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Metals, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Growth Restriction on Grain Size in Binary Cu Alloys
Metals 2017, 7(9), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090383
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Grain refinement by elemental addition has been extensively investigated within the last decades in Al or Mg alloys. In contrast, in the Cu system, the role of solute on grain size is less investigated. In this study, the grain refinement potency of several
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Grain refinement by elemental addition has been extensively investigated within the last decades in Al or Mg alloys. In contrast, in the Cu system, the role of solute on grain size is less investigated. In this study, the grain refinement potency of several alloying elements of the Cu system was examined. To predict grain size depending on the growth restriction factor Q, grain size modelling was performed. The results obtained by the grain size model were compared to variations in the grain size of binary Cu alloys with increasing solute content under defined cooling conditions of the TP-1 grain refiner test of the Aluminium Association©. It was found that the experimental results differed significantly from the predicted grain size values for several alloying elements. A decreasing grain size with increasing alloy concentration was observed independently of the growth restriction potency of the alloying elements. Furthermore, excessive grain coarsening was found for several solutes beyond a transition point. It is assumed that contradictory variations in grain size result from a change in the nucleating particle density of the melt. Significant decreases in grain size are supposed to be due to the in-situ formation of potent nucleation sites. Excessive grain coarsening with increasing solute content may occur due to the removal of nucleating particles. The model shows that the difference in the actual number of particles before and beyond the transition point must be in the range of several orders of magnitude. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Heat-Treatments Effect on High Strength Ductile Cast Iron Welded Joints
Metals 2017, 7(9), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090382
Received: 12 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Nowadays, ultimate tensile strengths above 400 MPa become usual for ductile irons, thus allowing the implementation of new design paradigms. Large concentrations of carbon and other influencing elements can negatively interfere with the welding process of ductile cast irons. Efforts made by researchers
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Nowadays, ultimate tensile strengths above 400 MPa become usual for ductile irons, thus allowing the implementation of new design paradigms. Large concentrations of carbon and other influencing elements can negatively interfere with the welding process of ductile cast irons. Efforts made by researchers have led to the discovery of solutions which enable good enough operational results to consider welding as a viable repairing or joining method. Although these alloys have been available for quite some time, researchers have mainly focused on issues relating to microstructural phenomena tied to casting and similar processes, leaving much to explore in terms of their weldability. Thus, this work intends to investigate the effect of different heat-treatments on the weldability of a high strength ductile cast iron by assessing the mechanical properties of welded joints as well as structural modifications induced by thermal cycles imposed before and after welding. Successful weld joints were achieved showing a clear heat affected zone (HAZ) close to the joint area. This area is coincident with the fracture area of the welded samples when loaded on a tensile test bench, having obtained promising results regarding mechanical strength and strain. The hardness of the welded zone was also carefully investigated, showing clear changes throughout the joint. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Microstructure Evolution and Properties Response of a Friction-Stir-Welded Copper-Chromium-Zirconium Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(9), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090381
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
In this article, the copper-chromium-zirconium (CuCrZr) alloys plates with 21 mm in thickness were butt joined together by means of FSW (friction stir welding). The properties of the FSW joints are studied. The microstructure variations during the process of FSW were investigated by
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In this article, the copper-chromium-zirconium (CuCrZr) alloys plates with 21 mm in thickness were butt joined together by means of FSW (friction stir welding). The properties of the FSW joints are studied. The microstructure variations during the process of FSW were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the grains size in the nugget zone (NZ) are significantly refined, which can be attributed to the dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The microstructure distribution in the NZ is inhomogeneous and the size of equiaxed grains are decreased gradually along the thickness direction from the top to bottom area of the welds. Meanwhile, it is found that the micro-hardness and tensile strength of the welds are slightly increased along the thickness direction from the top to the bottom area of the welds. All the nano-strengthening precipitates in the BM are dissolved into the Cu matrix in the NZ. Therefore, the decreases in hardness, tensile strength, and electrical conductivity can be attributed to the comprehensive effect of dissolution of nano-strengthening precipitates into the supersaturation matrix and severe DRX in the welded NZ. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Computational Parameters on Springback Prediction by Numerical Simulation
Metals 2017, 7(9), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090380
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Elastic recovery of the material, called springback, is one of the problems in sheet metal forming of drawpieces, especially with a complex shape. The springback can be influenced by various technological, geometrical, and material parameters. In this paper the results of experimental testing
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Elastic recovery of the material, called springback, is one of the problems in sheet metal forming of drawpieces, especially with a complex shape. The springback can be influenced by various technological, geometrical, and material parameters. In this paper the results of experimental testing and numerical study are presented. The experiments are conducted on DC04 steel sheets, commonly used in the automotive industry. The numerical analysis of V-die air bending tests is carried out with the finite element method (FEM)-based ABAQUS/Standard 2016 program. A quadratic Hill anisotropic yield criterion is compared with an isotropic material described by the von Mises yield criterion. The effect of a number of integration points and integration rules on the springback amount and computation time is also considered. Two integration rules available in ABAQUS: the Gauss’ integration rule and Simpson’s integration rule are considered. The effect of sample orientation according to the sheet rolling direction and friction contact behaviour on the prediction of springback is also analysed. It is observed that the width of the sample bend in the V-bending test influences the stress-state in the cross-section of the sample. Different stress-states in the sample bend of the V-shaped die cause that the sheet undergoes springback in different planes. Friction contact phenomena slightly influences the springback behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plastic Forming of Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Physical-Mechanism Exploration of the Low-Cycle Unified Creep-Fatigue Formulation
Metals 2017, 7(9), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090379
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Background—Creep-fatigue behavior is identified as the incorporated effects of fatigue and creep. One class of constitutive-based models attempts to evaluate creep and fatigue separately, but the interaction of fatigue and creep is neglected. Other models treat the damage as a single component, but
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Background—Creep-fatigue behavior is identified as the incorporated effects of fatigue and creep. One class of constitutive-based models attempts to evaluate creep and fatigue separately, but the interaction of fatigue and creep is neglected. Other models treat the damage as a single component, but the complex numerical structures that result are inconvenient for engineering application. The models derived through a curve-fitting method avoid these problems. However, the method of curving fitting cannot translate the numerical formulation to underlying physical mechanisms. Need—Therefore, there is a need to develop a new creep-fatigue formulation for metal that accommodates all relevant variables and where the relationships between them are consistent with physical mechanisms of fatigue and creep. Method—In the present work, the main dependencies and relationships for the unified creep-fatigue equation were presented through exploring what the literature says about the mechanisms. Outcomes—This shows that temperature, cyclic time and grain size have significant influences on creep-fatigue behavior, and the relationships between them (such as linear relation, logarithmical relation and power-law relation) are consistent with phenomena of diffusion creep and crack growth. Significantly, the numerical form of “1 − x” is presented to show the consumption of creep effect on fatigue capacity, and the introduction of the reference condition gives the threshold of creep effect. Originality—By this means, the unified creep-fatigue equation is linked to physical phenomena, where the influence of different dependencies on creep fatigue was explored and relationships shown in this equation were investigated in a microstructural level. Particularly, a physical explanation of the grain-size exponent via consideration of crack-growth planes was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue Damage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Ceramic Materials in a Ti–C–Co–Ca3(PO4)2–Ag–Mg System Obtained by MA SHS for the Deposition of Biomedical Coatings
Metals 2017, 7(9), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090378
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to obtain biocompatible ceramic materials in a Ti–C–Co–Ca3(PO4)2–Ag–Mg system by the combustion mode of mechanically activated (MA) reaction mixtures. The influence of the MA time on the reaction ability capability of the mixtures, on
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This study aimed to obtain biocompatible ceramic materials in a Ti–C–Co–Ca3(PO4)2–Ag–Mg system by the combustion mode of mechanically activated (MA) reaction mixtures. The influence of the MA time on the reaction ability capability of the mixtures, on their structural and chemical homogeneity, on the combustion parameters and structural-phase conversions in the combustion wave, as well as on the structure and phase composition of the electrode materials has been researched. It was found that the intense treatment of powder mixtures causes plastic deformation of components, the formation of lamellar composite granules, a reduction in the sizes of coherent scattering regions, and also the formation of minor amounts of products. The influence of the activation duration of the ignition temperature and heat release during the combustion of the reaction mixtures was studied. By the method of quenching the combustion front, it was demonstrated that in a combustion wave, chemical transformations occur within the lamellar structures formed during the process of mechanoactivation. It was shown that in the combustion wave, parallel chemical reactions of Ti with C as well as Ti with Co and Ca3(PO4)2 occur, with a Ti–Co-based melt forming the reaction surface. Ceramic electrodes with different contents of Ag and Mg were synthesized by force self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS)-pressing technology using the MA mixtures. The microstructure of the materials consisted of round-shaped grains of nonstoichiometric titanium carbide TiCx grains, intermetallic matrix (TiCo, TiCo2, CoTiP), inclusions of Ca and Mg oxides, and grains of the Ag-based solid solution. An increased content of Ag and Mg in the composition of the electrodes, as well as an increased MA duration, leads to an enlargement of the inclusions of the Ag-containing phase size and deterioration in the uniformity of their distribution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of La and Ce Addition on Inclusion Modification in Cast Niobium Microalloyed Steels
Metals 2017, 7(9), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090377
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
The main role of Rare Earth (RE) elements in the steelmaking industry is to affect the nature of inclusions (composition, geometry, size and volume fraction), which can potentially lead to the improvement of some mechanical properties such as the toughness in steels. In
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The main role of Rare Earth (RE) elements in the steelmaking industry is to affect the nature of inclusions (composition, geometry, size and volume fraction), which can potentially lead to the improvement of some mechanical properties such as the toughness in steels. In this study, different amounts of RE were added to a niobium microalloyed steel in as-cast condition to investigate its influence on: (i) type of inclusions and (ii) precipitation of niobium carbides. The characterization of the microstructure by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy shows that: (1) the addition of RE elements change the inclusion formation route during solidification; RE > 200 ppm promote formation of complex inclusions with a (La,Ce)(S,O) matrix instead of Al2O3-MnS inclusions; (2) the roundness of inclusions increases with RE, whereas more than 200 ppm addition would increase the area fraction and size of the inclusions; (3) it was found that the presence of MnS in the base and low RE-added steel provide nucleation sites for the precipitation of coarse niobium carbides and/or carbonitrides at the matrix–MnS interface. Thermodynamic calculations show that temperatures of the order of 1200 °C would be necessary to dissolve these coarse Nb-rich carbides so as to reprecipitate them as nanoparticles in the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microalloyed Steels)
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Open AccessArticle A Numerical Study on Contact Condition and Wear of Roller in Cold Rolling
Metals 2017, 7(9), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090376
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
An accurate determination of the contact pressure and local sliding in a cold rolling process is an essential step towards the prediction of the roller’s life due to wear damage. This investigation utilized finite element analysis to quantify the local contact pressure and
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An accurate determination of the contact pressure and local sliding in a cold rolling process is an essential step towards the prediction of the roller’s life due to wear damage. This investigation utilized finite element analysis to quantify the local contact pressure and local sliding over the rolling bite in a plate cold rolling process. It was the first study to quantify the local sliding distance in a rolling process using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The numerical results indicate that the local contact pressure over the rolling bite demonstrates a hill profile, and the peak coincides with the neutral plane. The local sliding distance over the rolling bite demonstrates a double-peak profile with the two peaks appearing at the forward slip and backward slip zones respectively. The amplitude of sliding distance in the backward slip zone is larger than that in the forward slip zone. A stick zone was confirmed between the forward slip and backward slip zones. According to a parametric study, the local contact pressure and sliding distance decrease when the thickness reduction is reduced or the diameter of the roller is decreased. The location of the neutral plane always presents at the rolling exit side of the rolling bite’s center. The size of the stick zone enlarges and the sizes of slip zones shrink significantly when the friction coefficient is increased. Finally, a novel concept of wear intensity was defined to examine the wear of the roller based on the local contact pressure and local sliding distance. The results show that a two-peak wear response exists in the backward and forward slip zones. The magnitude of the wear in the backward slip zone is larger than that in the forward slip zone. For a given roller and blank material combination, using a smaller thickness reduction, a smaller diameter roller and a higher friction coefficient condition can reduce the wear of the roller for a single rolling cycle. The current paper develops an understanding of rolling contact responses to the wear of the roller in rolling process. The research method can also be applied to study other rolling or sliding wear problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researches and Simulations in Steel Rolling)
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Open AccessArticle Torsional Fatigue Strength of Newly Developed Case Hardening TRIP-Aided Steel
Metals 2017, 7(9), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090375
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
The torsional fatigue strength of newly developed case hardening steel, i.e., transformation-induced plasticity-aided martensitic steel subjected to vacuum carburizing followed by fine particle peening, was investigated for the fabrication of downsized precision gears with high torque capacity and wear resistance. The surface-hardened layer
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The torsional fatigue strength of newly developed case hardening steel, i.e., transformation-induced plasticity-aided martensitic steel subjected to vacuum carburizing followed by fine particle peening, was investigated for the fabrication of downsized precision gears with high torque capacity and wear resistance. The surface-hardened layer properties—i.e., high Vickers hardness, high compressive residual stress, and a large amount of retained austenite—considerably increased the torsional fatigue limits of vacuum-carburized and fine particle peened TM and JIS-SNCM420 steels, although the notch-sensitivity to fatigue was increased. The relation between torsional and rotational bending fatigue limits for the smooth specimens was found to be between the maximum principal stress and the minimum shear strain energy criterions. On the other hand, this relation for the notched specimens was represented through the maximum principal stress criterion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Frozen Bath Layer under Cold Anodes
Metals 2017, 7(9), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090374
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Hall-Héroult cell stability is highly affected by anode changing operations. Upon the insertion of a cold anode in the cell, a layer of molten cryolite freezes under the anode. The thickness, microstructure, and chemical composition of this layer vary as a function of
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Hall-Héroult cell stability is highly affected by anode changing operations. Upon the insertion of a cold anode in the cell, a layer of molten cryolite freezes under the anode. The thickness, microstructure, and chemical composition of this layer vary as a function of time and its location in the cell. To better understand the evolution of the frozen layer, mandatory for the validation of numerical models, a measurement campaign was conducted on the anodes having a few hours of operation in the cell. The macrostructure of the selected frozen bath samples has been investigated using computed tomography while scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to qualify its microstructure. An energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) coupled to the SEM has revealed the chemical content. The results showed not only very different macrostructures between samples, but also significantly heterogeneous structure within the same sample. Nevertheless, for all samples, there is a clear distinction between the frozen cryolite and alumina/dusting phases, with the latter surrounding the cryolite matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fretting Wear Behaviors of Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Conductors in High-Voltage Transmission Line
Metals 2017, 7(9), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090373
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
This work reports the fretting wear behavior of aluminum cable steel reinforced (ACSR) conductors for use in high-voltage transmission line. Fretting wear tests of Al wires were conducted on a servo-controlled fatigue testing machine with self-made assistant apparatus, and their fretting process characteristics,
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This work reports the fretting wear behavior of aluminum cable steel reinforced (ACSR) conductors for use in high-voltage transmission line. Fretting wear tests of Al wires were conducted on a servo-controlled fatigue testing machine with self-made assistant apparatus, and their fretting process characteristics, friction force, wear damage, and wear surface morphology were detailed analyzed. The results show that the running regime of Al wires changes from a gross slip regime to a mixed regime more quickly as increasing contact load. With increasing amplitudes, gross slip regimes are more dominant under contact loads of lower than 30 N. The maximum friction force is relatively smaller in the NaCl solution than in a dry friction environment. The primary wear mechanisms in dry friction environments are abrasive wear and adhesive wear whereas abrasive wear and fatigue damage are dominant in NaCl solution. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries via Spark Plasma Sintering
Metals 2017, 7(9), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090372
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been successfully used to produce all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLibs). Both regular and functionally graded electrodes are implemented into novel three-layer and five-layer battery designs together with solid-state composite electrolyte. The electrical capacities and the conductivities of the SPS-processed
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Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been successfully used to produce all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLibs). Both regular and functionally graded electrodes are implemented into novel three-layer and five-layer battery designs together with solid-state composite electrolyte. The electrical capacities and the conductivities of the SPS-processed ASSLibs are evaluated using the galvanostatic charge-discharge test. Experimental results have shown that, compared to the three-layer battery, the five-layer battery is able to improve energy and power densities. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is employed to examine the microstructures of the batteries especially at the electrode–electrolyte interfaces. It reveals that the functionally graded structure can eliminate the delamination effect at the electrode–electrolyte interface and, therefore, retains better performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Synthesis and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Isothermal Austenite–Ferrite Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution during Annealing in Super Duplex Stainless Steels
Metals 2017, 7(9), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090368
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Super Duplex Stainless Steels (SDSSs) are composed of α-ferrite and γ-austenite grains, the simultaneous presence of which forms an optimal microstructure to achieve the best combination of mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. Moreover, international quality standards are strict about the phase fraction ratio.
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Super Duplex Stainless Steels (SDSSs) are composed of α-ferrite and γ-austenite grains, the simultaneous presence of which forms an optimal microstructure to achieve the best combination of mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. Moreover, international quality standards are strict about the phase fraction ratio. The purpose of this work is the achievement of a better description of the phase ratio evolution taking place during annealing at 1080 °C in the super duplex stainless steels F53–S32750 and F55–S32760. The experimental results show a damped sinusoidal trend in the α/γ phase ratio evolution with the increase of the soaking time of thermal treatment. This can be described by coupling both the competitive coarsening growth regime and the concept of the local equilibrium phase transformations, pointing out a good correspondence with the experimental data. Further, recrystallization phenomena also play a major role. Finally, the additivity character of the observed processes has been proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure based Modeling of Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle An Eco-Friendly Neutralization Process by Carbon Mineralization for Ca-Rich Alkaline Wastewater Generated from Concrete Sludge
Metals 2017, 7(9), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090371
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Waste-concrete recycling processes using wet-based crushing methods inevitably generate a large amount of alkaline concrete sludge, as well as wastewater, which contains abundant Ca ions. The Ca-rich alkaline wastewater must then be neutralized for reuse in the waste-concrete recycling process. In this study,
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Waste-concrete recycling processes using wet-based crushing methods inevitably generate a large amount of alkaline concrete sludge, as well as wastewater, which contains abundant Ca ions. The Ca-rich alkaline wastewater must then be neutralized for reuse in the waste-concrete recycling process. In this study, the feasibility of a carbon mineralization process for the neutralization of alkaline wastewater was considered from both environmental and economic perspectives. The optimal reaction time, efficiency of Ca removal and CO2 sequestration as a function of the CO2 gas flow rate were assessed. The carbon mineralization process resulted in sequestering CO2 (85–100% efficiency) and removing Ca from the solution (84–99%) by precipitating pure CaCO3. Increasing the gas flow rate reduced the reaction time (65.0 down to 3.4 min for 2.5 L of solution), but decreased CO2 sequestration (from 463.3 down to 7.3 mg CO2 for 2.5 L of solution). Optimization of the gas flow rate is essential for efficient CO2 sequestration, Ca removal, CaCO3 production and, therefore, successful wastewater neutralization following the wet-based crushing process. The method presented here is an eco-friendly and economically viable substitute for dealing with alkaline wastewater. It may also provide a practical guide for the design of carbon mineralization processes for the neutralization of alkaline solutions containing large amounts of Ca. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valuable Metal Recycling)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of Post-Sinter Processing on an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu Powder Metallurgy Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(9), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090370
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this work was to study the effects of several post-sinter processing operations (heat-treatment, sizing, shot peening) on a press-and-sinter 7xxx series aluminum powder metallurgy (PM) alloy. The characterization of the products was completed through a combination of non-contact surface profiling,
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The objective of this work was to study the effects of several post-sinter processing operations (heat-treatment, sizing, shot peening) on a press-and-sinter 7xxx series aluminum powder metallurgy (PM) alloy. The characterization of the products was completed through a combination of non-contact surface profiling, hardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), tensile, and three-point bend fatigue testing. It was determined that sizing in the as-quenched state imparted appreciable reductions in surface hardness (78 HRB) and fatigue strength (168 MPa) relative to counterpart specimens that were sized prior to solutionizing (85 HRB and 228 MPa). These declines in performance were ascribed to the annihilation of quenched in vacancies that subsequently altered the nature of precipitates within the finished product. The system responded well to shot peening, as this process increased fatigue strength to 294 MPa. However, thermal exposure at 353 K (80 °C) and 433 K (160 °C) then reduced fatigue performance to 260 MPa and 173 MPa, respectively, as a result of residual stress relaxation and in-situ over-aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Mechanical Testing of Powder Metallurgy Alloys)
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