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Water, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In order to identify regularities in the development of the 2 proglacial troughs located on the [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Why and How Do We Study Sediment Transport? Focus on Coastal Zones and Ongoing Methods
Water 2018, 10(4), 390; doi:10.3390/w10040390
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Scientific research on sediment dynamics in the coastal zone and along the littoral zone has evolved considerably over the last four decades. It benefits from a technological revolution that provides the community with cheaper or free tools for in situ study (e.g., sensors,
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Scientific research on sediment dynamics in the coastal zone and along the littoral zone has evolved considerably over the last four decades. It benefits from a technological revolution that provides the community with cheaper or free tools for in situ study (e.g., sensors, gliders), remote sensing (satellite data, video cameras, drones) or modelling (open source models). These changes favour the transfer of developed methods to monitoring and management services. On the other hand, scientific research is increasingly targeted by public authorities towards finalized studies in relation to societal issues. Shoreline vulnerability is an object of concern that grows after each marine submersion or intense erosion event. Thus, during the last four decades, the production of knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics has evolved considerably, and is in tune with the needs of society. This editorial aims at synthesizing the current revolution in the scientific research related to coastal and littoral hydrosedimentary dynamics, putting into perspective connections between coasts and other geomorphological entities concerned by sediment transport, showing the links between many fragmented approaches of the topic, and introducing the papers published in the special issue of Water on “Sediment transport in coastal waters”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Advanced Hydroinformatic Techniques for the Simulation and Analysis of Water Supply and Distribution Systems
Water 2018, 10(4), 440; doi:10.3390/w10040440
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
This document is intended to be a presentation of the Special Issue “Advanced Hydroinformatic Techniques for the Simulation and Analysis of Water Supply and Distribution Systems”. The final aim of this Special Issue is to propose a suitable framework supporting insightful hydraulic mechanisms
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This document is intended to be a presentation of the Special Issue “Advanced Hydroinformatic Techniques for the Simulation and Analysis of Water Supply and Distribution Systems”. The final aim of this Special Issue is to propose a suitable framework supporting insightful hydraulic mechanisms to aid the decision-making processes of water utility managers and practitioners. Its 18 peer-reviewed articles present as varied topics as: water distribution system design, optimization of network performance assessment, monitoring and diagnosis of pressure pipe systems, optimal water quality management, and modelling and forecasting water demand. Overall, these articles explore new research avenues on urban hydraulics and hydroinformatics, showing to be of great value for both Academia and those water utility stakeholders. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Epibenthic Communities on Artificial Reefs in Greece, Mediterranean Sea
Water 2018, 10(4), 347; doi:10.3390/w10040347
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
The marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean are in alarming condition due to the complex and cumulative impacts of anthropogenic activities and natural disturbances. Management, conservation, and restoration of resources in these impacted ecosystems are among the priorities set by Mediterranean countries. Artificial reefs
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The marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean are in alarming condition due to the complex and cumulative impacts of anthropogenic activities and natural disturbances. Management, conservation, and restoration of resources in these impacted ecosystems are among the priorities set by Mediterranean countries. Artificial reefs (ARs) are one of the countermeasures widely promoted. The present study describes the hard substrate epibenthic communities found on three ARs (Ierisssos, Kalymnos, and Preveza) located in the Aegean and Ionian Seas (Greece). Samples were collected from the ARs seasonally (four times/year), during 2013 and 2014. Overall, 117 species were identified and a multivariate analysis showed that each area holds a distinct diversity. Serpulid polychaetes dominate Ierissos and Preveza communities, while gastropods were identified as the prevailing taxa in Kalymnos. No seasonal effects were detected, suggesting “stability” and good adaptation of the communities to the local environmental conditions. Salinity was found to affect the community structure. The results of this study illustrate the need for comparative research on ecological processes under contrasting environmental abiotic and biotic local conditions affecting epibenthic communities. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Assessing Aquifer Salinization with Multiple Techniques along the Southern Caspian Sea Shore (Iran)
Water 2018, 10(4), 348; doi:10.3390/w10040348
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
This study focuses on the salinization of the coastal aquifer in the Mazandaran Province (Iran) within four different sites. Many factors can lead to declining groundwater quality, but this study focuses on the seawater intrusion area. Therefore, locating the interface between saltwater and
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This study focuses on the salinization of the coastal aquifer in the Mazandaran Province (Iran) within four different sites. Many factors can lead to declining groundwater quality, but this study focuses on the seawater intrusion area. Therefore, locating the interface between saltwater and freshwater is very important. For this purpose, three characterization methods with different accuracies have been employed: the Verruijt equation, vertical resistivity sounding, and an electromagnetic survey. Vertical resistivity sounding and the electromagnetic survey were performed near existing exploration boreholes and were used to determine the saltwater interface. The results showed that the Verruijt equation provides a reliable localization in two of the sites, but in the other two sites, the determined interface is lower than the observed data. The geoelectrical method showed acceptable results, but often this method cannot distinguish between the saltwater and saline aquitard boundary. The electromagnetic method showed a high accuracy in all the study sites and proved to be the most reliable method compared with the other techniques employed in this study. The results from this study are useful in helping to identify the most suitable technique for locating the freshwater/saltwater interface, especially in those sites where a detailed characterization via multilevel sampling is not feasible for technical or economic reasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salinization of Coastal Aquifer Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Water Use for Agricultural Intensification in Southern Amazonia Using the Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment
Water 2018, 10(4), 349; doi:10.3390/w10040349
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
We performed a Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment (WFSA) in the Xingu Basin of Mato Grosso (XBMT), Brazil, with the objectives of (1) tracking blue (as surface water) and green water (as soil moisture regenerated by precipitation) consumption in recent years (2000, 2014); and
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We performed a Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment (WFSA) in the Xingu Basin of Mato Grosso (XBMT), Brazil, with the objectives of (1) tracking blue (as surface water) and green water (as soil moisture regenerated by precipitation) consumption in recent years (2000, 2014); and (2) evaluating agricultural intensification options for future years (2030, 2050) considering the effects of deforestation and climate change on water availability in the basin. The agricultural sector was the largest consumer of water in the basin despite there being almost no irrigation of cropland or pastures. In addition to water use by crops and pasture grass, water consumption attributed to cattle production included evaporation from roughly 9463 ha of small farm reservoirs used to provide drinking water for cattle in 2014. The WFSA showed that while blue and green water consumptive uses were within sustainable limits in 2014, deforestation, cattle confinement, and the use of irrigation to increase cropping frequency could drive water use to unsustainable levels in the future. While land management policies and practices should strive for protection of the remaining natural vegetation, increased agricultural production will require reservoir and irrigation water management to reduce the potential threat of blue water scarcity in the dry season. In addition to providing general guidance for future water allocation decisions in the basin, our study offers an interpretation of blue and green water scarcities with changes in land use and climate in a rapidly evolving agricultural frontier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Water Footprint Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Synoptic and Climate Attributions of the December 2015 Extreme Flooding in Missouri, USA
Water 2018, 10(4), 350; doi:10.3390/w10040350
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
Three days of extreme rainfall in late December 2015 in the middle of the Mississippi River led to severe flooding in Missouri. The meteorological context of this event was analyzed through synoptic diagnosis into the atmospheric circulation that contributed to the precipitation event’s
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Three days of extreme rainfall in late December 2015 in the middle of the Mississippi River led to severe flooding in Missouri. The meteorological context of this event was analyzed through synoptic diagnosis into the atmospheric circulation that contributed to the precipitation event’s severity. The midlatitude synoptic waves that induced the extreme precipitation and ensuing flooding were traced to the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), which amplified the trans-Pacific Rossby wave train likely associated with the strong El Niño of December 2015. Though the near-historical El Niño contributed to a quasi-stationary trough over the western U.S. that induced the high precipitation event, an interference between the MJO and El Niño teleconnections resulted in a relatively weak atmospheric signature of the El Niño in comparison to that of the MJO. The influence of anthropogenic climate change on the relationship between ENSO and precipitation across several central U.S. states was also investigated using 17 CMIP5 models from the historical single-forcing experiments. A regime change in ENSO-related precipitation anomalies appears to have occurred, from being negatively correlated before 1950 to positive and significantly correlated after 1970, suggesting a likely effect of anthropogenic warming on the December 2015 extreme precipitation event. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle Removal of Chloramphenicol from Aqueous Solution Using Low-Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Typha orientalis
Water 2018, 10(4), 351; doi:10.3390/w10040351
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Low-cost and efficient activated carbon (AC) was prepared from Typha orientalis via phosphoric acid activation for chloramphenicol (CAP) removal. The adsorption capacity and mechanisms of CAP on AC were investigated. The physicochemical properties of AC were characterized by an N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm,
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Low-cost and efficient activated carbon (AC) was prepared from Typha orientalis via phosphoric acid activation for chloramphenicol (CAP) removal. The adsorption capacity and mechanisms of CAP on AC were investigated. The physicochemical properties of AC were characterized by an N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, elemental analysis, Boehm’s titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of experimental parameters were investigated to study the adsorption behaviors of CAP on AC, including contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength, and initial pH. AC had a micro-mesoporous structure with a relatively large surface area (794.8 m2/g). The respective contents of acidic and basic functional groups on AC were 2.078 and 0.995 mmol/g. The adsorption kinetic that was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model implied a chemical controlling step. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum CAP adsorption capacity was 0.424 mmol/g. The ionic strength and pH had minimal effects on CAP adsorption. The dominant CAP adsorption mechanisms on AC were evaluated and attributed to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, hydrophobic interaction, in conjunction with hydrogen-bonding interaction. Additionally, AC exhibited an efficient adsorption performance of CAP in a realistic water environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Water Management and Reuse)
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Open AccessArticle Physical Model-Based Investigation of Reservoir Sedimentation Processes
Water 2018, 10(4), 352; doi:10.3390/w10040352
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water
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Sedimentation is a serious problem in the operations of reservoirs. In Taiwan, the situation became worse after the Chi-Chi Earthquake recorded on 21 September 1999. The sediment trap efficiency in several regional reservoirs has been sharply increased, adversely affecting the operations on water supplies. According to the field record, the average annual sediment deposition observed in several regional reservoirs in Taiwan has been increased. For instance, the typhoon event recorded in 2008 at the Wushe Reservoir, Taiwan, produced a 3 m sediment deposit upstream of the dam. The remaining storage capacity in the Wushe Reservoir was reduced to 35.9% or a volume of 53.79 million m3 for flood water detention in 2010. It is urgent that research should be conducted to understand the sediment movement in the Wushe Reservoir. In this study, a scale physical model was built to reproduce the flood flow through the reservoir, investigate the long-term depositional pattern, and evaluate sediment trap efficiency. This allows us to estimate the residual life of the reservoir by proposing a modification of Brune’s method. It can be presented to predict the lifespan of Taiwan reservoirs due to higher applicability in both the physical model and the observed data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Hydrology, Erosion and Sediment Transport Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Meander Confinement on Hydro-Morphodynamics of a Cohesive Meandering Channel
Water 2018, 10(4), 354; doi:10.3390/w10040354
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Despite several decades of intensive study of the morphological changes in meandering rivers, less attention has been paid to confined meanders. This paper studies the hydro-morphodynamics of two adjacent sub-reaches of a meandering creek, located in the City of Ottawa, Canada. Both of
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Despite several decades of intensive study of the morphological changes in meandering rivers, less attention has been paid to confined meanders. This paper studies the hydro-morphodynamics of two adjacent sub-reaches of a meandering creek, located in the City of Ottawa, Canada. Both of these sub-reaches are meandering channels with cohesive bed and banks, but one is confined by a railway embankment. Field reconnaissance revealed distinct differences in the morphological characteristics of the sub-reaches. To further study this, channel migration and morphological changes of the channel banks along each of these sub-reaches were analyzed by comparing the historical aerial photography (2004, 2014), light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data (2006), bathymetric data obtained from a total station survey (2014), and field examination. Moreover, two different spatially intensive acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) surveys were conducted in the study area to find the linkage between the hydrodynamics and morphological changes in the two different sub-reaches. The unconfined sub-reach is shown to have a typical channel migration pattern with deposition on the inner bank and erosion on the outer bank of the meander bend. The confined sub-reach, on the other hand, experienced greater bank instabilities than the unconfined sub-reach. The average rate of bank retreat was 0.2 m/year in the confined sub-reach whereas it was lower (0.08 m/year) in the unconfined sampling reach. In the confined sub-reach, an irregular meandering pattern occurred by the evolution of a concave-bank bench, which was caused by reverse flow eddies. The sinuosity of the confined sub-reach decreased from 1.55 to 1.49 in the 10-year study period. The results of the present study demonstrate the physical mechanisms by which meander confinement can change the meandering pattern and morphological characteristics of a cohesive clay bed creek. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nitrate Attenuation in Degraded Peat Soil-Based Constructed Wetlands
Water 2018, 10(4), 355; doi:10.3390/w10040355
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Constructed wetlands (CWs) provide favorable conditions for removing nitrate from polluted agricultural runoff via heterotrophic denitrification. Although the general operability of CWs has been shown in previous studies, the suitability of peat soils as a bed medium for a vertical flow through a
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Constructed wetlands (CWs) provide favorable conditions for removing nitrate from polluted agricultural runoff via heterotrophic denitrification. Although the general operability of CWs has been shown in previous studies, the suitability of peat soils as a bed medium for a vertical flow through a system for nitrate attenuation has not been proven to date. In this study, a mesocosm experiment was conducted under continuous flow with conditions aiming to quantify nitrate (NO3) removal efficiency in degraded peat soils. Input solution of NO3 was supplied at three different concentrations (65, 100, and 150 mg/L). Pore water samples were collected at different depths and analyzed for NO3, pH, and dissolved N2O concentrations. The redox potential (Eh) was registered at different depths. The results showed that the median NO3-N removal rate was 1.20 g/(m2·day) and the median removal efficiency was calculated as 63.5%. The nitrate removal efficiency was affected by the NO3 supply load, flow rate, and environmental boundary conditions. A higher NO3 removal efficiency was observed at an input NO3 concentration of 100 mg/L, a lower flow rate, and higher temperature. The results of pore water pH and NO3 and N2O levels from the bottom of the mesocosm suggest that N2 is the dominant denitrification product. Thus, degraded peat soils showed the potential to serve as a substrate for the clean-up of nitrate-laden agricultural runoff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Impacts of Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise on Seawater Intrusion in a Coastal Aquifer
Water 2018, 10(4), 357; doi:10.3390/w10040357
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
The objectives of this study were to assess the climate change impacts on sea-level rise (SLR) and freshwater recharge rates and to investigate these SLR and freshwater recharge rates on seawater intrusion in coastal groundwater systems through the Saturated-Unsaturated Transport (SUTRA) model. The
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The objectives of this study were to assess the climate change impacts on sea-level rise (SLR) and freshwater recharge rates and to investigate these SLR and freshwater recharge rates on seawater intrusion in coastal groundwater systems through the Saturated-Unsaturated Transport (SUTRA) model. The Gunsan tide gauge station data were used to project SLR based on polynomial regressions. Freshwater recharge rates were assumed as 10% of the projected annual precipitation under climate change. The Byeonsan2 groundwater monitoring well for seawater intrusion was selected for the study. A total of 15 scenarios, including the baseline period (2005–2015), were made based on SLR projections and estimated freshwater recharge rates. The changes in salinity relative to the baseline at the monitoring well for each scenario were investigated through the SUTRA model. From the scenario of 0.57 m SLR with a freshwater recharge rate of 0.0058 kg s−1, the largest salinity increase (40.3%) was simulated. We concluded that this study may provide a better understanding of the climate change impacts on seawater intrusion by considering both SLR and freshwater recharge rates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flow Velocity Effects on Fe(III) Clogging during Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Urban Storm Water
Water 2018, 10(4), 358; doi:10.3390/w10040358
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Storm water harvesting and storage has been employed for nearly a hundred years, and using storm water to recharge aquifers is one of the most important ways to relieve water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions. However, it cannot be widely adopted because
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Storm water harvesting and storage has been employed for nearly a hundred years, and using storm water to recharge aquifers is one of the most important ways to relieve water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions. However, it cannot be widely adopted because of clogging problems. The risk of chemical clogging is mostly associated with iron oxyhydroxide precipitation; anhydrous ferric oxide (HFO) clogging remains a problem in many wellfields. This paper investigates Fe(III) clogging levels at three flow velocities (Darcy velocities, 0.46, 1.62 and 4.55 m/d). The results indicate that clogging increases with flow velocity, and is mostly affected by the first 0–3 cm of the column. The highest water velocity caused full clogging in 35 h, whereas the lowest took 53 h to reach an stable 60% reduction in hydraulic conductivity. For the high flow velocity, over 90% of the HFO was deposited in the 0–1 cm section. In contrast, the lowest flow velocity deposited only 75% in this section. Fe(III) deposition was used as an approximation for Fe(OH)3. High flow velocity may promote Fe(OH)3 flocculent precipitate, thus increasing Fe(III) deposition. The main mechanism for a porous matrix interception of Fe(III) colloidal particles was surface filtration. Thus, the effects of deposition, clogging phenomena, and physicochemical mechanisms, are more significant at higher velocities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling via Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle Copula-Based Stochastic Simulation for Regional Drought Risk Assessment in South Korea
Water 2018, 10(4), 359; doi:10.3390/w10040359
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
In South Korea, meteorological droughts are becoming frequently-occurring phenomena in different parts of the country, because precipitation varies significantly in both space and time. In this study, the quantiles of four identified homogeneous regions were estimated by incorporating major drought variables (e.g., duration
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In South Korea, meteorological droughts are becoming frequently-occurring phenomena in different parts of the country, because precipitation varies significantly in both space and time. In this study, the quantiles of four identified homogeneous regions were estimated by incorporating major drought variables (e.g., duration and severity) based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The regional frequency analysis of drought was performed by evaluating a variety of probability distributions and copulas, using graphical comparisons and goodness-of-fit test statistics. Results indicate that the Pearson type III (PE3) and Kappa marginal distributions, as well as Gaussian and Frank copulas, are better able to simulate the drought variables across the region. Bivariate stochastic simulation of selected copulas showed that the behavior of simulated data may change when the degree of association (e.g., Kendall’s τ) between the drought variables was considered. Results showed that the south-west coast and east coastal areas are under high drought risk, and inland mid-latitude areas (surrounding areas of Yeongju station) and northwest parts are under low drought risk. The joint distributions were used to compute conditional probabilities, as well as primary, secondary, and conditional return periods, which can be useful for designing and managing water demand and the supply system on a regional scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Grain Size Distribution of Bedload Transport in a Glaciated Catchment (Baranowski Glacier, King George Island, Western Antarctica)
Water 2018, 10(4), 360; doi:10.3390/w10040360
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The relationships among grain size distribution (GSD), water discharge, and GSD parameters are investigated to identify regularities in the evolution of two gravel-bed proglacial troughs: Fosa Creek and Siodło Creek. In addition, the potential application of certain parameters obtained from the GSD analysis
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The relationships among grain size distribution (GSD), water discharge, and GSD parameters are investigated to identify regularities in the evolution of two gravel-bed proglacial troughs: Fosa Creek and Siodło Creek. In addition, the potential application of certain parameters obtained from the GSD analysis for the assessment of the formation stage of both creeks is comprehensively discussed. To achieve these goals, River Bedload Traps (RBTs) were used to collect the bedload, and a sieving method for dry material was applied to obtain the GSDs. Statistical comparisons between both streams showed significant differences in flow velocity; however, the lack of significant differences in bedload transport clearly indicated that meteorological conditions are among the most important factors in the erosive process for this catchment. In particular, the instability of flow conditions during high water discharge resulted in an increase in the proportion of medium and coarse gravels. The poorly sorted fine and very fine gravels observed in Siodło Creek suggest that this trough is more susceptible to erosion and less stabilized than Fosa Creek. The results suggest that GSD analyses can be used to define the stage of development of riverbeds relative to that of other riverbeds in polar regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Practice of Erosion and Sediment Transport under Change)
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Open AccessArticle Diversity and Structure of the Tychoplankton Diatom Community in the Limnocrene Spring Zelenci (Slovenia) in Relation to Environmental Factors
Water 2018, 10(4), 361; doi:10.3390/w10040361
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The influence of selected factors on the diversity and composition of tychoplanktonic diatom community in limnocrene spring Zelenci was investigated. The spring that was studied is located in a glacial valley in the south-eastern calcareous Alps. Samples of tychoplankton were collected with a
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The influence of selected factors on the diversity and composition of tychoplanktonic diatom community in limnocrene spring Zelenci was investigated. The spring that was studied is located in a glacial valley in the south-eastern calcareous Alps. Samples of tychoplankton were collected with a plankton net between October 2012 and August 2015 and for each sample, selected abiotic factors were measured. Over 100 different diatom species were identified, the most abundant being Achnanthidium minutissimum and Denticula tenuis. The most species-rich genera were Navicula, Fragilaria, Nitzschia, Cymbella and Gomphonema. The most significant impact on species composition of tychoplanktonic diatom community was from the conductivity of the water and the consecutive number of the month. Diversity was correlated negatively with concentration of orthophosphate and positively with pH and water level. Benthic species from the low profile ecological group dominated the tychoplankton community, with a share of 30–72%. High profile and motile species characteristic for benthos reached higher shares on average than euplanktonic species. This indicates the essential role of underwater springs in the maintenance of a species-rich tychoplanktonic community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Risk Assessment of River Water Pollution Based on a Modified Non-Linear Model
Water 2018, 10(4), 362; doi:10.3390/w10040362
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The water resource system is a non-linear system, featuring variability and randomness. Its risk assessment is very different from that of a linear system. Considering the effects of river flow on the pollutant diffusion, migration, and maximum tolerable concentration, a modified non-linear model
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The water resource system is a non-linear system, featuring variability and randomness. Its risk assessment is very different from that of a linear system. Considering the effects of river flow on the pollutant diffusion, migration, and maximum tolerable concentration, a modified non-linear model (MNLM) was established, while the forcing terms were introduced to model functions for water pollution risk assessment. Taking the Weihe River Basin in China as an example, the risk assessment values were divided into five levels: negligible risk, acceptable risk, marginal risk, unacceptable risk, and catastrophic risk. As such, the risk variation of the river pollution interval was analyzed. The results showed that the BOD5, COD, and nitrite nitrogen are the main pollutants, leading to great risks of river water pollution. Moreover, it was found that the risk in the dry season is higher than that in the flood season, while the risk based on MNLM is 10.9% higher than that of linear methods. Verification indicates that MNLM is considered more suitable for risk assessment of complex river water pollution. However, the forcing term coefficient should be corrected for actual situations in different river water systems. The explored MNLM is expected to give insights into regional river water environment management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle A Linear Programming Approach to Water Allocation during a Drought
Water 2018, 10(4), 363; doi:10.3390/w10040363
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The economic impacts of a drought depend critically on how water is allocated to different users. Choices as to water allocation can often reflect wider economic policy, environmental, and social goals and constraints. This research applies a multi-objective linear programming input-output method to
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The economic impacts of a drought depend critically on how water is allocated to different users. Choices as to water allocation can often reflect wider economic policy, environmental, and social goals and constraints. This research applies a multi-objective linear programming input-output method to determine a suite of water supply allocations for different economic sectors in a drought. Using the UK as a case study, we develop estimates of the minimum potential economic impact associated with different water allocations under a range of climate and policy scenarios. Estimates of total impact range from −0.16% to −1.48% of total output depending on the drought scenarios tested. The approach offers the flexibility to set different policy objectives in terms of water allocations/restrictions, employment or a range of other objectives, including constraints to rebalance the economic system. In allowing for the inclusion of other economic, social, and environmental constraints, it provides a framework for policymakers to assess how water allocation decisions interact with other policy goals to determine the economic impacts of a drought. Challenging decisions about how to allocate water during a drought are likely to remain important in the future. Full article
Open AccessArticle Rainfall and Temperature in the Limpopo River Basin, Southern Africa: Means, Variations, and Trends from 1979 to 2013
Water 2018, 10(4), 364; doi:10.3390/w10040364
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Understanding temporal and spatial characteristics of regional climate is essential for decision making in water resource management. Established statistical and GIS techniques were used to evaluate annual and seasonal variations of rainfall and temperature in time and space from 1979 to 2013 in
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Understanding temporal and spatial characteristics of regional climate is essential for decision making in water resource management. Established statistical and GIS techniques were used to evaluate annual and seasonal variations of rainfall and temperature in time and space from 1979 to 2013 in the Limpopo River Basin (LRB). Annual means of rainfall in the LRB varied between 160 and 1109 mm, generally from west to east of the basin during the study period. Annual minimum and maximum temperature ranged from 8 °C in the south to 20 °C in the east of the basin, and 23 °C in the south of the basin to 32 °C in the east. The respective coefficients of variation (CVs) of these variables showed an inverse pattern to the annual values, with rainfall having high CV values (28% to 70% from east to west of the basin) compared to temperature CV values. Seasonal variations followed similar patterns as annual variations for the individual variables examined. Trend analysis showed upward trends for both annual and seasonal rainfall in most parts of the basin, except for the winter season which showed a decreasing trend. Analysis of minimum temperature on an annual basis and for the winter season and spring season shows upward trends during the study period over the whole basin while minimum temperature for summer and autumn showed decreasing trends. Maximum temperature, by contrast, showed decreasing trends on an annual, summer, autumn, and spring basis but an increasing trend for winter during the study period in most parts of the basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Reclaimed Water Irrigation on Microbial Diversity and Composition of Soil with Reducing Nitrogen Fertilization
Water 2018, 10(4), 365; doi:10.3390/w10040365
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Reclaimed water (RW) is an alternative water resource that has been utilized all over the world, but its environmental effects are not fully understood. Soil biodiversity is an important indicator of soil tolerance and resilience. In the present study, the impact of RW
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Reclaimed water (RW) is an alternative water resource that has been utilized all over the world, but its environmental effects are not fully understood. Soil biodiversity is an important indicator of soil tolerance and resilience. In the present study, the impact of RW irrigation on the microbial community diversity and chemical properties of topsoil was investigated by monitoring nitrogen (N) rates. Tomato plants were grown on plots which had been irrigated with reclaimed water for 5 years with varying levels of N fertilization (N270, 270 kg ha−1; N216, 216 kg ha−1; N189, 189 kg ha−1; and N135, 135 kg ha−1). Soil bacterial community composition was analyzed by PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA gene and Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology of a total of 770,066 quality sequences. The results showed that long-term RW irrigation altered the bacterial composition of soil in an N-dependent manner. RW irrigation increased the abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Nitrospirae in soils. The Chao, ACE, and H indices revealed no significant difference under RW irrigation with varying levels of N fertilization. The tomato yield and partial factor productivity from applied N for RN216 increased significantly under RW irrigation with reducing N fertilization. RW irrigation increased the yield of tomato and the abundance of functional microorganisms, which eventually improved the practice of irrigating with reclaimed municipal wastewater. Meanwhile, the potential environmental and health risks of long-term RW irrigation warrant further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Variation of Nutrient Concentrations in the Upper Shule River Basin, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China
Water 2018, 10(4), 366; doi:10.3390/w10040366
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to understand the spatiotemporal variation of nutrient concentrations in stream water, using analyses of total nitrogen (TN), NO3-N, NH4+-N and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations from April to October in 2016 in the upper Shule
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This study aimed to understand the spatiotemporal variation of nutrient concentrations in stream water, using analyses of total nitrogen (TN), NO3-N, NH4+-N and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations from April to October in 2016 in the upper Shule River basin in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO3-N + NH4+-N) concentrations in both groundwater and stream water were the predominant form of TN, accounting for about 88%. Median concentrations in stream water were 815 μg L−1 for TN, 459 μg L−1 for NO3-N, 253 μg L−1 for NH4+-N, and 25 μg L−1 for TP. Great spatiotemporal variations of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in stream water were observed, which likely resulted from varying recharge sources (snow and groundwater) and biogeochemical processes. Monthly variations in nutrient concentrations in stream water had a reciprocal pattern between nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Our results demonstrated that the quality of steam water in the upper reach of Shule River basin was basically good for drinking purposes according to the environmental quality standards for surface water, China. The results also improved our understanding of how nutrient concentrations varied in stream water and provided baseline information for future studies on nutrients in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Advanced 3D Mapping of Hydrodynamic Parameters for the Analysis of Complex Flow Motions in a Submerged Bedrock Canyon of the Tocantins River, Brazil
Water 2018, 10(4), 367; doi:10.3390/w10040367
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Validation and scaling of sophisticated physical and numerical fluvial hydraulic models to real field conditions are limited by temporal and spatial constraints of field measurement technologies. These limitations increase when analyzing hydraulic properties of complex river forms such as submerged bedrock canyons. The
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Validation and scaling of sophisticated physical and numerical fluvial hydraulic models to real field conditions are limited by temporal and spatial constraints of field measurement technologies. These limitations increase when analyzing hydraulic properties of complex river forms such as submerged bedrock canyons. The analysis of flow under these conditions has demonstrated non-linear behavior, strong secondary circulation and a high level of turbulence. The objective of this paper is to obtain and analyze turbulence and secondary current information for flow analysis, by evaluating the spatial distribution of bed shear stress and eddy viscosity with acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements. The real field-scale case study was the Lourenço Rock Canyon in Tocantins River, Brazil. A total of 10,531 velocity profiles were measured with an ADCP adapted to a moving boat. The data were post-processed by decomposing the velocity data measurements and calculating the standard deviations. Three different methods are compared for bed shear stress: total kinetic energy (TKE), law of the wall and the depth–slope product. The eddy viscosity was estimated with the Boussinesq approach. The initial data processing confirmed turbulence and flow velocity characteristics described in similar literature findings. The results for the bed shear stress for the canyon area were 8 times greater than the outside and for eddy viscosity, 10 times higher. For the surroundings area, the eddy viscosity showed reasonable results with values around the regular 1.0 m2/s used for rivers. It is concluded that turbulent values can be calculated to better represent physical processes with the intention to improve hydrodynamic numerical models calibrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle Comparing Topological Partitioning Methods for District Metered Areas in the Water Distribution Network
Water 2018, 10(4), 368; doi:10.3390/w10040368
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a comparative analysis of three partitioning methods, including Fast Greedy, Random Walk, and Metis, which are commonly used to establish the district metered areas (DMAs) in water distribution systems. The performance of the partitioning methods is compared using a spectrum
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This paper presents a comparative analysis of three partitioning methods, including Fast Greedy, Random Walk, and Metis, which are commonly used to establish the district metered areas (DMAs) in water distribution systems. The performance of the partitioning methods is compared using a spectrum of evaluation indicators, including modularity, conductance, density, expansion, cuts, and communication volume, which measure different topological characteristics of the complex network. A complex water distribution network EXNET is used for comparison considering two cases, i.e., unweighted and weighted edges, where the weights are represented by the demands. The results obtained from the case study network show that the Fast Greedy has a good overall performance. Random Walk can obtain the relative small cut edges, but severely sacrifice the balance of the partitions, in particular when the number of partitions is small. The Metis method has good performance on balancing the size of the clusters. The Fast Greedy method is more effective in the weighted graph partitioning. This study provides an insight for the application of the topology-based partitioning methods to establish district metered areas in a water distribution network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Distribution Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Public Attitudes toward Water Management Measures and Droughts: A Study in Southern Spain
Water 2018, 10(4), 369; doi:10.3390/w10040369
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
In a context of climate change and more severe and frequent droughts, in order to achieve efficient and sustainable results, water-governance models must take into consideration different alternative management measures and the degree of social approval of each alternative. In this context, the
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In a context of climate change and more severe and frequent droughts, in order to achieve efficient and sustainable results, water-governance models must take into consideration different alternative management measures and the degree of social approval of each alternative. In this context, the present work analyzes public perceptions concerning water management- and climate change-related issues, especially in relation to the degree of social approval attained by six water management measures in Andalusia (southern Spain). These issues were included in the Ecobarómetro between 2004 and 2013, a period which was marked by the 2005–2008 drought. This analysis aims to increase our understanding of the state of public opinion in Andalusia on the basis that such knowledge is a necessary tool for political decision-making processes. The results and the conclusions have significant implications for water policy makers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bromate Reduction by Iron(II) during Managed Aquifer Recharge: A Laboratory-Scale Study
Water 2018, 10(4), 370; doi:10.3390/w10040370
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
The removal of bromate (BrO3) as a byproduct of ozonation in subsequent managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems has so far gained little attention. This preliminary study with anoxic batch experiments was executed to explore the feasibility of chemical BrO3
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The removal of bromate (BrO3) as a byproduct of ozonation in subsequent managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems has so far gained little attention. This preliminary study with anoxic batch experiments was executed to explore the feasibility of chemical BrO3 reduction in Fe-reducing zones of MAR systems and to estimate potential inhibition by NO3. Results show that the reaction rate was affected by initial Fe2+/BrO3 ratios and by pH. The pH dropped significantly due to the hydrolysis of Fe3+ to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) flocs. These HFO flocs were found to adsorb Fe2+, especially at high Fe2+/BrO3 ratios, whereas at low Fe2+/BrO3 ratios, the mass sum loss of BrO3 and Br indicated intermediate species formation. Under MAR conditions with relatively low BrO3 and Fe2+ concentrations, BrO3 can be reduced by naturally occurring Fe2+, as the extensive retention time in MAR systems will compensate for the slow reaction kinetics of low BrO3 and Fe2+ concentrations. Under specific flow conditions, Fe2+ and NO3 may co-occur during MAR, but NO3 hardly competes with BrO3, since Fe2+ prefers BrO3 over NO3. However, it was found that when NO3 concentration exceeds BrO3 concentration by multiple orders of magnitude, NO3 may slightly inhibit BrO3 reduction by Fe2+. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Baseflow Estimates Considering Recession Characteristics in SWAT
Water 2018, 10(4), 371; doi:10.3390/w10040371
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Baseflow is influenced by incoming groundwater to aquifers and is closely related to watershed characteristics. Understanding baseflow characteristics is of great importance to river ecosystems and water management. Baseflow estimation typically depends on the observed streamflow in gauged watersheds, but accurate predictions of
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Baseflow is influenced by incoming groundwater to aquifers and is closely related to watershed characteristics. Understanding baseflow characteristics is of great importance to river ecosystems and water management. Baseflow estimation typically depends on the observed streamflow in gauged watersheds, but accurate predictions of streamflow through modeling can also be useful in estimating baseflow. However, uncertainty occurs in the baseflow estimation process when modeling streamflow. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the method that is proposed by Arnold and Allen (Scenario I) to an improved recession prediction method where the alpha factor (baseflow recession coefficient) is recalibrated and is applied to SWAT (Scenario II). Although the differences between the results (NSE, R2, RMSE, MAE, d) of Scenarios I and II were small regarding streamflow and recession, the Scenario II method more accurately reflected the recession characteristics than the Scenario I method. Furthermore, the Scenario II method was better in baseflow prediction than for the Scenario I method proposed by Arnold and Allen. Therefore, these outputs pave the way and contribute to an efficient method for water management in watersheds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology
Water 2018, 10(4), 372; doi:10.3390/w10040372
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply
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The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustainable option that can supply fresh drinking water to communities where fog events are common. Because of the relatively simple design of fog collection systems, their operation and maintenance are minimal and the associated cost likewise; although, in certain cases, some financially constrained communities would need initial subsidies. Despite technology development and demonstrated benefits, there are certain challenges to fog harvesting, including lack of supportive policies, limited functional local institutions, inexpert communities, gender inequality, and perceived high costs without undertaking comprehensive economic analyses. By addressing such challenges, there is an opportunity to provide potable water in areas where fog intensity and duration are sufficient, and where the competition for clean water is intensifying because water resources are at a far distance or provided by expensive sources. Full article
Open AccessArticle Extreme Wave Analysis by Integrating Model and Wave Buoy Data
Water 2018, 10(4), 373; doi:10.3390/w10040373
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Estimating the extreme values of significant wave height (HS), generally described by the HS return period TR function HS(TR) and by its confidence intervals, is a necessity in many branches of coastal science and engineering.
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Estimating the extreme values of significant wave height (HS), generally described by the HS return period TR function HS(TR) and by its confidence intervals, is a necessity in many branches of coastal science and engineering. The availability of indirect wave data generated by global and regional wind and wave model chains have brought radical changes to the estimation procedures of such probability distribution—weather and wave modeling systems are routinely run all over the world, and HS time series for each grid point are produced and published after assimilation (analysis) of the ground truth. However, while the sources of such indirect data are numerous, and generally of good quality, many aspects of their procedures are hidden to the users, who cannot evaluate the reliability and the limits of the HS(TR) deriving from such data. In order to provide a simple engineering tool to evaluate the probability of extreme sea-states as well as the quality of such estimates, we propose here a procedure based on integrating HS time series generated by model chains with those recorded by wave buoys in the same area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Model-Based Evaluation of the Effects of River Discharge Modulations on Physical Fish Habitat Quality
Water 2018, 10(4), 374; doi:10.3390/w10040374
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
The increase in minimum flows has rarely been considered to mitigate the ecological impact of hydroelectric power plants because it requires a site-specific design and expensive long-term monitoring procedure to identify the most beneficial scenario. This study presents a model-based method to estimate,
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The increase in minimum flows has rarely been considered to mitigate the ecological impact of hydroelectric power plants because it requires a site-specific design and expensive long-term monitoring procedure to identify the most beneficial scenario. This study presents a model-based method to estimate, within the model constraints, the most sustainable scenario of water resource sharing between nature and human needs. We studied physical habitat suitability of the Isar River in Munich (Germany) for three protected fish species: Thymallus thymallus L., Hucho hucho L., and Chondostroma nasus L. The analysis combined a high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) hydromorphological model with expert-based procedures using Computer Aided Simulation Model for Instream Flow Requirements (CASiMIR). We simulated a range of minimum discharges from 5 to 68.5 m³/s and four scenarios: (A) maximum use of the resource for humans; (B) slight increase in the minimum water flow; (C) medium increase in the minimum water flow; and, (D) without diversion for hydroelectric production. Under the current hydromorphological conditions, model outputs showed that different life stages of the fish species showed preferences for different scenarios, and that none of the four scenarios provided permanently suitable habitat conditions for the three species. We suggest that discharge management should be combined with hydromorphological restoration actions to re-establish parts of the modified channel slope and/or parts of the previously lost floodplain habitat in order to implement a solution that favors all species at the same time. The modeling procedure that is presented may be helpful to identify the discharge scenario that is most efficient for maintaining target fish species under realistic usage conditions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Model-Based Analysis of the Potential of Macroinvertebrates as Indicators for Microbial Pathogens in Rivers
Water 2018, 10(4), 375; doi:10.3390/w10040375
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
The quality of water prior to its use for drinking, farming or recreational purposes must comply with several physicochemical and microbiological standards to safeguard society and the environment. In order to satisfy these standards, expensive analyses and highly trained personnel in laboratories are
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The quality of water prior to its use for drinking, farming or recreational purposes must comply with several physicochemical and microbiological standards to safeguard society and the environment. In order to satisfy these standards, expensive analyses and highly trained personnel in laboratories are required. Whereas macroinvertebrates have been used as ecological indicators to review the health of aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between microbial pathogens and macrobenthic invertebrate taxa was examined in the Machangara River located in the southern Andes of Ecuador, in which 33 sites, according to their land use, were chosen to collect physicochemical, microbiological and biological parameters. Decision tree models (DTMs) were used to generate rules that link the presence and abundance of some benthic families to microbial pathogen standards. The aforementioned DTMs provide an indirect, approximate, and quick way of checking the fulfillment of Ecuadorian regulations for water use related to microbial pathogens. The models built and optimized with the WEKA package, were evaluated based on both statistical and ecological criteria to make them as clear and simple as possible. As a result, two different and reliable models were obtained, which could be used as proxy indicators in a preliminary assessment of pollution of microbial pathogens in rivers. The DTMs can be easily applied by staff with minimal training in the identification of the sensitive taxa selected by the models. The presence of selected macroinvertebrate taxa in conjunction with the decision trees can be used as a screening tool to evaluate sites that require additional follow up analyses to confirm whether microbial water quality standards are met. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transformation between Phreatic Water and Soil Water during Freeze–Thaw Periods
Water 2018, 10(4), 376; doi:10.3390/w10040376
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
During freeze–thaw periods, the exchange between shallow groundwater and soil water is unusually strong and bidirectional, which causes soil salinization and affects the accuracy of water resources assessment. The objectives of this study were to explore the laws of transformation between phreatic water
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During freeze–thaw periods, the exchange between shallow groundwater and soil water is unusually strong and bidirectional, which causes soil salinization and affects the accuracy of water resources assessment. The objectives of this study were to explore the laws of transformation between phreatic water and soil water through nine different groundwater table depths (GTDs) and three kinds of lithologies during three successive freeze–thaw periods using field lysimeters. The results showed that phreatic evaporation increased with smaller average soil particle sizes. The differences between phreatic evaporation and recharge to groundwater (DPR) and GTDs were well fitted by the semi-logarithmic model, and the regression coefficients A and B of the model were well fitted by the linear relationship with the average soil particle size. With the increase of soil particle size, the change of DPR decreased with the change rate of soil particle size. The extent of transformation between phreatic water and soil water decreased with the increase of soil particle size. During the whole freeze–thaw period, the negative value of DPR increased with an decrease in GTD. The groundwater depths of zero DPR (D-zero) of sandy loam, fine sand and sandy soil during the freeze–thaw periods were 2.79 m, 2.21 m and 2.12 m, respectively. This research is significant for the prevention of soil salinization disasters and the accurate assessment of water resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simplified Entropic Model for the Evaluation of Suspended Load Concentration
Water 2018, 10(4), 378; doi:10.3390/w10040378
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency
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Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency is limited by their analytic structure or by the need for calibration parameters. The present work deals with a simplified fully-analytical formulation of the so-called entropic model in order to reproduce the vertical distribution of sediment concentration. The simplification consists in the leading order expansion of the generalized spatial coordinate of the entropic velocity profile that, strictly speaking, applies to the near-bed region, but that provides acceptable results also near the free surface. The proposed closed-form solution, which highlights the interplay among channel morphology, stream power, secondary flows, and suspended transport features, allows reducing the needed number of field measurements and, therefore, the time of field activities. Its accuracy and robustness were successfully tested based on the comparison with laboratory data reported in literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Time of Concentration for Overland Flow on Pervious Surfaces by Particle Tracking Method
Water 2018, 10(4), 379; doi:10.3390/w10040379
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
The particle tracking method (PTM) module was added into the open source Full Shallow-Water equations for Overland Flow in a two-dimensional (FullSWOF_2D) program, which has coupled rainfall–runoff and infiltration modules to determine the time of concentration (Tc) for impervious (
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The particle tracking method (PTM) module was added into the open source Full Shallow-Water equations for Overland Flow in a two-dimensional (FullSWOF_2D) program, which has coupled rainfall–runoff and infiltration modules to determine the time of concentration (Tc) for impervious (Tci) and pervious (Tcp) surfaces. The updated program FullSWOF-PTM was tested using observed rainfall events with Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies ranging from 0.60 to 0.95 (average of 0.75) for simulated runoff hydrographs. More than 400 impervious modeling cases with different surface slope (S0), roughness coefficient (n), length (L), and rainfall intensity (i) combinations were developed and simulated to obtain the Tci for developing the regression equation of Tci as a function of the four input parameters. More than 700 pervious modeling cases with different combinations of S0, n, L, i, and infiltration parameters including the saturated hydraulic conductivity, suction head, and moisture deficit were simulated to estimate the Tcp based on the travel time of 85% of particles arriving at the outlet and the ponding time. The regression equation of Tcp was developed as the sum of Tci and additional travel time as a function of infiltration parameters and i. The Tcp equation can be applied to wide ranges of input parameters in comparison to Akan’s equation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Land Water-Storage Variability over West Africa: Inferences from Space-Borne Sensors
Water 2018, 10(4), 380; doi:10.3390/w10040380
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
The potential of terrestrial water storage (TWS) inverted from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements to investigate water variations and their response to droughts over the Volta, Niger, and Senegal Basins of West Africa was investigated. An altimetry-imagery approach was proposed to
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The potential of terrestrial water storage (TWS) inverted from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements to investigate water variations and their response to droughts over the Volta, Niger, and Senegal Basins of West Africa was investigated. An altimetry-imagery approach was proposed to deduce the contribution of Lake Volta to TWS as “sensed” by GRACE. The results showed that from April 2002 to July 2016, Lake Volta contributed to approximately 8.8% of the water gain within the Volta Basin. As the signal spreads out far from the lake, it impacts both the Niger and Senegal Basins with 1.7% (at a significance level of 95%). This figure of 8.8% for the Volta Basin is approximately 20% of the values reported in previous works. Drought analysis based on GRACE-TWS (after removing the lake’s contribution) depicted below-normal conditions prevailing from 2002 to 2008. Wavelet analysis revealed that TWS changes (fluxes) and rainfall as well as vegetation index depicted a highly coupled relationship at the semi-annual to biennial periods, with common power covariance prevailing in the annual frequencies. While acknowledging that validation of the drought occurrence and severity based on GRACE-TWS is needed, we believe that our findings shall contribute to the water management over West Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS in Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle Uncertainty in a Lumped and a Semi-Distributed Model for Discharge Prediction in Ghatshila Catchment
Water 2018, 10(4), 381; doi:10.3390/w10040381
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
Hydrologic simulations of different models have direct impact on the accuracy of discharge prediction because of the diverse model structure. This study is an attempt to comprehend the uncertainty in discharge prediction of two models in the Ghatshila catchment, Subarnarekha Basin in India.
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Hydrologic simulations of different models have direct impact on the accuracy of discharge prediction because of the diverse model structure. This study is an attempt to comprehend the uncertainty in discharge prediction of two models in the Ghatshila catchment, Subarnarekha Basin in India. A lumped Probability Distribution Model (PDM) and semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were applied to simulate the discharge from 24 years of records (1982–2005), using gridded ground based meteorological variables. The results indicate a marginal outperformance of SWAT model with 0.69 Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) for predicting discharge as compared to PDM with 0.62 NSE value. Extreme high flows are clearly depicted in the flow duration curve of SWAT model simulations. PDM model performed well in capturing low flows. However, with respect to input datasets and model complexity, SWAT requires both static and dynamic inputs for the parameterization of the model. This work is the comprehensive evaluation of discharge prediction in an Indian scenario using the selected models; ground based gridded rainfall and meteorological dataset. Uncertainty in the model prediction is established by means of Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) technique in both of the models. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Simultaneous Treatment of Agro-Industrial and Industrial Wastewaters: Case Studies of Cr(VI)/Second Cheese Whey and Cr(VI)/Winery Effluents
Water 2018, 10(4), 382; doi:10.3390/w10040382
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was co-treated either with second cheese whey (SCW) or winery effluents (WE) using pilot-scale biological trickling filters in series under different operating conditions. Two pilot-scale filters in series using plastic support media were used in each case. The first filter
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Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was co-treated either with second cheese whey (SCW) or winery effluents (WE) using pilot-scale biological trickling filters in series under different operating conditions. Two pilot-scale filters in series using plastic support media were used in each case. The first filter (i.e., Cr-SCW-filter or Cr-WE-filter) aimed at Cr(VI) reduction and the partial removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) from SCW or WE and was inoculated with indigenous microorganisms originating from industrial sludge. The second filter in series (i.e., SCW-filter or WE-filter) aimed at further d-COD removal and was inoculated with indigenous microorganisms that were isolated from SCW or WE. Various Cr(VI) (5–100 mg L−1) and SCW or WE (d-COD, 1000–25,000 mg L−1) feed concentrations were tested. Based on the experimental results, the sequencing batch reactor operating mode with recirculation of 0.5 L min−1 proved very efficient since it led to complete Cr(VI) reduction in the first filter in series and achieved high Cr(VI) reduction rates (up to 36 and 43 mg L−1 d−1, for SCW and WW, respectively). Percentage d-COD removal for SCW and WE in the first filter was rather low, ranging from 14 to 42.5% and from 4 to 29% in the Cr-SCW-filter and Cr-WE-filter, respectively. However, the addition of the second filter in series enhanced total d-COD removal to above 97% and 90.5% for SCW and WE, respectively. The above results indicate that agro-industrial wastewater could be used as a carbon source for Cr(VI) reduction, while the use of two trickling filters in series could effectively treat both industrial and agro-industrial wastewaters with very low installation and operational costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Scheduling of Large-Scale Cascade Hydropower Stations Using Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm
Water 2018, 10(4), 383; doi:10.3390/w10040383
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Long-term scheduling of large cascade hydropower stations (LSLCHS) is a complex problem of high dimension, nonlinearity, coupling and complex constraint. In view of the above problem, we present an improved differential evolution (iLSHADE) algorithm based on LSHADE, a state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithm. iLSHADE uses
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Long-term scheduling of large cascade hydropower stations (LSLCHS) is a complex problem of high dimension, nonlinearity, coupling and complex constraint. In view of the above problem, we present an improved differential evolution (iLSHADE) algorithm based on LSHADE, a state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithm. iLSHADE uses new mutation strategies “current to pbest/2-rand” to obtain wider search range and accelerate convergence with the preventing individual repeated failure evolution (PIRFE) strategy. The handling of complicated constraints strategy of ε-constrained method is presented to handle outflow, water level and output constraints in the cascade reservoir operation. Numerical experiments of 10 benchmark functions have been done, showing that iLSHADE has stable convergence and high efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrate the performance of the iLSHADE algorithm by comparing it with other improved differential evolution algorithms for LSLCHS in four large hydropower stations of the Jinsha River. With the applications of iLSHADE in reservoir operation, LSLCHS can obtain more power generation benefit than other alternatives in dry, normal, and wet years. The results of numerical experiments and case studies show that the iLSHADE has a distinct optimization effect and good stability, and it is a valid and reliable tool to solve LSLCHS problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Catchment Management and Reservoir Operation)
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Open AccessArticle A Semi Risk-Based Approach for Managing Urban Drainage Systems under Extreme Rainfall
Water 2018, 10(4), 384; doi:10.3390/w10040384
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Conventional design standards for urban drainage systems are not set to deal with extreme rainfall events. As these events are becoming more frequent, there is room for proposing new planning approaches and standards that are flexible enough to cope with a wide range
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Conventional design standards for urban drainage systems are not set to deal with extreme rainfall events. As these events are becoming more frequent, there is room for proposing new planning approaches and standards that are flexible enough to cope with a wide range of rainfall events. In this paper, a semi risk-based approach is presented as a simple and practical way for the analysis and management of rainfall flooding at the precinct scale. This approach uses various rainfall events as input parameters for the analysis of the flood hazard and impacts, and categorises the flood risk in different levels, ranging from very low to very high risk. When visualised on a map, the insight into the risk levels across the precinct will enable engineers and spatial planners to identify and prioritise interventions to manage the flood risk. The approach is demonstrated for a sewer district in the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, using a one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) flood model. The risk level of this area is classified as being predominantly very low or low, with a couple of locations with high and very high risk. For these locations interventions, such as disconnection and lowering street profiles, have been proposed and analysed with the 1D/2D flood model. The interventions were shown to be effective in reducing the risk levels from very high/high risk to medium/low risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Forecast of Urban Water-Energy Demand Based on a Neural Network Model
Water 2018, 10(4), 385; doi:10.3390/w10040385
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
Water-energy nexus has been a popular topic of rese arch in recent years. The relationships between the demand for water resources and energy are intense and closely connected in urban areas. The primary, secondary, and tertiary industry gross domestic product (GDP), the total
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Water-energy nexus has been a popular topic of rese arch in recent years. The relationships between the demand for water resources and energy are intense and closely connected in urban areas. The primary, secondary, and tertiary industry gross domestic product (GDP), the total population, the urban population, annual precipitation, agricultural and industrial water consumption, tap water supply, the total discharge of industrial wastewater, the daily sewage treatment capacity, total and domestic electricity consumption, and the consumption of coal in industrial enterprises above the designed size were chosen as input indicators. A feedforward artificial neural network model (ANN) based on a back-propagation algorithm with two hidden layers was constructed to combine urban water resources with energy demand. This model used historical data from 1991 to 2016 from Wuxi City, eastern China. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression model (MLR) was introduced for comparison with the ANN. The results show the following: (a) The mean relative error values of the forecast and historical urban water-energy demands are 1.58 % and 2.71%, respectively; (b) The predicted water-energy demand value for 2020 is 4.843 billion cubic meters and 47.561 million tons of standard coal equivalent; (c) The predicted water-energy demand value in the year 2030 is 5.887 billion cubic meters and 60.355 million tons of standard coal equivalent; (d) Compared with the MLR, the ANN performed better in fitting training data, which achieved a more satisfactory accuracy and may provide a reference for urban water-energy supply planning decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality: A Component of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus)
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Open AccessArticle Pluvial Flood Risk Assessment Tool (PFRA) for Rainwater Management and Adaptation to Climate Change in Newly Urbanised Areas
Water 2018, 10(4), 386; doi:10.3390/w10040386
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this research is to develop the Pluvial Flood Risk Assessment tool (PFRA) for rainwater management and adaptation to climate change in newly urbanised areas. PFRA allows pluvial hazard assessment, as well as pluvial flood risk mapping. The original model was
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The aim of this research is to develop the Pluvial Flood Risk Assessment tool (PFRA) for rainwater management and adaptation to climate change in newly urbanised areas. PFRA allows pluvial hazard assessment, as well as pluvial flood risk mapping. The original model was created using ArcGIS software with the ArcHydro extension, and the script was written using the Python programming language. The PFRA model effectively combines information about land cover, soils, microtopography (LiDAR data), and projected hydro-meteorological conditions, which enables the identification of the spatial and temporal distribution of pluvial flood risks in newly developed areas. Further improvements to the PFRA concern the quantification of pluvial flood-related damages, the application of high resolution precipitation data, and the optimisation of coding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Alternative Water Sources in the Urban Sector)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Pre-Breaking and Breaking Vorticity within a Plunging Breaker
Water 2018, 10(4), 387; doi:10.3390/w10040387
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
The characteristics of vorticity induced just prior and at the splash-down of a plunging breaker on a 1:10 planar slope have been studied using wave flume experiments and numerical simulations. Laboratory experiments involved detailed measurements in the outer surf zone of both fluid
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The characteristics of vorticity induced just prior and at the splash-down of a plunging breaker on a 1:10 planar slope have been studied using wave flume experiments and numerical simulations. Laboratory experiments involved detailed measurements in the outer surf zone of both fluid velocities below trough level, achieved by a fibre-optic laser-Doppler anemometer, and water surface elevations, obtained by an ultrasound probe. A Weakly-Compressible Smoothed Particle (WCSPH) model, coupled with a two-equation model for turbulent stresses, has been employed for the numerical simulations. A thorough calibration of the SPH’s numerical parameters has been first performed, through comparison between numerical and experimental wave elevation and velocity data. Then, considering that time-averaged laboratory data shows a significant vorticity beneath the free surface in the wave pre-breaking region, the vorticity generation mechanism has been thoroughly analyzed by means of the numerical model. In the attempt of explaining the generation of vorticity as induced by flow separation, we also inspected the role of the streamwise flow deceleration and surface-parallel vorticity flux. In analogy with the case of spilling breakers a cause-effect relation has been observed between streamwise flow deceleration and vorticity generation. Numerical findings are positively confirmed by the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle Forward Prediction of Runoff Data in Data-Scarce Basins with an Improved Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) Model
Water 2018, 10(4), 388; doi:10.3390/w10040388
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Data scarcity is a common problem in hydrological calculations that often makes water resources planning and engineering design challenging. Combining ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), a radial basis function (RBF) neural network, and an autoregression (AR) model, an improved EEMD prediction model is
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Data scarcity is a common problem in hydrological calculations that often makes water resources planning and engineering design challenging. Combining ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), a radial basis function (RBF) neural network, and an autoregression (AR) model, an improved EEMD prediction model is proposed for runoff series forward prediction, i.e., runoff series extension. In the improved model, considering the decomposition-prediction-reconstruction principle, EEMD was employed for decomposition and reconstruction and the RBF and AR model were used for component prediction. Also, the method of tracking energy differences (MTED) was used as stopping criteria for EEMD in order to solve the problem of mode mixing that occurs frequently in EEMD. The orthogonality index (Ort) and the relative average deviation (RAD) were introduced to verify the mode mixing and prediction performance. A case study showed that the MTED-based decomposition was significantly better than decomposition methods using the standard deviation (SD) criteria and the G. Rilling (GR) criteria. After MTED-based decomposition, mode mixing in EEMD was suppressed effectively (|Ort| < 0.23) and stable orthogonal components were obtained. For this, annual runoff series forward predictions using the improved EEMD-based prediction model were significantly better (RAD < 11.1%) than predictions by the rainfall-runoff method and the AR model method. Thus, this forward prediction model can be regarded as an approach for hydrological series extension, and shows promise for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Forecasting Using Machine Learning Methods)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Practices for Controlling Shallow Valley-Bottom Gullies in the Sub-Humid Ethiopian Highlands
Water 2018, 10(4), 389; doi:10.3390/w10040389
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Rehabilitation of large valley bottom gullies in developing countries is hampered by high cost. Stopping head cuts at the time of initiation will prevent large gullies from forming and is affordable. However, research on practices to control shallow gully heads with local materials
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Rehabilitation of large valley bottom gullies in developing countries is hampered by high cost. Stopping head cuts at the time of initiation will prevent large gullies from forming and is affordable. However, research on practices to control shallow gully heads with local materials is limited. The objective of this research was therefore to identify cost-effective shallow gully head stabilization practices. The four-year study was conducted on 14 shallow gullies (<3 m deep) in the central Ethiopian highlands. Six gullies were used as a control. Heads in the remaining eight gullies were regraded to a 1:1 slope. Additional practices implemented were adding either riprap or vegetation or both on the regraded heads and stabilizing the gully bed downstream. Gully heads were enclosed by fencing to prohibit cattle access to the planted vegetation. The median yearly head retreat of the control gullies was 3.6 m a−1 with a maximum of 23 m a−1. Vegetative treatments without riprap prevented gully incision by trapping sediments but did not stop the upslope retreat. The gully heads protected by riprap did not erode. Regrading the slope and adding riprap was most effective in controlling gully head retreat, and with hay grown on the fenced-in areas around the practice, it was profitable for farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Streambank Erosion: Monitoring, Modeling and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of a Contaminant Source Location in a River System Using Random Forest Models
Water 2018, 10(4), 391; doi:10.3390/w10040391
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
We consider the problem of identifying the source location of a contaminant via analyzing changes in concentration levels observed by a sensor network in a river system. To address this problem, we propose a framework including two main steps: (i) pre-processing data; and
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We consider the problem of identifying the source location of a contaminant via analyzing changes in concentration levels observed by a sensor network in a river system. To address this problem, we propose a framework including two main steps: (i) pre-processing data; and (ii) training and testing a classification model. Specifically, we first obtain a data set presenting concentration levels of a contaminant from a simulation model, and extract numerical characteristics from the data set. Then, random forest models are generated and assessed to identify the source location of a contaminant. By using the numerical characteristics from the prior step as their inputs, the models provide outputs representing the possibility, i.e., a value between 0 and 1, of a spill event at each candidate location. The performance of the framework is tested on a part of the Altamaha river system in the state of Georgia, United States of America. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Wave–Current Interaction: A 2DH Model for Turbulent Jet and Bottom-Friction Dissipation
Water 2018, 10(4), 392; doi:10.3390/w10040392
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
A correct representation of the non-linear interactions between waves and currents is one of the key points when studying the morphological evolution of nearshore environments, in particular close to river mouths or tidal inlets. Undoubtedly, the numerical modelling of similar phenomena can be
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A correct representation of the non-linear interactions between waves and currents is one of the key points when studying the morphological evolution of nearshore environments, in particular close to river mouths or tidal inlets. Undoubtedly, the numerical modelling of similar phenomena can be very complex and computationally demanding, given the size of the domains. In the present paper, a two‐dimensional horizontal (2DH) numerical model is applied to investigate the hydrodynamics of a turbulent jet current interacting with frontal waves, preparatory to the study of morphodynamical processes. The purpose is to reproduce accurately the turbulence of the current flow, which develops in both vertical and horizontal planes, even with the simplifications of depth-averaged velocities. Moreover, the bottom shear stress induces a mechanism of dissipation, which acts both on the jet hydrodynamics and on the wave field. Significant attention is given to this process, which turns out to be crucial in shallow waters. The present model, based on classic shallow-water equations and wave action balance, is applied to a literature test. Comparisons with theoretical and numerical outcomes are shown, the latter obtained with a quasi-3D model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Carbon Source on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Removal and Denitrifying Bacteria in Biofilm from Bioelectrochemical SBBRs
Water 2018, 10(4), 393; doi:10.3390/w10040393
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Bioelectrochemical sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) may be used as post-anoxic reactors. The aim of this study was to determine how nitrate removal depends on the type of external carbon source and the electric current density (J). The effect of citric acid and
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Bioelectrochemical sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) may be used as post-anoxic reactors. The aim of this study was to determine how nitrate removal depends on the type of external carbon source and the electric current density (J). The effect of citric acid and potassium bicarbonate on N removal efficiency and the denitrifying bacteria biofilm community at an electric current density of 105 and 210 mA/m2 was determined. Nitrogen removal efficiency depended on the density of the electric current and the carbon source. The highest efficiency of N removal was in the reactor with 210 mA/m2 and citric acid. Regardless of the J value, the addition of an external carbon source to the reactors resulted in a 4–6 fold increase in the relative number of denitrifying bacteria in the biomass in relation to the reactor operated without an electric current flow and organics in the influent. The highest number of denitrifiers was observed in the reactor with an inorganic carbon source and with a density of 105 mA/m2. The main factor determining the shifts in composition of the denitrifying bacteria was the electric current flow. In the reactors operated with the electric current flow, Thauera aminoaromatica MZ1T occurred in the reactors with potassium bicarbonate while Alicycliphilus denitrificans K601 preferred citric acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle High Resolution Monitoring of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms and Geomorphically Effective Flows
Water 2018, 10(4), 394; doi:10.3390/w10040394
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Using a combination of Structure from Motion and time lapse photogrammetry, we document rapid river bluff erosion occurring in the Greater Blue Earth River (GBER) basin, a muddy tributary to the sediment-impaired Minnesota River in south central Minnesota. Our datasets elucidated dominant bluff
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Using a combination of Structure from Motion and time lapse photogrammetry, we document rapid river bluff erosion occurring in the Greater Blue Earth River (GBER) basin, a muddy tributary to the sediment-impaired Minnesota River in south central Minnesota. Our datasets elucidated dominant bluff failure mechanisms and rates of bluff retreat in a transient system responding to ongoing streamflow increases and glacial legacy impacts. Specifically, we document the importance of fluvial scour, freeze–thaw, as well as other drivers of bluff erosion. We find that even small flows, a mere 30% of the two-year recurrence interval flow, are capable of causing bluff erosion. During our study period (2014–2017), the most erosion was associated with two large flood events with 13- and 25-year return periods. However, based on the frequency of floods and magnitude of bluff face erosion associated with floods over the last 78 years, the 1.2-year return interval flood has likely accomplished the most cumulative erosion, and is thus more geomorphically effective than larger magnitude floods. Flows in the GBER basin are nonstationary, increasing across the full range of return intervals. We find that management implications differ considerably depending on whether the bluff erosion-runoff power law exponent, γ, is greater than, equal to, or less than 1. Previous research has recommended installation of water retention sites in tributaries to the Minnesota River in order to reduce flows and sediment loading from river bluffs. Our findings support the notion that water retention would be an effective practice to reduce sediment loading and highlight the importance of managing for both runoff frequency and magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Hydrology, Erosion and Sediment Transport Processes)
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Open AccessArticle How Does Season Affect Passage Performance and Fatigue of Potamodromous Cyprinids? An Experimental Approach in a Vertical Slot Fishway
Water 2018, 10(4), 395; doi:10.3390/w10040395
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Most fishway studies are conducted during the reproductive period, yet uncertainty remains on whether results may be biased if the same studies were performed outside of the migration season. The present study assessed fish passage performance of a potamodromous cyprinid, the Iberian barbel
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Most fishway studies are conducted during the reproductive period, yet uncertainty remains on whether results may be biased if the same studies were performed outside of the migration season. The present study assessed fish passage performance of a potamodromous cyprinid, the Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), in an experimental full-scale vertical slot fishway during spring (reproductive season) and early-autumn (non-reproductive season). Results revealed that no significant differences were detected on passage performance metrics, except for entry efficiency. However, differences between seasons were noted in the plasma lactate concentration (higher in early-autumn), used as a proxy for muscular fatigue after the fishway navigation. This suggests that, for potamodromous cyprinids, the evaluation of passage performance in fishways does not need to be restricted to the reproductive season and can be extended to early-autumn, when movements associated with shifts in home range may occur. The increased effort during the non-reproductive period suggests that adapting the operational regime of fishways, at biologically meaningful seasons in a year, should be assessed by considering the physiological state of the target species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Geomorphologic Factors for Identifying Soil Loss in Vulnerable Regions of the Cameron Highlands
Water 2018, 10(4), 396; doi:10.3390/w10040396
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to propose a methodology for identifying vulnerable regions in the Cameron Highlands that are susceptible to soil loss, based on runoff aggregation structure and the energy expenditure pattern of the natural river basin, within the framework
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The main purpose of this study is to propose a methodology for identifying vulnerable regions in the Cameron Highlands that are susceptible to soil loss, based on runoff aggregation structure and the energy expenditure pattern of the natural river basin, within the framework of power law distribution. To this end, three geomorphologic factors, namely shear stress and stream power, as well as the drainage area of every point in the basin of interest, have been extracted using GIS, and then their complementary cumulative distributions are graphically analyzed by fitting them to power law distribution, with the purpose of identifying the sensitive points within the basin that are susceptible to soil loss with respect to scaling regimes of shear stress and stream power. It is observed that the range of vulnerable regions by the scaling regime of shear stress is much narrower than by the scaling regime of stream power. This result seems to suggest that shear stress is a scale-dependent factor, which does not follow power law distribution and does not adequately reflect the energy expenditure pattern of a river basin. Therefore, stream power is preferred as a more reasonable factor for the evaluation of soil loss. The methodology proposed in this study can be validated by visualizing the path of soil loss, which is generated from the hillslope process (characterized by the local slope) to the valley through a fluvial process (characterized by the drainage area as well as the local slope). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Induced Landslides: Prediction and Control)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of ERT Data for Numerical Modeling of Seawater Intrusion in a Laboratory Experiment
Water 2018, 10(4), 397; doi:10.3390/w10040397
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a worldwide problem exacerbated by aquifer overexploitation and climate changes. To limit the deterioration of water quality caused by saline intrusion, research studies are needed to identify and assess the performance of possible countermeasures, e.g., underground barriers.
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Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a worldwide problem exacerbated by aquifer overexploitation and climate changes. To limit the deterioration of water quality caused by saline intrusion, research studies are needed to identify and assess the performance of possible countermeasures, e.g., underground barriers. Within this context, numerical models are fundamental to fully understand the process and for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed solutions to contain the saltwater wedge; on the other hand, they are typically affected by uncertainty on hydrogeological parameters, as well as initial and boundary conditions. Data assimilation methods such as the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) represent promising tools that can reduce such uncertainties. Here, we present an application of the EnKF to the numerical modeling of a laboratory experiment where seawater intrusion was reproduced in a specifically designed sandbox and continuously monitored with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Combining EnKF and the SUTRA model for the simulation of density-dependent flow and transport in porous media, we assimilated the collected ERT data by means of joint and sequential assimilation approaches. In the joint approach, raw ERT data (electrical resistances) are assimilated to update both salt concentration and soil parameters, without the need for an electrical inversion. In the sequential approach, we assimilated electrical conductivities computed from a previously performed electrical inversion. Within both approaches, we suggest dual-step update strategies to minimize the effects of spurious correlations in parameter estimation. The results show that, in both cases, ERT data assimilation can reduce the uncertainty not only on the system state in terms of salt concentration, but also on the most relevant soil parameters, i.e., saturated hydraulic conductivity and longitudinal dispersivity. However, the sequential approach is more prone to filter inbreeding due to the large number of observations assimilated compared to the ensemble size. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Unstructured-Mesh Terrain Analysis and Incident Solar Radiation for Continuous Hydrologic Modeling in Mountain Watersheds
Water 2018, 10(4), 398; doi:10.3390/w10040398
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
This article presents a methodology for estimating total incoming solar radiation from Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) topographic meshes. The algorithm also computes terrain slope degree and aspect (slope orientation) and accounts for self shading and cast shadows, sky view fractions for diffuse radiation,
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This article presents a methodology for estimating total incoming solar radiation from Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) topographic meshes. The algorithm also computes terrain slope degree and aspect (slope orientation) and accounts for self shading and cast shadows, sky view fractions for diffuse radiation, remote albedo and atmospheric backscattering, by using a vectorial approach within a topocentric coordinate system establishing geometric relations between groups of TIN elements and the sun position. A normal vector to the surface of each TIN element describes its slope and aspect while spherical trigonometry allows computing a unit vector defining the position of the sun at each hour and day of the year. Sky view fraction, useful to determine diffuse and backscattered radiation, is computed for each TIN element at prescribed azimuth intervals targeting the steepest elevation gradient. A comparison between the sun zenith angle and the steepest gradient allows deciding whether or not the pivot element is shaded. Finally, remote albedo is computed from the sky view fraction complementary functions for observed albedo values of the surrounding terrain. The sensitivity of the different radiative components to seasonal changes in atmospheric transmissivitties and surrounding albedo is tested in a mountainous watershed in Wyoming. This methodology represents an improvement on the current algorithms to compute terrain and radiation values on unstructured-mesh terrain models. All terrain-related features (e.g., slope, aspect, sky view fraction) can be pre-computed and stored for easy access into a subsequent, progressive-in-time, numerical simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS in Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle Morphogenesis of a Floodplain as a Criterion for Assessing the Susceptibility to Water Pollution in an Agriculturally Rich Valley of a Lowland River
Water 2018, 10(4), 399; doi:10.3390/w10040399
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
This study presents the results of the influence of the specific geological landforms occurring in a lowland river floodplain on the recharge and drainage conditions in an agricultural area. Particular attention has been paid to the presence of the buried erosional channels of
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This study presents the results of the influence of the specific geological landforms occurring in a lowland river floodplain on the recharge and drainage conditions in an agricultural area. Particular attention has been paid to the presence of the buried erosional channels of flood waters, which may constitute the preferential paths for migration of agricultural contaminants. Moreover, the changes of effective infiltration which affect the hydrogeological regime of the tested area were analyzed. Priority was also given to the use of laboratory techniques in order to determine the parameters influencing the contaminant migration in the soil-water environment for the purpose of hydrogeological modeling. Laboratory tests, based on a column experiment, were performed in a Trautwein apparatus with reference to the constant head procedure, using conservative and reactive markers. The parameters of advection, dispersion, and sorption, obtained in the laboratory experiment were then used as the input data for the hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow and contaminant migration in the research area. Based on the created digital model of groundwater flow, the multi-variant analysis of the effect of specific geological features on the conditions of contaminant transport in a valley was performed. The presented tools and methods contributed to a significant increase in the accuracy of recognizing zones susceptible to water pollution and should be adopted in other valley areas exposed to contamination. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Barriers to Effective Eutrophication Governance: A Comparison of the Baltic Sea and North American Great Lakes
Water 2018, 10(4), 400; doi:10.3390/w10040400
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
The Baltic Sea and the North American Great Lakes are two transboundary watersheds that are at risk from similar environmental stressors including nutrient enrichment, hydrologic modifications, chemicals of emerging concern, and the overarching stressor of climate change. Although located in different geographical regions
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The Baltic Sea and the North American Great Lakes are two transboundary watersheds that are at risk from similar environmental stressors including nutrient enrichment, hydrologic modifications, chemicals of emerging concern, and the overarching stressor of climate change. Although located in different geographical regions of the world, both watersheds are governed in a multilevel governance setting with many layers of decision makers including global, national, governmental, regional, municipal, and community levels. Despite governance innovations, such as the Helsinki Convention in 1974 and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972 and their updated versions, both transboundary waters are under increasing stress from eutrophication. There are provisions in both the Helsinki Convention and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement for nutrient abatement measures, yet algal blooms abound in both waters, especially after precipitation events. This paper looks at the governance processes in both transboundary ecosystems, with the aim of highlighting governance barriers to eutrophication mitigation using four analytical lenses. A comparison of the two systems and the governance barriers shows that similar and unique challenges are faced in both regions, and the choice of analytical lens affects the perception of barriers and implementation actions. This is useful for policymakers in planning intervention strategies to tackle the stressor of nutrient enrichment in both regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Geometrical Characterization of Sediment Deposits at the Confluence of Mountain Streams
Water 2018, 10(4), 401; doi:10.3390/w10040401
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Debris flow injections from tributaries into a main mountain stream generate deposits of sediments which, in turn, result in obstruction and eventual damming of the river section. This contribution presents the results of a series of flume experiments on the dynamics of these
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Debris flow injections from tributaries into a main mountain stream generate deposits of sediments which, in turn, result in obstruction and eventual damming of the river section. This contribution presents the results of a series of flume experiments on the dynamics of these deposits, with reference to three different types of blockage: no blockage, partial blockage, and full blockage. Results show that the shape of the deposit is mainly controlled by the ratio between the debris flow discharge and the main river discharge. The experimental dataset is used to develop a deposit resilience stability index based on the shape of the deposit contour retrieved from photos taken from above. The proposed index is based on the invariant elliptic Fourier coefficients and the dimensionless transverse obstruction parameter. The elliptic Fourier coefficients give information on the symmetry of the deposit contour. High symmetry indicates more stable and resilient deposits. The proposed index is calibrated on the basis of the flume experiments and tested with field data. The results are quite promising and suggest that the index can be appropriate for a fast hazard assessment of multiple debris flow deposits at a regional scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion and Torrent Control)
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Open AccessArticle Wave Height Attenuation and Flow Resistance Due to Emergent or Near-Emergent Vegetation
Water 2018, 10(4), 402; doi:10.3390/w10040402
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Vegetation plays a pivotal role in fluvial and coastal flows, affecting their structure and turbulence, thus having a strong impact on the processes of transport and diffusion of nutrients and sediments, as well as on ecosystems and habitats. In the present experimental study,
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Vegetation plays a pivotal role in fluvial and coastal flows, affecting their structure and turbulence, thus having a strong impact on the processes of transport and diffusion of nutrients and sediments, as well as on ecosystems and habitats. In the present experimental study, the attenuation of regular waves propagating in a channel through flexible vegetation is investigated. Specifically, artificial plants mimicking Spartina maritima are considered. Different plant densities and arrangements are tested, as well as different submergence ratios. Measurements of wave characteristics by six wave gauges, distributed all along the vegetated stretch, allow us to estimate the wave energy dissipation. The flow resistance opposed by vegetation is inferred by considering that drag and dissipation coefficients are strictly related. The submergence ratio and the stem density, rather than the wave characteristics, affect the drag coefficient the most. A comparison with the results obtained in the case when the same vegetation is placed in a uniform flow is also shown. It confirms that the drag coefficient for the canopy is lower than for an isolated cylinder, even if the reduction is not affected by the stem density, underlining that flow unsteadiness might be crucial in the process of dissipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Particle Size on Sediment Accumulation in Permeable Pavements
Water 2018, 10(4), 403; doi:10.3390/w10040403
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the sediment retention behaviour of laboratory-based permeable pavements using mono-sized sediments that were representative of the sizes typically found in urban stormwater. The sediments were applied in two cycles, namely in order of increasing and decreasing size. The results indicated
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This paper investigates the sediment retention behaviour of laboratory-based permeable pavements using mono-sized sediments that were representative of the sizes typically found in urban stormwater. The sediments were applied in two cycles, namely in order of increasing and decreasing size. The results indicated that most of the sediment accumulation could be attributed to the depth of the pavement and the material used in the joint and bedding aggregates. Most of the sediment was retained in the bedding and surface layers, and little difference to the retention was made by the incorporation of a basecourse layer. When the mono-sized sediments were added in decreasing size order with the coarsest sediments applied first, the overall rate of retention increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
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Open AccessArticle Nanoscopic Zero-Valent Iron Supported on MgO for Lead Removal from Waters
Water 2018, 10(4), 404; doi:10.3390/w10040404
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Lead is one of the most toxic heavy metals that can create a severe risk to water ecosystem health. Zero-valent iron is an effective material for Pb2+ removal treatments. In particular, nanoscopic zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are characterized by high reaction rates;
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Lead is one of the most toxic heavy metals that can create a severe risk to water ecosystem health. Zero-valent iron is an effective material for Pb2+ removal treatments. In particular, nanoscopic zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are characterized by high reaction rates; nevertheless, their utilization in water and groundwater remediation techniques requires further investigations. Indeed, it is necessary to define effective methods able to avoid the drawbacks due to the aggregation tendency of nanoparticles and their potential uncontrolled transport in groundwater. In this work, nZVI was supported on magnesium oxide grains (MgO_nZVI) to synthesize an alternative material for lead removal from aqueous solutions. Many experiments were conducted under several operating conditions in order to analyze the effectiveness of the produced material in Pb2+ abatement. The performance of MgO_nZVI was also compared with those detected using commercial microscopic Fe0 (mZVI) as a reactive material. The experimental findings showed a much greater reactivity of the supported nanoscopic iron particles. By means of a kinetic analysis of batch tests results, it was verified that, both for MgO_nZVI and mZVI, the lead abatement follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic law. The reaction rates were affected by the initial pH of the treatment solution and by the ratio between the Fe0 amount and initial lead concentration. The efficiency of MgO_nZVI in a continuous test was steadily around 97.5% for about 1000 exchanged pore volumes (PV) of reactive material, while by using mZVI, the lead removal was approximately 88% for about 600 PV. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy EDS analyses suggested the formation of typical iron corrosion products and the presence of metallic lead Pb0 and Pb2+ compounds on exhausted materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Crop Evapotranspiration, Irrigation Water Requirement and Water Productivity of Maize from Meteorological Data under Semiarid Climate
Water 2018, 10(4), 405; doi:10.3390/w10040405
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Under the semiarid climate of the Southwest United States, accurate estimation of crop water use is important for water management and planning under conservation agriculture. The objectives of this study were to estimate maize water use and water productivity in the Four Corners
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Under the semiarid climate of the Southwest United States, accurate estimation of crop water use is important for water management and planning under conservation agriculture. The objectives of this study were to estimate maize water use and water productivity in the Four Corners region of New Mexico. Maize was grown under full irrigation during the 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2017 seasons at the Agricultural Science Center at Farmington (NM). Seasonal amounts of applied irrigation varied from 576.6 to 1051.6 mm and averaged 837.7 mm and the total water supply varied from 693.4 to 1140.5 mm. Maize actual evapotranspiration was estimated using locally developed crop coefficient curve and the tabulated United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) crop coefficients, and from this maize water productivity was determined. Maize actual daily evapotranspiration (ETa) varied from 0.23 to 10.2 mm and the seasonal ETa varied with year and ranged from 634.2 to 697.7 mm averaging 665.3 mm by the local Kc curve, from 687.3 to 739.3 mm averaging 717.8 mm by the non-adjusted FAO Kc values, and from 715.8 to 779.6 mm averaging 754.9 mm with the FAO adjusted Kc values. Maize irrigation requirements varied from 758.4 to 848.3 mm and averaged 800.2 mm using the local developed Kc and varied from 835.5 to 935.6 mm and averaged 912.2 mm using FAO Kc. The net irrigation requirement varied from 606.8 to 678.6 using local Kc curve, and from 682.78 to 748.5 mm when adopting the FAO Kc values. Average irrigation requirement was 641 mm under the local Kc option and 730 mm under FAO Kc values option. Maize crop water use efficiency (CWUE) ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 kg/m3 and averaged 1.53 kg/m3, evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETWUE) values were higher than CWUE and varied from 2.0 to 2.3 kg/m3, averaging 2.1 kg/m3. Maize irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was varied with years and averaged 1.74 kg/m3. There were strong relationships between maize CWUE and maize seasonal irrigation amounts of IWUE and the seasonal irrigation amounts with R2 of 0.97 and 0.92, respectively. Maize CWUE increased linearly with maize IWUE with a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.99, while IWUE showed a strong quadratic relationship with ETWUE (R2 = 0.94). The results of this study can be used as a guideline for maize water management under the semiarid conditions in northwestern New Mexico and other locations with similar climate and management conditions. Irrigation requirements for maize should be adjusted to the local meteorological conditions for optimizing maize irrigation requirement and improving maize water productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Aesthetic Quality on Soil and Water Conservation Engineering Using the Scenic Beauty Estimation Method
Water 2018, 10(4), 407; doi:10.3390/w10040407
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Taiwan has rich natural landscapes, but the sensitive geology and concentrated rainfall have resulted in frequent sediment hazards. Thus, various stream control works are established in watersheds to secure midstream and downstream citizens’ lives and properties. Taking care of slope safety and natural
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Taiwan has rich natural landscapes, but the sensitive geology and concentrated rainfall have resulted in frequent sediment hazards. Thus, various stream control works are established in watersheds to secure midstream and downstream citizens’ lives and properties. Taking care of slope safety and natural landscapes has become a primary issue for soil and water conservation engineering. The scenic preference beauty estimation method (SBE) in psychophysics, which was proposed by Daniel and Boster in 1976, is utilized herein to evaluate the scenic aesthetics of stream control engineering in watersheds. It aims to discuss various landscape factors (water body, vegetation) in the aesthetic preference and differences of various artificial structures in a watershed under people’s psychology. First, pictures and images related to soil and water conservation engineering are collected, and an in-situ investigation is performed to determine the pictures and images for discussion and design of the relevant questionnaire. The scenic aesthetics evaluation results are standardized with RMRATE, a computer program for analyzing rating judgments, of the United States Department of Agriculture, and then transformed into SBE values to compare the difference of various engineering structures in scenic aesthetics. The results reveal that flowing waterscape elements and the coverage of vegetation on the surrounding artificial structure volume in images present positive effects on the public overall scenic aesthetics. This study is expected to provide engineering designers with reference for considering a design integrating engineering structure with natural landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle Groundwater Governance in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal): Valuing and Protecting a Strategic Resource in Small Islands
Water 2018, 10(4), 408; doi:10.3390/w10040408
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Studies on groundwater governance status at EU national and river basin district levels are rare, hindering lessons learned at each administrative scale to be shared. Groundwater is a common-pool resource of strategic significance in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), thus calling for sustainable development.
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Studies on groundwater governance status at EU national and river basin district levels are rare, hindering lessons learned at each administrative scale to be shared. Groundwater is a common-pool resource of strategic significance in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), thus calling for sustainable development. Groundwater governance emerged in the last decades as a path to sustainable resources management, and the present paper characterizes the current status of governance in the Azores, where management is pursued according to a vertically-integrated system. A survey made among 43 specialists showed that despite the instrumental role of groundwater for water supply there is a need to increase awareness on groundwater valuing and protection. The application of benchmark criteria to evaluate the groundwater governance state-of-art shows that technical capacities are diminishing governance effectiveness due to the lack of quantitative data, and further enforcing of the groundwater legal framework to the specificities of the Azores is needed. The empowerment of the government agency being responsible for the groundwater management is also envisaged. The failure to account for the economic dimension of the groundwater governance, the insufficient development of cross-sectorial approaches, and the unsuccessful public participation are other weaknesses on the groundwater governance in the Azores. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Downscaling of Satellite Precipitation Data in Humid Tropics Using a Site-Specific Seasonal Coefficient
Water 2018, 10(4), 409; doi:10.3390/w10040409
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper described the development of a spatial downscaling algorithm to produce finer grid resolution for satellite precipitation data (0.05°) in humid tropics. The grid resolution provided by satellite precipitation data (>0.25°) was unsuitable for practical hydrology and meteorology applications in the high
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This paper described the development of a spatial downscaling algorithm to produce finer grid resolution for satellite precipitation data (0.05°) in humid tropics. The grid resolution provided by satellite precipitation data (>0.25°) was unsuitable for practical hydrology and meteorology applications in the high hydrometeorological dynamics of Southeast Asia. Many downscaling algorithms have been developed based on significant seasonal relationships, without vegetation and climate conditions, which were inapplicable in humid, equatorial, and tropical regions. Therefore, we exploited the potential of the low variability of rainfall and monsoon characteristics (period, location, and intensity) on a local scale, as a proxy to downscale the satellite precipitation grid and its corresponding rainfall estimates. This study hypothesized that the ratio between the satellite precipitation and ground rainfall in the low-variance spatial rainfall pattern and seasonality region of humid tropics can be used as a coefficient (constant value) to spatially downscale future satellite precipitation datasets. The spatial downscaling process has two major phases: the first is the derivation of the high-resolution coefficient (0.05°), and the second is applying the coefficient to produce the high-resolution precipitation map. The first phase utilized the long-term bias records (1998–2008) between the high-resolution areal precipitation (0.05°) that was derived from dense network of ground precipitation data and re-gridded satellite precipitation data (0.05°) from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to produce the site-specific coefficient (SSC) for each individual pixel. The outcome of the spatial downscaling process managed to produce a higher resolution of the TRMM data from 0.25° to 0.05° with a lower bias (average: 18%). The trade-off for the process was a small decline in the correlation between TRMM and ground rainfall. Our results indicate that the SSC downscaled method can be used to spatially downscale satellite precipitation data in humid, tropical regions, where the seasonal rainfall is consistent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Variations of Precipitation in the Southern Part of the Heihe River Basin (China), 1984–2014
Water 2018, 10(4), 410; doi:10.3390/w10040410
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
Local precipitation variations in the context of global warming are a hot topic in the climate change research community. Using daily precipitation data spanning from 1984 to 2014 from 25 meteorological stations, the spatiotemporal variations of precipitation were analyzed for the southern part
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Local precipitation variations in the context of global warming are a hot topic in the climate change research community. Using daily precipitation data spanning from 1984 to 2014 from 25 meteorological stations, the spatiotemporal variations of precipitation were analyzed for the southern part of Heihe River Basin (HRB), which is the second-largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Linear trend analysis, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, the Mann–Kendall test, and the moving t-test were employed in the study. Results showed that the regional annual precipitation exhibited an increasing trend with a slope of 13.1 mm per decade from 1984 to 2014. The increasing trend was detected at 21 sites and the first EOF illustrating the regional increasing trend explained 51.8% of the total variance. The increasing trend of annual precipitation was mainly due to an increase in autumn precipitation, while summer precipitation exhibited a weak declining trend and spring–winter precipitation remained unchanged. Moreover, the increasing precipitation trend was mainly caused by an abrupt increase around 1997, when the global warming hiatus occurred. Through 1997, the atmospheric circulation and physical structure, such as vertical upward motion, vapor transmission, and its convergence changed to be more favorable for precipitation in autumn, but unfavorable for precipitation in summer in the HRB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Potential Impact of Climate Change on the Structural Reliability of Drinking Water Pipes in Cold Climate Regions
Water 2018, 10(4), 411; doi:10.3390/w10040411
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
The climate is changing worldwide. For the northern hemisphere there are distinct challenges related to climate change. It is expected that temperature on a general basis will increase within the next 100 years, and that the increase will be most severe during winter
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The climate is changing worldwide. For the northern hemisphere there are distinct challenges related to climate change. It is expected that temperature on a general basis will increase within the next 100 years, and that the increase will be most severe during winter months. The literature shows a correlation between temperature and failures. This correlation is most evident for smaller grey cast iron pipes, and for pipes which is constructed in trenches vulnerable to frost heave. A comprehensive amount of failure data (over 25,000 failures) has been gathered from Norwegian cities in order to quantify the correlation between temperatures and failure rates. The analysis supports the findings in the literature, by establishing a statistical significant correlation, which states that failure rates increase with falling temperatures. At the same time, the expected increase in future temperatures has been used to analyze the impact on failure rates within 2070. The results show that the increasing temperatures will have a positive effect on failure rates. It can be expected that failure rates will be reduced by 2.7% to 7.2% within 2070, depending on the climate scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Towards Improving the Efficiency of Bayesian Model Averaging Analysis for Flow in Porous Media via the Probabilistic Collocation Method
Water 2018, 10(4), 412; doi:10.3390/w10040412
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
The characterization of flow in subsurface porous media is associated with high uncertainty. To better quantify the uncertainty of groundwater systems, it is necessary to consider the model uncertainty. Multi-model uncertainty analysis can be performed in the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) framework. However,
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The characterization of flow in subsurface porous media is associated with high uncertainty. To better quantify the uncertainty of groundwater systems, it is necessary to consider the model uncertainty. Multi-model uncertainty analysis can be performed in the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) framework. However, the BMA analysis via Monte Carlo method is time consuming because it requires many forward model evaluations. A computationally efficient BMA analysis framework is proposed by using the probabilistic collocation method to construct a response surface model, where the log hydraulic conductivity field and hydraulic head are expanded into polynomials through Karhunen–Loeve and polynomial chaos methods. A synthetic test is designed to validate the proposed response surface analysis method. The results show that the posterior model weight and the key statistics in BMA framework can be accurately estimated. The relative errors of mean and total variance in the BMA analysis results are just approximately 0.013% and 1.18%, but the proposed method can be 16 times more computationally efficient than the traditional BMA method. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis for Various Bacterial Exposure Scenarios Involving Greywater Reuse for Irrigation
Water 2018, 10(4), 413; doi:10.3390/w10040413
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
Greywater reuse can significantly reduce domestic water consumption. While the benefits are promising, risks are still under debate. Using a quantitative microbial risk-assessment model, we assessed the health risks associated with greywater reuse. The pathogens Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus
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Greywater reuse can significantly reduce domestic water consumption. While the benefits are promising, risks are still under debate. Using a quantitative microbial risk-assessment model, we assessed the health risks associated with greywater reuse. The pathogens Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated due to their possible prevalence in greywater and limited information regarding their potential risk with relation to greywater reuse for irrigation. Various exposure scenarios were investigated. Monte Carlo simulation was used and results were compared to the maximum “acceptable” limit of 10−6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) set by the World Health Organization. Safe reuse was met for all worst-case exposure scenarios for Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Shigella spp. If their concentrations were kept below 10,000, 50 and 5 cfu/100 mL, respectively. For the best-practice (more realistic) scenarios, safe reuse was met for Staphylococcus aureus if its concentration was kept below 106 cfu/100 mL. Salmonella enterica met the safe reuse requirements if a maximum concentration of 500 cfu/100 mL was maintained and Shigella spp. if a maximum concentration was lower than 5 cfu/100 mL. Based on reported concentrations of these bacteria in greywater, proper treatment and disinfection are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Alternative Water Sources in the Urban Sector)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Methodology for Measuring Microplastic Transport in Large or Medium Rivers
Water 2018, 10(4), 414; doi:10.3390/w10040414
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
Plastic waste as a persistent contaminant of our environment is a matter of increasing concern due to the largely unknown long-term effects on biota. Although freshwater systems are known to be the transport paths of plastic debris to the ocean, most research has
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Plastic waste as a persistent contaminant of our environment is a matter of increasing concern due to the largely unknown long-term effects on biota. Although freshwater systems are known to be the transport paths of plastic debris to the ocean, most research has been focused on marine environments. In recent years, freshwater studies have advanced rapidly, but they rarely address the spatial distribution of plastic debris in the water column. A methodology for measuring microplastic transport at various depths that is applicable to medium and large rivers is needed. We present a new methodology offering the possibility of measuring microplastic transport at different depths of verticals that are distributed within a profile. The net-based device is robust and can be applied at high flow velocities and discharges. Nets with different sizes (41 µm, 250 µm, and 500 µm) are exposed in three different depths of the water column. The methodology was tested in the Austrian Danube River, showing a high heterogeneity of microplastic concentrations within one cross section. Due to turbulent mixing, the different densities of the polymers, aggregation, and the growth of biofilms, plastic transport cannot be limited to the surface layer of a river, and must be examined within the whole water column as for suspended sediments. These results imply that multipoint measurements are required for obtaining the spatial distribution of plastic concentration and are therefore a prerequisite for calculating the passing transport. The analysis of filtration efficiency and side-by-side measurements with different mesh sizes showed that 500 µm nets led to optimal results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Planning Water Resources in an Agroforest Ecosystem for Improvement of Regional Ecological Function Under Uncertainties
Water 2018, 10(4), 415; doi:10.3390/w10040415
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
In this study, an agroforestry ecosystem project (AEP) is developed for confronting the conflict between agricultural development and forest protection. A fuzzy stochastic programming with Laplace scenario analysis (FSL) is proposed for planning water resources in an AEP issue under uncertainties. FSL can
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In this study, an agroforestry ecosystem project (AEP) is developed for confronting the conflict between agricultural development and forest protection. A fuzzy stochastic programming with Laplace scenario analysis (FSL) is proposed for planning water resources in an AEP issue under uncertainties. FSL can not only deal with spatial and temporal variations of hydrologic elements and meteorological conditions; but also handle uncertainties that are expressed in terms of probability, possibility distributions and fuzzy sets; meanwhile, policy scenario analysis with Laplace’s criterion (PSL) is introduced to handle probability of each scenario occurrence under the supposition of no data available. The developed FSL can be applied to an AEP issue in Xixian county, located in north of China. The result of ecological effects, water allocation patterns, pollution mitigation schemes and system benefits under various scenarios are obtained, which can support policymakers adjusting current strategy to improve regional ecological function with cost-effective and sustainable manners. Meanwhile, it can support generating a robust water plan for regional sustainability in an AEP issue under uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Model for Annual Runoff Time Series Forecasting Using Elman Neural Network with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
Water 2018, 10(4), 416; doi:10.3390/w10040416
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
Because of the complex nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of annual runoff time series, it is difficult to achieve good prediction accuracy. In this paper, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with Elman neural network (ENN)—namely the EEMD-ENN model—is proposed to reduce the difficulty
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Because of the complex nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of annual runoff time series, it is difficult to achieve good prediction accuracy. In this paper, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with Elman neural network (ENN)—namely the EEMD-ENN model—is proposed to reduce the difficulty of modeling and to improve prediction accuracy. The annual runoff time series from four hydrological stations in the lower reaches of the four main rivers in the Dongting Lake basin, and one at the outlet of the lake, are used as a case study to test this new hybrid model. First, the nonstationary and nonlinear original annual runoff time series are decomposed to several relatively stable intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by using EEMD. Then, each IMF is predicted by using ENN. Next, the predicted results of each IMF are aggregated as the final prediction results for the original annual runoff time series. Finally, five statistical indices are adopted to measure the performance of the proposed hybrid model compared with a back propagation (BP) neural network, EEMD-BP, and ENN models—mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), root mean square error (RMSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSCE). The performance comparison results show that the proposed hybrid model performs better than the BP, EEMD-BP or ENN models. In short, the developed hybrid model can provide a significant improvement in annual runoff time series forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle The Suitability of Pozzolan as Admixing Aggregate for Fe0-Based Filters
Water 2018, 10(4), 417; doi:10.3390/w10040417
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
Continuous gravity-fed column experiments using the methylene blue (MB) discoloration method were performed to characterize the suitability of a pozzolan (PZ) specimen as alternative admixing aggregate for metallic iron filters (Fe0-filters). Investigated systems were: (i) pure sand, (ii) pure PZ, (iii)
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Continuous gravity-fed column experiments using the methylene blue (MB) discoloration method were performed to characterize the suitability of a pozzolan (PZ) specimen as alternative admixing aggregate for metallic iron filters (Fe0-filters). Investigated systems were: (i) pure sand, (ii) pure PZ, (iii) pure Fe0, (iv) Fe0/sand, (v) Fe0/PZ, and (vi) Fe0/sand/PZ. The volumetric proportion of Fe0 was 25%. The volumetric proportions of the Fe0/sand/PZ system was 25/45/30. The initial MB concentration was 2.0 mg·L−1, 6.0 g of Fe0 was used, and the experiments lasted for 46 days. The individual systems were fed with 3.9 to 8.4 L (7.80 to 16.69 mg of MB) and were characterized by the time-dependent changes of: (i) the pH value, (ii) the iron breakthrough, (iii) the MB breakthrough, and (iv) the hydraulic conductivity. Results showed that the Fe0/sand/PZ system was the most efficient. This ternary system was also the most permeable and therefore the most sustainable. The suitability of MB as a powerful operative indicator for the characterization of processes in the Fe0/H2O system was confirmed. The tested PZ is recommended as an alternative material for efficient but sustainable Fe0 filters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Removal of Sb(III) and Sb(V) by Ferric Chloride Coagulation: Implications of Fe Solubility
Water 2018, 10(4), 418; doi:10.3390/w10040418
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
PDF Full-text (15587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Coagulation and precipitation appear to be the most efficient and economical methods for the removal of antimony from aqueous solution. In this study, antimony removal from synthetic water and Fe solubility with ferric chloride (FC) coagulation has been investigated. The effects of pH,
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Coagulation and precipitation appear to be the most efficient and economical methods for the removal of antimony from aqueous solution. In this study, antimony removal from synthetic water and Fe solubility with ferric chloride (FC) coagulation has been investigated. The effects of pH, FC dosage, initial antimony loading and mixed Sb(III), Sb(V) proportions on Fe solubility and antimony removal were studied. The results showed that the Sb(III) removal efficiency increased with the increase of solution pH particularly due to an increase in Fe precipitation. The Sb(V) removal was influenced by the solution pH due to a change in Fe solubility. However, the Fe solubility was only impaired by the Sb(III) species at optimum pH 7. The removal efficiencies of both Sb species were enhanced with an increase in FC dose. The quantitative analysis of the isotherm study revealed the strong adsorption potential of Sb(III) on Fe precipitates as compared to Sb(V). Furthermore, the removal behavior of antimony was inhibited in mixed proportion with high Sb(V) fraction. In conclusion, this study contributes to better understanding the fate of Sb species, their mobilities, and comparative removal behavior, with implications for Fe solubility using ferric chloride in different aqueous environments. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Comparative Assessment of Variable Selection Methods in Urban Water Demand Forecasting
Water 2018, 10(4), 419; doi:10.3390/w10040419
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
Urban water demand is influenced by a variety of factors such as climate change, population growth, socio-economic conditions and policy issues. These variables are often correlated with each other, which may create a problem in building appropriate water demand forecasting model. Therefore, selection
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Urban water demand is influenced by a variety of factors such as climate change, population growth, socio-economic conditions and policy issues. These variables are often correlated with each other, which may create a problem in building appropriate water demand forecasting model. Therefore, selection of the appropriate predictor variables is important for accurate prediction of future water demand. In this study, seven variable selection methods in the context of multiple linear regression analysis were examined in selecting the optimal predictor variable set for long-term residential water demand forecasting model development. These methods were (i) stepwise selection, (ii) backward elimination, (iii) forward selection, (iv) best model with residual mean square error criteria, (v) best model with the Akaike information criterion, (vi) best model with Mallow’s Cp criterion and (vii) principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that different variable selection methods produced different multiple linear regression models with different sets of predictor variables. Moreover, the selection methods (i)–(vi) showed some irrational relationships between the water demand and the predictor variables due to the presence of a high degree of correlations among the predictor variables, whereas PCA showed promising results in avoiding these irrational behaviours and minimising multicollinearity problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Near Surface Hydrologic Processes and Plant Response over a 1600 m Mountain Valley Gradient in the Great Basin, NV, U.S.A.
Water 2018, 10(4), 420; doi:10.3390/w10040420
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated near surface hydrologic processes and plant response over a 1600 m mountain-valley gradient located in the Great Basin of North America (Nevada, U.S.A.) as part of a long-term climate assessment study. The goal was to assess shifts in precipitation, soil
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This study investigated near surface hydrologic processes and plant response over a 1600 m mountain-valley gradient located in the Great Basin of North America (Nevada, U.S.A.) as part of a long-term climate assessment study. The goal was to assess shifts in precipitation, soil water status and associated drainage with elevation and how this influenced evapotranspiration and plant cover/health estimated by a satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), all to better understand how water is partitioned in a mountain valley system. Data were acquired during a three-year period from meteorological stations located in five plant communities ranging in elevation from 1756 m (salt desert shrubland zone) to 3355 m (subalpine zone). The analysis also included groundwater depths measured at the Salt Desert Shrub West site, mine water flow near the Pinyon-Juniper West site and drainage estimates using drainage flux meters at the four higher elevation sites. Annual precipitation increased with elevation in a linear fashion (R2 = 0.93, p < 0.001) with an average increase of 2.9 cm for every 100 m in elevation. Reference evapotranspiration (ETref) declined in a highly linear fashion with elevation (R2 = 0.95, p < 0.001) with an average 4.0 cm decline for every 100 m rise in elevation. Drainage occurred only at the Montane West and Subalpine West sites and not at the lower elevations. No drainage occurred after Julian day 160. Growing degree days were found to be negatively associated with the time of peak drainage (R2 = 0.97, p < 0.001), the date drainage first occurred (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001), drainage duration (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001) and total drainage volume (R2 = 0.59, p < 0.001). It was estimated that 27% of precipitation at the Montane West site (years 1, 2 and 3) and 66 % at the Subalpine West site (40% without year 1) contributed to drainage at the local site level, indicating possible strong recharge contribution from the higher elevation plant communities. Percent vegetation cover and ETref accounted for 94% of the variation in NDVI and 90% of the variation in ET totals when data from all sites were combined. Such data will be extremely valuable to collect and compare over time to assess shifts associated with potential climate warming and/or basin water diversion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models
Water 2018, 10(4), 421; doi:10.3390/w10040421
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an
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Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrological process simulation in an inland river basin in China, Heihe River basin. It is divided into the upper, middle, and lower reaches based on the distinctive hydrological characteristics in the Heihe River basin, and three hydrological models are selected, applied, and tested to simulate the hydrological cycling processes for each reach. The upper reach is the contributing area with the complex runoff generation processes, therefore, the hydrological informatic modeling system (HIMS) is utilized due to its combined runoff generation mechanisms. The middle reach has strong impacts of intensive human activities on the interactions of surface and subsurface flows, so a conceptual water balance model is applied to simulate the water balance process. For the lower reach, as the dissipative area with groundwater dominating the hydrological process, a groundwater modeling system with the embedment of MODFLOW model is applied to simulate the groundwater dynamics. Statistical parameters and water balance analysis prove that the three models have excellent performances in simulating the hydrological process of the three reaches. Therefore, it is an effective way to simulate the hydrological process of inland river basin with multiple hydrological models according to the characteristics of each subbasin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Soil Moisture Investigation Utilizing Machine Learning Approach Based Experimental Data and Landsat5-TM Images: A Case Study in the Mega City Beijing
Water 2018, 10(4), 423; doi:10.3390/w10040423
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
The characteristics of soil moisture content (SMC) distribution in an area are necessarily analyzed for the design and construction of sponge cities. Combining remote sensing data with experimental data, this paper establishes a machine learning model to reveal the characteristics of SMC. Taking
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The characteristics of soil moisture content (SMC) distribution in an area are necessarily analyzed for the design and construction of sponge cities. Combining remote sensing data with experimental data, this paper establishes a machine learning model to reveal the characteristics of SMC. Taking Beijing as an example, the SMC distribution was obtained and the characteristics were analyzed after training and validating. When comparing different machine learning methods, it can be concluded that the support vector classifier (SVC) method trained with remote sensing and grayscale data can achieve the highest accuracy (76.69%). The calculation results show that the districts with the highest and lowest SMC value are Xicheng District (19.94%) and Daxing District (11.04%), respectively, in Beijing. The mean SMC value of Beijing is 15.65%. The SMC distribution characteristic in Beijing shows that the soil in the west and north are relatively wet, while the soil in the east and south are relatively dry. Therefore, it is suggested that the timely monitoring of the SMC of vegetation covered areas at the north and west should be carried out. Water conservation facilities also need to be established with the development of city constructions in the south and east areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Water Consumption Regression Model for Typical Administrative Buildings in the Czech Republic
Water 2018, 10(4), 424; doi:10.3390/w10040424
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Pressure management is the basic step of reducing water losses from water supply systems (WSSs). The reduction of direct water losses is reliably achieved by reducing pressure in the WSSs. There is also a slight decrease in water consumption in connected properties. Nevertheless,
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Pressure management is the basic step of reducing water losses from water supply systems (WSSs). The reduction of direct water losses is reliably achieved by reducing pressure in the WSSs. There is also a slight decrease in water consumption in connected properties. Nevertheless, consumption is also affected by other factors, the quantification of which is not trivial. However, there is still a lack of much relevant information to enter into this analysis and subsequent decision making. This article focuses on water consumption and its prediction, using regression models designed for an experiment regarding an administrative building in the Czech Republic (CZ). The variables considered are pressure and climatological factors (temperature and humidity). The effects of these variables on the consumption are separately evaluated, subsequently multidimensional models are discussed with the common inclusion of selected combinations of predictors. Separate evaluation results in a value of the N3 coefficient, according to the FAVAD concept used for prediction of changes in water consumption related to pressure. The statistical inference is based on the maximum likelihood method. The proposed regression models are tested to evaluate their suitability, particularly, the models are compared using a cross-validation procedure. The significance tests for parameters and model reduction are based on asymptotic properties of the likelihood ratio statistics. Pressure is confirmed in each regression model as a significant variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Hydrochemical Characteristics and Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectra in the Semi-Arid Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China
Water 2018, 10(4), 426; doi:10.3390/w10040426
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Hydrochemical characteristics and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for Lake Ebinur and its major inflow tributaries have been analyzed. The results indicate that Jing and Bortala River ions differ very little. Anions are composed of HCO3 > SO42− > Cl
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Hydrochemical characteristics and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for Lake Ebinur and its major inflow tributaries have been analyzed. The results indicate that Jing and Bortala River ions differ very little. Anions are composed of HCO3 > SO42− > Cl, while cations have the following composition: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+. The Jing and Bortala Rivers include mainly SO42− and HCO3 anions; these cations are primarily Ca2+. Hydrochemical components of the Jing and Bortala Rivers are of the HCO3-Ca2+ type. Ion compositions of the Jing and Bortala Rivers are derived primarily from the weathering of rocks. In addition, a parallel factor method (PARAFAC) analysis of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra (EEM) of the Jing and Bortala Rivers shows that all the sampled water bodies contain C1 (260/420 nm) humic organic matter, C2 (240, 240/490 nm), C3 (220/280, 300/450 nm) protein-like C4 (260, 270/530 nm), and humic substances. To further understand characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) components, we base our research on regional standards related to water quality and fluorescence. A fluorescence regional integration (FRI) analysis of the Jing and Bortala Rivers shows that protein organic matter levels are the highest, whereas fulvic acid levels are the lowest. Of the correlation coefficients of hydrochemical factors and fluorescence indices, the biological index (BIX), TDS, HCO3, and K+ are stronger in major inflow tributaries of Ebinur Lake with correlation coefficients of 0.577, 0.708, and 0.764, respectively, at the p < 0.01 significance level; correlations between the humification index (HIX) and HCO3 concentrations amount to 0.568 at the p < 0.05 significance level. Hydrochemical factors and fluorescence indices show the presence of three fitting relationships. While the HIX and HCO3 fitting effect is strongest with a correlation coefficient of 0.789, the second strongest is that of BIX and K+ with a correlation coefficient of 0.814. The results of this work offer scientific support for water quality monitoring and restoration in arid regions of Central Asia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multiobjective Optimization Modeling Approach for Multipurpose Single Reservoir Operation
Water 2018, 10(4), 427; doi:10.3390/w10040427
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 1 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
The water resources planning and management discipline recognizes the importance of a reservoir’s carryover storage. However, mathematical models for reservoir operation that include carryover storage are scarce. This paper presents a novel multiobjective optimization modeling framework that uses the constraint-ε method and genetic
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The water resources planning and management discipline recognizes the importance of a reservoir’s carryover storage. However, mathematical models for reservoir operation that include carryover storage are scarce. This paper presents a novel multiobjective optimization modeling framework that uses the constraint-ε method and genetic algorithms as optimization techniques for the operation of multipurpose simple reservoirs, including carryover storage. The carryover storage was conceived by modifying Kritsky and Menkel’s method for reservoir design at the operational stage. The main objective function minimizes the cost of the total annual water shortage for irrigation areas connected to a reservoir, while the secondary one maximizes its energy production. The model includes operational constraints for the reservoir, Kritsky and Menkel’s method, irrigation areas, and the hydropower plant. The study is applied to Carlos Manuel de Céspedes reservoir, establishing a 12-month planning horizon and an annual reliability of 75%. The results highly demonstrate the applicability of the model, obtaining monthly releases from the reservoir that include the carryover storage, degree of reservoir inflow regulation, water shortages in irrigation areas, and the energy generated by the hydroelectric plant. The main product is an operational graph that includes zones as well as rule and guide curves, which are used as triggers for long-term reservoir operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Factors That Influence Energy Performance in Water Distribution System Mains
Water 2018, 10(4), 428; doi:10.3390/w10040428
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims at identifying paramount hydraulic factors in energy dynamics of water mains, using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The proposed method is applied to two large ensembles of leaky and non-leaky pipes comprising over 40,000 pipes selected from 18 North American water
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This paper aims at identifying paramount hydraulic factors in energy dynamics of water mains, using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The proposed method is applied to two large ensembles of leaky and non-leaky pipes comprising over 40,000 pipes selected from 18 North American water distribution systems to guarantee the versatility of pipe characteristics and statistical significance of the explored patterns. PCA mono-plots indicate energy metrics such as Net Energy Efficiency, Energy Lost to Friction and Energy Lost to Leakage serve better in identification of low from high efficiency pipes. In addition, PCA mono-plots and bi-plots reveal relative importance of hydraulic parameters and that average flow rate, hydraulic proximity to major components and average unit headloss can have more tangible effects on energy dynamics of pipes compared to leakage and average pressure. Some factors such as elevation, diameter and CHW are not as influential as expected in distinguishing high-efficiency from low-efficiency pipes. Further, a comparison between the approach used in this paper and a simplified common-practice replacement strategy points out the difference energy considerations can make, if included in a bigger asset management landscape. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrologic Response to Land Use Change in a Large Basin in Eastern Amazon
Water 2018, 10(4), 429; doi:10.3390/w10040429
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Accelerated land use changes in the Brazilian Amazonian region over the last four decades have raised questions about potential consequences for local hydrology. Under the hypothesis of a lack of frontier governance, projections of future changes in the Amazon basin suggest that 20–30%
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Accelerated land use changes in the Brazilian Amazonian region over the last four decades have raised questions about potential consequences for local hydrology. Under the hypothesis of a lack of frontier governance, projections of future changes in the Amazon basin suggest that 20–30% or more of this basin could be deforested in the next 40 years. This could trigger a cascade of negative impacts on water resources. In this study, we examined how a future conversion of the forest into pasture would influence streamflow and water balance components by using a conceptual and semi-distributed hydrological model in a large (142,000 km2) forested basin: specifically, the Iriri River basin in the Brazilian Amazon. The results showed that the land use change could substantially alter the water balance components of the originally forested basin. For example, an increase of over 57% in pasture areas increased a simulated annual streamflow by ~6.5% and had a significant impact on evapotranspiration, surface runoff, and percolation. Our findings emphasize the importance of protected areas for conservation strategies in the Brazilian Amazonian region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle What Large Sample Size Is Sufficient for Hydrologic Frequency Analysis?—A Rational Argument for a 30-Year Hydrologic Sample Size in Water Resources Management
Water 2018, 10(4), 430; doi:10.3390/w10040430
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
The calculation of hydrologic frequency is an important basic step in the planning and design stage of any water conservancy project. The purpose of the frequency analysis is to deduce the hydrologic variables under different guarantee rates, and to provide hydrologic information for
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The calculation of hydrologic frequency is an important basic step in the planning and design stage of any water conservancy project. The purpose of the frequency analysis is to deduce the hydrologic variables under different guarantee rates, and to provide hydrologic information for water conservancy project planning and design. The calculation of hydrologic frequency requires that the sample size is large enough, as only then can the statistical characteristics of samples take the place of the total statistical eigenvalues. This means that the samples can reveal the statistical characteristics of hydrologic variables and identify the randomness rule of hydrologic phenomena. Many countries in the East Asian monsoon climate zone (China, Japan and South Korea) have stipulated a sample size of 30 years for hydrologic frequency analysis. In this paper the rationality of the 30-year sample size is proved by analyzing the periodic and random rules of hydrologic phenomenon and the influencing mechanism of solar activity, and by adopting the general conclusion of the sampling theorem. Then, using the wavelet analysis method to examine annual precipitation data in a long series generated from representative precipitation observation stations in China, the strong-weak cycle of solar activity is proved to be 10 years, which is consistent with the wet-dry cycle of the representative precipitation stations (10–12 years). Finally, adopting numerical modeling to analyze the normal distribution of randomly generated samples and long-range annual precipitation data collected from representative stations, hypothesis testing (u, F and t) is used to prove that a 30-year sample size is reasonable. This research provides a reference as to how to prove the necessary sample size for relevant statistical analyses (for example, how large the sample should be for analyzing hydrologic factors trend evolution, hydrologic data consistency and ergodicity of statistical samples), thus ensuring the reliability of the analytical results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Temporal and Spatial Variations in Lake Surface Areas in Xinjiang, China
Water 2018, 10(4), 431; doi:10.3390/w10040431
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
In arid areas, lakes play important roles in sustaining the local ecology, mitigating flood hazard, and restricting economic activity of society. In this study, we used multi-temporal satellite data to study annual variations in 16 natural lakes with individual surface areas over 10
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In arid areas, lakes play important roles in sustaining the local ecology, mitigating flood hazard, and restricting economic activity of society. In this study, we used multi-temporal satellite data to study annual variations in 16 natural lakes with individual surface areas over 10 km2, categorized into six regions based on their geographical and climatic information and on their relations with climate variables. Results indicated that annual variations in lake surface areas are different across these six regions. The surface area of Kanas Lake has not obviously changed due to its typical U-shape cross section; the areas of Ulungur Lake and Jili Lake increased sharply in the 1980s and then slightly decreased; the areas of Sayram Lake, Ebinur Lake, and Bosten Lake increased and then decreased, with peaks detected in the early 2000s; the areas of Barkol Lake and Toale Culler decreased, while those of the lakes located in the Kunlun Mountains steadily increased. Lake areas also show various relationships with climate variables. There is no obvious relationship between area and climate variables in Kanas Lake due to the specific lake morphology; the areas of most lakes showed positive correlations with annual precipitation (except Sayram Lake). A negative correlation between area and temperature were detected in Ulungur Lake, Jili Lake, Barkol Lake, and Toale Culler, while positive correlations were suggested in Bosten Lake and the lakes in the Kunlun Mountains (e.g., Saligil Kollakan Lake, Aksai Chin Lake, and Urukkule Lake). Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multiple-Iterated Dual Control Model for Groundwater Exploitation and Water Level Based on the Optimal Allocation Model of Water Resources
Water 2018, 10(4), 432; doi:10.3390/w10040432
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
In order to mitigate environmental and ecological impacts resulting from groundwater overexploitation, we developed a multiple-iterated dual control model consisting of four modules for groundwater exploitation and water level. First, a water resources allocation model integrating calculation module of groundwater allowable withdrawal was
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In order to mitigate environmental and ecological impacts resulting from groundwater overexploitation, we developed a multiple-iterated dual control model consisting of four modules for groundwater exploitation and water level. First, a water resources allocation model integrating calculation module of groundwater allowable withdrawal was built to predict future groundwater recharge and discharge. Then, the results were input into groundwater numerical model to simulate water levels. Groundwater exploitation was continuously optimized using the critical groundwater level as the feedback, and a groundwater multiple-iterated technique was applied to the feedback process. The proposed model was successfully applied to a typical region in Shenyang in northeast China. Results showed the groundwater numerical model was verified in simulating water levels, with a mean absolute error of 0.44 m, an average relative error of 1.33%, and a root-mean-square error of 0.46 m. The groundwater exploitation reduced from 290.33 million m3 to 116.76 million m3 and the average water level recovered from 34.27 m to 34.72 m in planning year. Finally, we proposed the strategies for water resources management in which the water levels should be controlled within the critical groundwater level. The developed model provides a promising approach for water resources allocation and sustainable groundwater management, especially for those regions with overexploited groundwater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Long-term Precipitation Trend in Illinois and Its Implications for Agricultural Production
Water 2018, 10(4), 433; doi:10.3390/w10040433
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Climate change is expected to modify the hydrological cycle resulting in a change in the amount, frequency, and intensity of surface precipitation. How the future hydrological pattern will look is uncertain. Climate change is expected to bring about intense periods of dryness and
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Climate change is expected to modify the hydrological cycle resulting in a change in the amount, frequency, and intensity of surface precipitation. How the future hydrological pattern will look is uncertain. Climate change is expected to bring about intense periods of dryness and wetness, and such behavior is expected to be difficult to predict. Such uncertainty does not bode well for the agricultural systems of the United States (US) Midwest that are reliant on natural precipitation systems. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of precipitation during the cropping period. The manifestation of global-warming-related changes has already been reported for the last couple of decades and more so in the current decade. Thus, precipitation data from the recent past can provide vital information on what is about to come. In this study, the precipitation data of Illinois, a Midwestern state of the US with rain-fed agriculture, was analyzed with a focus on the climate dynamics during the cropping period. It was observed that even though there has been some increase in the annual precipitation amount (+1.84 mm/year) due to the increase in precipitation frequency and intensity, such change happened outside of the cropping period, thereby ensuring that climate change has not manifested itself during the cropping period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle An Alternative Approach to Overcome the Limitation of HRUs in Analyzing Hydrological Processes Based on Land Use/Cover Change
Water 2018, 10(4), 434; doi:10.3390/w10040434
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
PDF Full-text (24623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Since the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs) is used widely in hydrological modeling, the land use change scenarios analysis based on HRU may have direct influence on hydrological processes due to its simplified flow routing and HRU spatial distribution. This paper intends
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Since the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs) is used widely in hydrological modeling, the land use change scenarios analysis based on HRU may have direct influence on hydrological processes due to its simplified flow routing and HRU spatial distribution. This paper intends to overcome this issue based on a new analysis approach to explain what impacts for the impact of land use/cover change on hydrological processes (LUCCIHP), and compare whether differences exist between the conventional approach and the improved approach. Therefore, we proposed a sub-basin segmentation approach to obtain more reasonable impact assessment of LUCC scenario by re-discretizing the HRUs and prolonging the flow path in which the LUCC occurs. As a scenario study, the SWAT model is used in the Aksu River Basin, China, to simulate the response of hydrological processes to LUCC over ten years. Moreover, the impacts of LUCC on hydrological processes before and after model modification are compared and analyzed at three levels (catchment scale, sub-basin scale and HRU scale). Comparative analysis of Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE), RSR and Pbias, model simulations before and after model improvement shows that NSE increased by up to 2%, RSR decreased from 0.73 to 0.72, and Pbias decreased from 0.13 to 0.05. The major LUCCs affecting hydrological elements in this basin are related to the degradation of grassland and snow/ice and expansion of farmland and bare land. Model simulations before and after model improvement show that the average variation of flow components in typical sub-basins (surface runoff, lateral flow and groundwater flow) are changed by +11.09%, −4.51%, and −6.58%, and +10.53%, −1.55%, and −8.98% from the base period model scenario, respectively. Moreover, the spatial response of surface runoff at the HRU level reveals clear spatial differences between before and after model improvement. This alternative approach illustrates the potential bias caused by the conventional configuration and offers the possible application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Increase of Abundance and Transcriptional Activity for Acinetobacter junii Post Wastewater Treatment
Water 2018, 10(4), 436; doi:10.3390/w10040436
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Saudi Arabia is assessed over a five-month period in 2015 and once in 2017 for bacterial diversity and transcriptional activity using metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Acinetobacter spp. are
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A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Saudi Arabia is assessed over a five-month period in 2015 and once in 2017 for bacterial diversity and transcriptional activity using metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Acinetobacter spp. are shown to be enriched in the chlorinated effluent. Members of the Acinetobacter genus are the most abundant in the effluent and chlorinated effluent. At the species level, Acinetobacter junii have higher relative abundances post MBR and chlorination. RNA-seq analysis show that, in A. junii, 288 genes and 378 genes are significantly upregulated in the effluent and chlorinated effluent, respectively, with 98 genes being upregulated in both. RT-qPCR of samples in 2015 and 2017 confirm the upregulation observed in RNA-seq. Analysis of the 98 genes show that majority of the upregulated genes are involved in cellular repair and metabolism followed by resistance, virulence, and signaling. Additionally, two different subpopulations of A. junii are observed in the effluent and chlorinated effluent. The upregulation of cellular repair and metabolism genes, and the formation of different subpopulations of A. junii in both effluents provide insights into the mechanisms employed by A. junii to persist in the conditions of a WWTP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters)
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Open AccessArticle Groundwater Quality Assessment: An Improved Approach to K-Means Clustering, Principal Component Analysis and Spatial Analysis: A Case Study
Water 2018, 10(4), 437; doi:10.3390/w10040437
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
K-means clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) are widely used in water quality analysis and management. Nevertheless, numerous studies have pointed out that K-means with the squared Euclidean distance is not suitable for high-dimensional datasets. We evaluate a methodology (K-means based on PCA)
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K-means clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) are widely used in water quality analysis and management. Nevertheless, numerous studies have pointed out that K-means with the squared Euclidean distance is not suitable for high-dimensional datasets. We evaluate a methodology (K-means based on PCA) for water quality evaluation. It is based on the PCA method to reduce the dataset from high dimensional to low for the improvement of K-means clustering. For this, a large dataset of 28 hydrogeochemical variables and 582 wells in the coastal aquifer are classified with K-means clustering for high dimensional and K-means clustering based on PCA. The proposed method achieved increased quality cluster cohesion according to the average Silhouette index. It ranged from 0.13 for high dimensional k-means clustering to 5.94 for K-means based on PCA and the practical spatial geographic information systems (GIS) evaluation of clustering indicates more quality results for K-means clustering based on PCA. K-means based on PCA identified three hydrogeochemical classes and their sources. High salinity was attributed to seawater intrusion and the mineralization process, high levels of heavy metals related to domestic-industrial wastewater discharge and low heavy metals concentrations were associated with industrial wastewater punctual discharges. This approach allowed the demarcation of natural and anthropogenic variation sources in the aquifer and provided greater certainty and accuracy to the data classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle Research on the Treatment and Comprehensive Utilization of Phenylhydrazine Hydrochloride Effluent
Water 2018, 10(4), 438; doi:10.3390/w10040438
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
In the production process of 1 ton of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHH); ~10 tons of liquid waste are formed, which includes multiple contaminants but also recyclable resources. In order to realize the recyclingof residual PHH in liquid waste; a liquid ammonia neutralization method is
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In the production process of 1 ton of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHH); ~10 tons of liquid waste are formed, which includes multiple contaminants but also recyclable resources. In order to realize the recyclingof residual PHH in liquid waste; a liquid ammonia neutralization method is utilized, and extraction-reextraction technology is adopted. As a result, the recovery rate of PHH reachedup to 90.0%. Meanwhile, 3.8 tons of ammonium salts can be obtained after the iquid ammonia neutralization reaction which can be reused as raw materials for compound fertilizer. During the treatment process, there is no discharge of the three wastes, which meets the requirements of harmless treatment. Finally, these results provide important reference values for PHH production enterprises to solve the problems of waste pollution and to achieve recycling of resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Restoration and Flow Interactions on River Structure and Function: Channel Widening of the Thur River, Switzerland
Water 2018, 10(4), 439; doi:10.3390/w10040439
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Removal of lateral constraints to restore rivers has become increasingly common in river resource management, but little is known how the interaction of de-channelization with flow influences ecosystem structure and function. We evaluated the ecosystem effects of river widening to improve sediment relations
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Removal of lateral constraints to restore rivers has become increasingly common in river resource management, but little is known how the interaction of de-channelization with flow influences ecosystem structure and function. We evaluated the ecosystem effects of river widening to improve sediment relations in the Thur River, Switzerland, 12 years after implementation. We tested if restored and non-restored reaches differed in water physico-chemistry, hyporheic function, primary production, and macroinvertebrate density and composition in relation to the flow regime. Our results showed that (i) spatio-temporal variation in sediment respiration and macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness were driven by interactions between restoration and flow; (ii) riverbed conditions including substrate size, organic matter content, and groundwater–surface water exchange changed due to restoration, but (iii) physico-chemistry, hydraulic conditions, and primary production were not altered by restoration. Importantly, our study revealed that abiotic conditions, except channel morphology, changed only marginally, whereas other ecosystem attributes responded markedly to changes in flow-restoration interactions. These results highlight integrating a more holistic ecosystem perspective in the design and monitoring of restoration projects such as river widening in resource management, preferably in relation to flow-sediment regimes and interactions with the biotic components of the ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Restoration of Biodiversity in Streams and Rivers)
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