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Coatings, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Colour is a distinctive feature of precious historical bowed string instruments. Old recipes have [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Functionalization of PVD Coatings on Ceramics
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050197
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
The application of surface treatments that incorporate silver or copper as antibacterial elements has become a common practice for a wide variety of medical devices and materials because of their effective activity against nosocomial infections. Ceramic tiles are choice materials for cladding the
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The application of surface treatments that incorporate silver or copper as antibacterial elements has become a common practice for a wide variety of medical devices and materials because of their effective activity against nosocomial infections. Ceramic tiles are choice materials for cladding the floors and walls of operation rooms and other hospital spaces. This study is focused on the deposition of biocide physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings on glazed ceramic tiles. The objective was to provide antibacterial activity to the surfaces without worsening their mechanical properties. Silver and copper-doped chromium nitride (CrN) and titanium nitride (TiN) coatings were deposited on samples of tiles. A complete characterization was carried out in order to determine the composition and structure of the coatings, as well as their topographical and mechanical properties. The distribution of Ag and Cu within the coating was analyzed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Roughness, microhardness, and scratch resistance were measured for all of the combinations of coatings and dopants, as well as their wettability. Finally, tests of antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were carried out, showing that all of the doped coatings had pronounced biocide activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Vapor Deposition)
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Open AccessArticle On the Importance of Combined Scratch/Acoustic Emission Test Evaluation: SiC and SiCN Thin Films Case Study
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050196
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
The scratch test, as probably the most widespread technique for assessment of the adhesive/cohesive properties of a film–substrate system, fully depends on reliable evaluation based on assessment of critical loads for systems’ failures. Traditionally used evaluation methods (depth change record and visual observation)
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The scratch test, as probably the most widespread technique for assessment of the adhesive/cohesive properties of a film–substrate system, fully depends on reliable evaluation based on assessment of critical loads for systems’ failures. Traditionally used evaluation methods (depth change record and visual observation) may sometimes give misleading conclusions about the failure dynamics, especially in the case of opaque films. Therefore, there is a need for another independent evaluation technique with the potential to complete the existing approaches. The nondestructive method of acoustic emission, which detects the elastic waves emitted during film cracking and delamination, can be regarded as a convenient candidate for such a role even at nano/micro scale. The strength of the combination of microscopic observation of the residual groove and depth change record with the acoustic emission detection system proved to be a robust and reliable approach in analyzing adhesion/cohesion properties of thin films. The dynamics of the gradual damage taking place during the nano/micro scratch test revealed by the combined approach is presented for SiC and SiCN thin films. Comparison of critical load values clearly reflects the higher ability of the AE approach in detecting the initial material failure compared to the visual observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings Tribology)
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Open AccessArticle Influences of Cr and Co on the Growth of Thermally Grown Oxide in Thermal Barrier Coating during High-Temperature Exposure
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050195
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Thermal barrier coating (TBC) is a critical material in the aerospace domain to increase the lifetime of gas turbine components subjected to thermal load. The properties of TBC are strongly related to the growth of thermally grown oxide (TGO) whose main constituent is
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Thermal barrier coating (TBC) is a critical material in the aerospace domain to increase the lifetime of gas turbine components subjected to thermal load. The properties of TBC are strongly related to the growth of thermally grown oxide (TGO) whose main constituent is Al2O3. However, the oxidation of Cr and Co can affect the growth of TGO, which is not studied sufficiently. In this paper, high-temperature exposure at 1000 °C was performed to investigate the effect of Cr and Co oxides on TGO growth. The morphology and composition analysis of the interface between the ceramic top coat and the bond coat (TC/BC) were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersion spectrum (EDS). The thermodynamics and kinetics of oxidation were analyzed. The results indicated that the oxidation kinetics basically followed the sub-parabolic law with exposure time. Additionally, the major factor affecting the formation of oxides was the diffusion rate at the initial stage of exposure, then oxides depended on thermodynamics, and the oxidation was influenced by both of them in the last stage. The major elements to be oxidized were different at different stages. Moreover, the replacement reaction of Cr2O3 and the phase conversion of Al2O3 resulted in thickness variations of the TGO and Al-depleted zone during high-temperature exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evolution of Calcareous Deposits and Passive Film on 304 Stainless Steel with Cathodic Polarization in Sea Water
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050194
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
The change of protective current density, the formation and growth of calcareous deposits, and the evolution of passive film on 304 stainless steel (SS) were investigated at different potentials of cathodic polarization in sea water. Potentiostatic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and surface
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The change of protective current density, the formation and growth of calcareous deposits, and the evolution of passive film on 304 stainless steel (SS) were investigated at different potentials of cathodic polarization in sea water. Potentiostatic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and surface analysis techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface conditions. It was found that the protective current density was smaller for keeping polarization at −0.80 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), same as below) than that at −0.65 V. The calcareous deposits could not be formed on 304 SS with polarization at −0.50 V while it was well protected. The formation rate, the morphology, and the constituent of the calcareous deposits depended on the applied potential. The resistance of passive film on 304 SS decreased at the first stage and then increased when polarized at −0.80 V and −0.65 V, which was related to the reduction and the repair of passive film. For the stainless steel polarized at −0.50 V, the film resistance increased with polarization time, indicating that the growth of oxide film was promoted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Corrosion Protection in Extreme Environments)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Annealing Treatment on Microstructure and Properties of Cr-Coatings Deposited on AISI 5140 Steel by Brush-Plating
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050193
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Cr-coating was deposited on AISI 5140 steel by electro brush-plating, followed by annealing treatment at different temperatures, from 300 to 1100 °C. The microstructure evolution of the Cr-coating was characterized by backscattered electron imaging (BSEI) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show
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Cr-coating was deposited on AISI 5140 steel by electro brush-plating, followed by annealing treatment at different temperatures, from 300 to 1100 °C. The microstructure evolution of the Cr-coating was characterized by backscattered electron imaging (BSEI) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the brush-plated sample has a nodular shaped microstructure, which is very stable at 300 °C of annealing. At 500 °C of annealing, the constitution of the microstructure changes from nodules to grains. As the annealing temperature further increases, the grains grow significantly. When the temperature reaches 1100 °C, a Cr-Fe solid-solution layer is formed within the original pure Cr-coatings. With increasing annealing temperature, the number of micro-cracks in the coating increases first and then decreases, reaching a maximum at 500 °C. The hardness and wear-resistance of the coating are improved when the annealing temperature increases to 1100 °C, owing to the decrease of micro-cracks that formed during brush-plating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coatings for Corrosion Protection in Extreme Environments)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Preparation of a Micro-Pyramid Structured Thin Film for Broadband Infrared Antireflection
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050192
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
A micro-pyramid structured thin film with a broad-band infrared antireflection property is designed and fabricated by using the single-point diamond turning (SPDT) technique and combined with nano-imprint lithography (NIL). A structure with dimensions of 10 μm pitch and 5 μm height is transferred
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A micro-pyramid structured thin film with a broad-band infrared antireflection property is designed and fabricated by using the single-point diamond turning (SPDT) technique and combined with nano-imprint lithography (NIL). A structure with dimensions of 10 μm pitch and 5 μm height is transferred from the copper mold to the silicon nitride optical film by using NIL and proportional inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) etching. Reflectance of the micro-optical surface is reduced below 1.0% over the infrared spectral range (800–2500 nm). A finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis indicates that this micro-structure can localize photons and enhance the absorption inside the micro-pyramid at long wavelengths. As described above, the micro-pyramid array has been integrated in an optical film successfully. Distinguishing from the traditional micro-optical components, considering the effect of refraction and diffraction, it is a valuable and flexible method to take account of the interference effect of optical film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Optical Thin Film Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Flow Rates and Density Matching on the Integrity of Solid Particles Coated by Water Phase Compound Droplets during the Transport Process
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050191
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
To achieve the integrity of solid particles coated by water phase (S/W/O) compound droplets, it is important to investigate the transport process of the compound droplets in the horizontal straight channel. The experimental results show that the integrity is significantly influenced by the
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To achieve the integrity of solid particles coated by water phase (S/W/O) compound droplets, it is important to investigate the transport process of the compound droplets in the horizontal straight channel. The experimental results show that the integrity is significantly influenced by the flow rates and density difference. The water (W) phase is observed to be peeled off from the surface of the particles (polystyrene (PS) shells), mainly caused by the slip velocity of the W phase and the density mismatching among three phases. During the peeling off process, a relative motion between the solid (S) and W phases initially occurs, causing a decrease of the distance (δ) between them, and then, the PS shell is driven to pass through the W/O interface under the action of drag force and net gravity. It is also found that increasing flow rates of both phases contributes to obtaining integrated compound droplets. A boundary that separates the integrated from damaged compound droplets also exits when the fluid properties are fixed. Above the line of the boundary, compound droplets with integrity are prepared. Moreover, the absolute optimum density matching between the S and W phases is less than 0.003 g/cm3, while that between the W and oil (O) phases is less than 0.005 g/cm3. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Stabilized SPEEK Membranes with a High Degree of Sulfonation for Enthalpy Heat Exchangers
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050190
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
In this investigation, we explored for the first time the use of cross-linked sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes in the fabrication of enthalpy heat exchangers. SPEEK is very sensitive to changes in relative humidity, especially when featuring high degrees of sulfonation
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In this investigation, we explored for the first time the use of cross-linked sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes in the fabrication of enthalpy heat exchangers. SPEEK is very sensitive to changes in relative humidity, especially when featuring high degrees of sulfonation (DS), though a poor mechanical stability may be observed in the latter case. Cross-linking is crucial in overcoming this issue, and here, we firstly employed the INCA method (ionomer counter-elastic pressure “nc” analysis) to assess the improvements in the mechanical properties. The cross-link was achieved following a simple thermal-assisted process that occurs directly on the performed membranes. After an initial screening, a degree of cross-link = 0.1 was selected as the better compromise between absorption of water vapor and mechanical properties. When implemented in the enthalpy heat exchanger system, these cross-linked SPEEK membranes enabled a high level of sensible heat exchange, as well as a remarkable variation in the mass (water vapor) transfer between the individual air flows. The performances resulted in being better than those for the system based on a benchmark commercially available perfluorinated Nafion membrane. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparing Colorfastness to Light of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigments and Commercial Dyes: An Alternative Light Test Method for Color Fastness
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050189
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Colorfastness to light is an essential quality for textiles exposed to sunlight for a significant length of time. In this study, the colorfastness (specifically to light) of fabrics dyed with wood-staining (spalting) fungal pigments was compared to the colorfastness of commercial dyes. A
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Colorfastness to light is an essential quality for textiles exposed to sunlight for a significant length of time. In this study, the colorfastness (specifically to light) of fabrics dyed with wood-staining (spalting) fungal pigments was compared to the colorfastness of commercial dyes. A short-duration immersion dying method without heat was used to minimize both water and energy usage. Both mordanted and unmordanted fabrics were tested and compared for colorfastness. Additionally, a new method of testing for colorfastness to light was developed. Results indicate that the wood-staining fungal pigments demonstrate superior colorfastness to light over commercial dyes when the employed dyeing method is used. Additionally, the colorfastness to light testing method developed using the L-2 Blue Wool Standard and QUV Accelerated Weathering Machine is a viable alternative to current standard colorfastness to light testing methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Coating Film Parameters on Thermal and Stress Distributions of Glass-Based Phosphor-Converted Color Wheels
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050188
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
To protect the environment, the use of mercury tubes has been prohibited in Europe since 2000. As an alternative, phosphor-doped silicone resin wheels have been used to convert blue-ray laser diodes. However, high-temperature photonic decay and cracking on the lens surface significantly degrade
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To protect the environment, the use of mercury tubes has been prohibited in Europe since 2000. As an alternative, phosphor-doped silicone resin wheels have been used to convert blue-ray laser diodes. However, high-temperature photonic decay and cracking on the lens surface significantly degrade transmission. Recent research has explored the possibility of replacing the silicone encapsulant material of the phosphor layer with glass. In this study, the thermal effects of a glass-based phosphor-converted color wheel (GP wheel) and a silicone-based phosphor-converted color wheel (SP wheel) were investigated using various parameters and geometries. A thermal-structural coupling finite element (FE) model of the color wheels was employed to simulate the thermal and stress distributions. To construct the FE model, experiments were conducted and the inverse engineering approach was employed to extract the optical-to-heat conversion coefficient and the heat convection coefficient. In addition, an arc-shaped moving input heat flux was used to simulate a moving laser input and reduce the calculation time of the FE model. Based on the numerical and experimental results, the FE model developed can simulate the steady/transient behavior of the resin and the GP wheel. In addition, the results reveal that thermal failures of the SP wheel are very likely to occur under all parameters employed in this study, whereas the maximum temperature of the GP wheel reaches only approximately 40% of the glass transition temperature. The numerical results indicate that the GP wheel may be useful for overcoming all of these thermal disadvantages in a high-power laser-lit projector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Lamellar Interface Morphology on Cracking Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050187
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Splat morphology is an important factor that influences the mechanical properties and durability of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In this study, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with different lamellar interface morphologies were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) using feedstocks with different particle sizes.
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Splat morphology is an important factor that influences the mechanical properties and durability of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In this study, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with different lamellar interface morphologies were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) using feedstocks with different particle sizes. The influence of lamellar interface roughness on the cracking resistance of the coatings was investigated. Furthermore, the thermal shock and erosion resistance of coatings deposited by two different powders was evaluated. It was found that the particle size of the feedstock powder affects the stacking morphology of the splat that forms the coating. Coatings fabricated from coarse YSZ powders (45–60 μm) show a relatively rough inter-lamellar surface, with a roughness about 3 times greater than those faricated from fine powders (15–25 μm). Coatings prepared with fine powders tend to form large cracks parallel to the substrate direction under indentation, while no cracking phenomena were found in coatings prepared with coarse powders. Due to the higher cracking resistance, coatings prepared with coarse powders show better thermal shock and erosion resistances than those with fine powders. The results of this study provide a reference for the design and optimization of the microstructure of TBCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings for Harsh Environments)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Aluminium Film Adhesion on PMMA Using Pre-Layer and Specific Annealing
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050186
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
During the electron beam evaporation for deposition of an aluminium film, high-speed electrons decelerate when they bombard the material and part of the electron energy contributes to radiation. Due to the high sensitivity of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to such radiation (in UV), the
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During the electron beam evaporation for deposition of an aluminium film, high-speed electrons decelerate when they bombard the material and part of the electron energy contributes to radiation. Due to the high sensitivity of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to such radiation (in UV), the PMMA surface is degraded. This results in a weak surface of PMMA layer and decreases film adhesion. Based on the film interface adhesion mechanism and the relationship between film structure and stress, this research proposed and investigated a method for producing high quality Al reflective thin film on a PMMA surface with good adhesion. This was done by depositing a pre-layer of 20 nm Al using resistant evaporation to protect the PMMA surface from radiation damage, followed by the deposition of 80 nm Al using e-beam evaporation with ion assisted deposition. Using this method, an average reflectance of 88.6% was achieved in the wavelength range of 400–800 nm. The elastic modulus and hardness were tested by nanoindentation for the calculation of the thermal stress of the film. Adhesion was tested using the pressure strip peeling test and meets the military national standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Optical Thin Film Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Corrosion Resistance of Pipeline Steel with Damaged Enamel Coating and Cathodic Protection
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050185
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents the first report on the corrosion resistance of pipeline steel with damaged enamel coating and cathodic protection in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. In particular, dual cells are set up to separate the solution in contact with the damaged and
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This paper presents the first report on the corrosion resistance of pipeline steel with damaged enamel coating and cathodic protection in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. In particular, dual cells are set up to separate the solution in contact with the damaged and intact enamel coating areas, to produce a local corrosion resistance measurement for the first time. Enamel-coated steel samples, with two levels of cathodic protection, are tested to investigate their impedance by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and their cathodic current demand by a potentiostatic test. Due to its glass transition temperature, the enamel-coated pipeline can be operated on at temperatures up to 400 °C. The electrochemical tests show that cathodic protection (CP) can decelerate the degradation process of intact coating and delay the electrochemical reactions at the enamel-steel interface. However, CP has little effect on the performance of coating once damaged and can prevent the exposed steel from corrosion around the damaged site, as verified by visual inspections. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated no delamination at the damaged enamel–steel interface due to their chemical bond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings for Harsh Environments)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrophilic Self-Replenishing Coatings with Long-Term Water Stability for Anti-Fouling Applications
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050184
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
Hydrophilic coatings have recently emerged as a new approach to avoiding the adhesion of (bio)organisms on surfaces immersed in water. In these coatings the hydrophilic character is crucial for the anti-fouling (AF) performance. However, this property can be rapidly lost due to the
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Hydrophilic coatings have recently emerged as a new approach to avoiding the adhesion of (bio)organisms on surfaces immersed in water. In these coatings the hydrophilic character is crucial for the anti-fouling (AF) performance. However, this property can be rapidly lost due to the inevitable damages which occur at the surface, reducing the long-term effectiveness of the AF functionality. We report hydrophilic polycarbonate-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG) polyurethane coatings with tunable hydrophilic properties as well as an excellent and long-term stability in water. The coatings exhibit low protein adhesion values and are able to self-replenish their hydrophilicity after damage, due to the existence of a reservoir of hydrophilic dangling chains incorporated in the bulk. The combination of low Tg and sufficient mobility of the mPEG dangling chains (enabled by chains with higher molecular weight) proved to be crucial to ensure autonomous surface hydrophilicity recovery when the coatings were immersed in water. This coatings and design approach offers new possibilities towards high-performance AF coatings with an extended service life-time which can be used in several major applications areas, such as marine and biomedical coatings, with major economic and environmental benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Self-Healing Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Semitransparent Decorative Coatings Based on Optical Interference of Metallic and Dielectric Thin Films for High Temperature Applications
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050183
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper introduces a thin film multilayer structure composed of dielectric and metallic layers that allows for a wide range of aesthetic appearances using the phenomenon of optical interference. In addition, this multilayer structure allows the reflection and transmission coefficients to be controlled
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This paper introduces a thin film multilayer structure composed of dielectric and metallic layers that allows for a wide range of aesthetic appearances using the phenomenon of optical interference. In addition, this multilayer structure allows the reflection and transmission coefficients to be controlled independently. The application of these decorative coatings to induction stoves is also studied. The aim is to provide an attractive aesthetic appearance for the transparent glass-ceramic, and allow the visualization of blue and white lighting systems. Moreover, degradation of these decorative coatings is studied at high temperatures, so as to ensure that the coating does not change its aesthetic appearance during normal operation of the stove. It has been found to be necessary to use dielectric materials with low diffusion coefficients of oxygen, or not containing oxygen, to prevent oxidation of the metal layers when subjecting the coating to high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Optical Thin Film Coatings)
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