimicrobials. Co-existence of different genes conferring resistance to the same antimicrobial was common. No differences in AMR determinants prevalence were observed between Salmonella Typhimurium and other serovars from the study. Class 1 integrons were detected in 48 of 62 isolates, again with no differences being linked to any serovar. Nine different variable regions were observed, 1000 bp/aadA2-1200 bp/blaPSE-1 (13 isolates) and blaOXA-like/aadA1 (eight isolates) were the most common. Four isolates, including S. Typhimurium (2), Salmonella Bredeney (1), and Salmonella Kapemba (1) harboured a class 2 integron 2300 bp estX-sat2-aadA1. Results from the study highlight the importance of class 1 integrons and certain genes in MDR swine Salmonella isolates. The information is of relevance for monitoring in the forthcoming scope of reduction of antibiotic usage in swine production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Changing Landscape in the Genetic Etiology of Human Tooth Agenesis
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Despite much progress in understanding the genetics of syndromic tooth agenesis (TA), the causes of the most common, isolated TA remain elusive. Recent studies have identified novel genes and variants contributing to the etiology of TA, and revealed new pathways in which tooth
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Despite much progress in understanding the genetics of syndromic tooth agenesis (TA), the causes of the most common, isolated TA remain elusive. Recent studies have identified novel genes and variants contributing to the etiology of TA, and revealed new pathways in which tooth development genes belong. Further, the use of new research approaches including next-generation sequencing has provided increased evidence supporting an oligogenic inheritance model for TA, and may explain the phenotypic variability of the condition. In this review, we present current knowledge about the genetic mechanisms underlying syndromic and isolated TA in humans, and highlight the value of incorporating next-generation sequencing approaches to identify causative and/or modifier genes that contribute to the etiology of TA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Variations in Evolution and Human Diseases)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Transposable Elements in Speciation
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Understanding the phenotypic and molecular mechanisms that contribute to genetic diversity between and within species is fundamental in studying the evolution of species. In particular, identifying the interspecific differences that lead to the reduction or even cessation of gene flow between nascent species
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Understanding the phenotypic and molecular mechanisms that contribute to genetic diversity between and within species is fundamental in studying the evolution of species. In particular, identifying the interspecific differences that lead to the reduction or even cessation of gene flow between nascent species is one of the main goals of speciation genetic research. Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences with the ability to move within genomes. TEs are ubiquitous throughout eukaryotic genomes and have been shown to alter regulatory networks, gene expression, and to rearrange genomes as a result of their transposition. However, no systematic effort has evaluated the role of TEs in speciation. We compiled the evidence for TEs as potential causes of reproductive isolation across a diversity of taxa. We find that TEs are often associated with hybrid defects that might preclude the fusion between species, but that the involvement of TEs in other barriers to gene flow different from postzygotic isolation is still relatively unknown. Finally, we list a series of guides and research avenues to disentangle the effects of TEs on the origin of new species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Genetics of Reproductive Isolation)
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